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1.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(5)mayo 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389519

ABSTRACT

Background: Loxoscelism is an important public health problem in Chile and South America, due to the higher rate of cutaneous-visceral involvement. The diagnosis of loxoscelism is mostly clinical without established diagnostic criteria. There is little evidence to support any treatment used in this condition. Aim: To characterize the clinical features and epidemiology of loxoscelism among patients consulting at the Emergency and Dermatology Services of a clinical hospital between 2013 and 2017. Material and Methods: Review of medical records of patients registered in the electronic clinical record system with a confirmed diagnosis of loxoscelism. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory tests and treatment variables were analyzed. Results: We reviewed data from 200 patients. Ninety-four percent presented cutaneous loxoscelism and 5.5% cutaneous-visceral loxoscelism. Systemic symptoms were present in 73% of patients with cutaneous-visceral loxoscelism. Patients who developed systemic symptoms had an 18 times higher risk of developing cutaneous-visceral loxoscelism. Laboratory abnormalities were more common in patients with cutaneous-visceral loxoscelism. Not all patients with hematuria had cutaneous-visceral loxoscelism. Most patients required analgesia. Anti-loxosceles serum was not used in any patient. Conclusions: Many questions remain to be answered regarding the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Studies are required to validate diagnostic criteria for loxoscelism, predictors for visceral involvement and response to treatment.

2.
Rev. chil. dermatol ; 33(3): 97-99, 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-965165

ABSTRACT

El eritema flagelado es una erupción cutánea poco frecuente con múltiples causas, dentro de las cuales se encuentra la ingesta de hongos shiitake crudos o semicrudos. Se postula que es secundario a una reacción de hipersensibilidad Th-1 producida por el lentinan, un polisacárido termolábil de la pared celular del hongo. En años recientes ha aumentado su incidencia en el mundo occidental debido a la creciente popularidad de la comida asiática, en la que los hongos shiitake son un ingrediente muy utilizado. El cuadro clínico se caracteriza por la aparición de lesiones eritematosas lineales pruriginosas principalmente en tronco y extremidades, de curso autolimitado. El diagnóstico es principalmente clínico, basado en el antecedente de ingesta reciente de hongos shiitake y el rash característico y el tratamiento es sintomático con antihistamínicos y corticoides tópicos u orales. A continuación, presentamos un caso de eritema flagelado en una mujer joven, secundario a ingesta de hongos shiitake, que se resolvió completamente en 2 semanas.


Flagellate erythema is a rare skin eruption with many causes, including the ingestion of raw or undercooked shiitake mushrooms. It is thought to be a Th-1 hypersensitivity reaction produced by lentinan, a thermolabile polysaccharide found in the cell wall of the mushroom. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of cases due to the growing popularity of Asian cuisine, in which shiitake mushrooms are a central ingredient. The clinical presentation is characterized by the appearance of linear, erythematous, pruritic lesions mostly on the trunk and extremities, of self-limited course. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, based on the history of recent shiitake mushroom ingestion and the characteristic rash, and treatment is symptomatic, with antihistamines and topical or systemic steroids. In this report, we present a case of flagellate erythema in a young woman, that appeared after the ingestion of shiitake mushrooms, and resolved completely after 2 weeks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Mushroom Poisoning/diagnosis , Mushroom Poisoning/etiology , Shiitake Mushrooms , Erythema/diagnosis , Erythema/etiology , Mushroom Poisoning/drug therapy , Erythema/drug therapy , Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(9): 1097-1104, set. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-762679

ABSTRACT

Background: Plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) are involved in reverse cholesterol transport mediated by the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Nicotinic acid increases HDL cholesterol levels, even though its specific impact on SR-BI dependent-cellular cholesterol transport remains unknown. Aim: To determine the effect of nicotinic acid on HDL particle functionality in cholesterol efflux and uptake mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells in hypoalphalipoproteinemic patients. Material and Methods: In a pilot study, eight patients with low HDL (≤ 40 mg/dL) were treated with extended release nicotinic acid. HDL cholesterol and phospholipid levels, HDL2 and HDL3 fractions and HDL particle sizes were measured at baseline and post-therapy. Before and after nicotinic acid treatment, HDL particles were used for cholesterol transport studies in cells transfected with SR-BI. Results: Nicotinic acid treatment raised total HDL cholesterol and phospholipids, HDL2 levels as well as HDL particle size. Nicotinic acid significantly increased HDL cholesterol efflux and uptake capacity mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells. Conclusions: Nicotinic acid therapy increases SR-BI-dependent HDL cholesterol transport in cultured cells, establishing a new cellular mechanism by which this lipid-lowering drug appears to modulate HDL metabolism in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Hypoalphalipoproteinemias/metabolism , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , Niacin/pharmacology , Biological Transport , Cholesterol, HDL/drug effects , Pilot Projects , Phospholipids/blood , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/metabolism
4.
Rev. chil. dermatol ; 29(4): 355-359, 2013. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-835889

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La alopecia fibrosante frontal, considerada por algunos autores como un subtipo de liquen plano pilaris, corresponde a una alopecia cicatricial primaria, que se presenta en mujeres adultas y se caracteriza por el retroceso simétrico de la línea de implantación fronto temporal. Se presenta un estudio descriptivo de pacientes con Alopecía fibrosante frontal atendidos en este centro. Objetivos: Evaluar características clínicas, dermatoscópicas e histopatológicas de pacientes con alopecia fibrosante frontal. Materiales y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de pacientes con diagnóstico clínico-histopatológico de alopecia fibrosante frontal atendidos en nuestro centro desde Julio 2010 a Octubre 2012. Resultados: Se encontraron 57 casos con diagnóstico histológico de alopecia cicatricial, de los cuales 8 (14 por ciento) se diagnosticaron como Alopecia Fibrosante Frontal. El 100 por ciento correspondieron a mujeres, el promedio de edad fue de 45 años. Sólo la mitad de los casos comenzó con la alopecia luego del climaterio. El hallazgo clínico más frecuentemente encontrado fue el retroceso de la línea de implantación frontotemporal (87,5 por ciento); y en segundo lugar la disminución difusa de densidad capilar (37,5 por ciento) y alopecia de la cola de las cejas (50 por ciento). No se reportó ningún caso asociado a liquen plano cutáneo o de mucosas. Los hallazgos más relevantes a la dermatoscopía fueron: eritema perifolicular (50 por ciento) e hiperqueratosis folicular (25 por ciento). A la histopatología, los principales hallazgos fueron el infiltrado inflamatorio linfocitario perifolicular (50 por ciento) y fibrosis concéntrica perifolicular (100 por ciento). Discusión: La Alopecia fibrosante frontalrepresenta el 14 por ciento de las alopecias cicatriciales primarias en nuestra serie. La edad al diagnóstico fue inferior a lo reportado en la literatura. El principal hallazgo clínico fue el retroceso de la línea de implantación frontotemporal...


Introduction: Frontal fibrosing alopecia, considered by some authors as a subtype of lichen planopilaris, is a scarring alopecia that usually involves adult women and is characterized by the symmetric recession of fronto-temporal hairline. Objectives: Characterize the clinical, dermoscopic and histological features of frontal fibrosing alopecia. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients with clinical and histological diagnosis of Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia treated in our institution from July 2010 to October2012. Results: 8 out of 57 cases with histological diagnosis of scarring alopecia, had diagnosis of frontal fibrosing alopecia (14 percent). 100 percent were women, with mean age of 45 years. 50 percent of patients began with alopecia in the post-climacteric period. Recession of frontotemporal hair-line was the most common finding (87.5 percent), associated with reduced capillary density (37.5 percent) and loss of eyebrows (50 percent). In our study, none of the patients had other signs of lichen planus. At dermoscopy, most common finding were perifollicular erythema (50 percent) and follicular hyperkeratosis (25 percent). Most common histological findings were a perifollicular lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate (50 percent) and perifollicular concentric fibrosis (100 percent). Discussion: Frontal fibrosing alopecia represents 14 percent of scarring alopecia in our series. Age at diagnosis was lower than reported in the literature, and only 50 percent of women presented alopecia in the postmenopausal period. The main clinical finding was the recession of frontotemporal hairline...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Alopecia/diagnosis , Alopecia/epidemiology , Alopecia/pathology , Biopsy , Dermoscopy , Diagnosis, Differential , Lichen Planus/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
7.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 26(4): 437-443, 2007. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-499074

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El receptor scavenger clase B tipo I (SR-BI) es un elemento clave en el metabolismo de las HDL, donde su expresión ejerce un importante efecto anti-aterogénico controlando la fase hepática del transporte reverso de colesterol. Así, el estudio de la modulación de la expresión de SR-BI permitiría el desarrollo de nuevas alternativas farmacológicas para el tratamiento de la ateroesclerosis. Objetivo: La meta de nuestro estudio fue determinar el efecto de la triiodotironina (T3) y el glucagón sobre el metabolismo del colesterol HDL y la expresión hepática de SR-BI en el ratón, evaluando simultáneamente su impacto sobre el colesterol total y lipoproteico plasmático y la secreción biliar de colesterol. Métodos: Se utilizaron ratones C57BL/6 tratados con T3 (30 nmol/kg/día) o glucagón (80 µg/día) más los respectivos grupos controles. Después del tratamiento, los animales se anestesiaron para recolección de bilis, plasma y tejido hepático. Los niveles totales de colesterol plasmático y biliar fueron medidos por métodos enzimáticos. El colesterol lipoproteico plasmático se evaluó por fraccionamiento cromatográfico del plasma y medición enzimática del colesterol en cada fracción. La expresión hepática de SR-BI se cuantificó mediante western blot. Resultados: El uso de T3 o glucagón disminuyeron significativamente el colesterol plasmático total y aumentaron el colesterol biliar con respecto al grupo control correspondiente. Las fracciones de colesterol VLDL, LDL y HDL disminuyeron en ambos grupos tratados, con un mayor efecto observado en la fracción HDL. La administración de ambas hormonas aumentaron significativamente los niveles hepáticos de SR-BI. Conclusión: Los resultados establecen que T3 y glucagón disminuyen el colesterol plasmático, predominantemente de tipo HDL, y aumentan la secreción de colesterol biliar en el ratón, probablemente como consecuencia del incremento en la expresión hepática...


Introduction: The scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays a key role in the metabolism of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Its expression has an important anti-atherogenic effect by controlling the hepatic phase of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway in vivo. Thus, the study of the modulation of SR-BI expression may allow the development of new pharmacologic approaches for treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the effect of triiodothyronine (T3) and glucagon on HDL metabolism and hepatic expression of SR-BI in mice, evaluating also the impact in total and lipoprotein cholesterol as well as biliary cholesterol secretion. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were treated with T3 (30 nmol/kg/día) or glucagon (80 µg/día) in comparison to appropriate control groups. After treatment, bile, plasma and hepatic tissue were collected for analysis. Total plasma and biliary cholesterol levels were measured by enzymatic methods. Lipoprotein cholesterol was also measured enzymatically after chromatographic separation of plasma samples. The hepatic expression of SR-BI protein was quantified by western blotting. Results: The use of T3 or glucagon significantly decreased total plasma cholesterol levels and increased of biliary cholesterol concentrations compared to control groups. Levels of VLDL, LDL and HDL cholesterol were reduced in both treatment groups, with a more important effect observed in the HDL fraction. Both treatments increased hepatic SR-BI protein levels. Conclusions: These results show that T3 and glucagon decrease plasma cholesterol levels, particularly in HDL, and increase biliary cholesterol secretion in mice, probably as a consecuence of higher hepatic expression of SR-BI, which may have led to facilitated HDL cholesterol transport from plasma into bile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Glucagon/pharmacology , Liver/metabolism , Scavenger Receptors, Class B , Triiodothyronine/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Bile/chemistry , Cholesterol, HDL/analysis , Cholesterol/analysis , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Glucagon/administration & dosage , Liver , Receptors, Lipoprotein , Triiodothyronine/administration & dosage
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