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J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210056, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360567


The association of scaffolds to repair extensive bone defects can contribute to their evolution and morphophysiological recomposition. The incorporation of particulate biomaterials into three-dimensional fibrin bioproducts together with photobiomodulation therapy (PBM) has potential and can improve regenerative medicine procedures. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of PBM therapy on critical size defects filled with xenogenic bone substitute associated with fibrin biopolymer. Methods: A critical defect of 8 mm was performed in 36 Wistar male adult rats that were divided into four groups. Groups BC and BC-PBM were defined as controls with defects filled by a clot (without or with PBM, respectively) and groups XS and XS-PBM that comprised those filled with biocomplex Bio-OssTM in association with fibrin biopolymer. PBM was applied immediately after the surgery and three times a week every other day, with the parameters: wavelength of 830 nm, energy density 6.2 J/cm2, output power 30 mW, beam area of 0.116 cm2, irradiance 0.258,62 W/cm2, energy/point 0.72 J, total energy 2.88 J. Fourteen and 42 days after the surgery, animals were euthanatized and subjected to microtomography, qualitative and quantitative histological analysis. Results: The BC-PBM and XS-PBM groups had a similar evolution in the tissue repair process, with a higher density of the volume of new formed bone in relation to the groups without PBM (p = 0.04086; p = 0.07093, respectively). Intense vascular proliferation and bone deposition around the biomaterial particles were observed in the animals of the groups in which biocomplex was applied (XS and XS-PBM). Conclusion: PBM therapy allowed an improvement in the formation of new bone, with a more organized deposition of collagen fibers in the defect area. Biocomplex favored the insertion and permanence of the particulate material in bone defects, creating a favorable microenvironment for accelerate repair process.(AU)

Biocompatible Materials , Biopolymers , Collagen , Low-Level Light Therapy
J. res. dent ; 9(3): 12-18, sep.-dec2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358579


Background: Infection control is mandatory for revascularization procedures, enabling to eliminate patient's clinical symptoms and signs. Despite presenting a complex morphology when compared to anterior teeth, if a strict disinfection protocol is adopted and the revascularization procedure's biological principles are followed, the therapy can be successful in molar teeth. Methods: This case report aims to present a clinical case of successful revascularization in an immature permanent necrotic second lower molar. Clinical decisions and explanations regarding possible mechanisms related to the treatment's success in a tooth with complex morphology are discussed. Results: Revascularization procedures were performed on a 12-year-old male patient diagnosed with symptomatic periapical periodontitis in a tooth 37. The case highlights the need for infection control and biological principles that surrounds the success of this therapy. Follow-up times presented in this case were six months, 1, 2, 4 and 4.5-years, respectively. Continued root development was observed, and the tooth remains intact and without symptoms. Conclusion: The association of infection control and the biological principles of revascularization procedures allow the maintenance and continuation of tooth development, even when these present complex morphologies.

Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e212098, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1281101


Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the pH, Ca2+ release, solubility, and antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) pastes in association with different substances. Methods: Sixty acrylic teeth (n=10) were filled with pastes that associated Ca(OH)2 with the following substances: benzalkonium chloride 5% (G1) and 50% (G2) both in propylene glycol, arnica glycolic extract (G3), green tea glycolic extract (G4), Calen/PMCC™ (G5), and Calen™ (G6). In the group G1 to G4 were used 1g of Ca(OH)2 powder with 0,8g of vehicle. pH and Ca2+ release was measured after 7, 15, and 30 days. For solubility, micro-CT was used immediately and at the periods of 7, 15, and 30 days. For the antimicrobial analysis, a biofilm of E. faecalis was induced in vitro on bovine dentin discs. Live/dead viability dye and confocal scanning microscopy were used. Results: The highest pH values occurred on the first 7 days, and the G6, G1, G3, and G5 presented the highest pH values at this period (P <0.05). Ca2+ release was higher in all groups at 7 days, with the highest values observed in G1, G5, and G6. The volume of all pastes showed no significant difference in the intragroup analysis at 7 and 15 days (P <0.05). G1 and G2 showed the highest antimicrobial action (P <0.05). For the biovolume, there was difference between the G6 and the other groups (P >0.05) with G1 presenting the lowest values. Conclusion: Benzalkonium chloride 5% increases the antimicrobial action of the Ca(OH2), without impairs physicochemical properties

Root Canal Filling Materials , Calcium Hydroxide , Biofilms , Chemical Phenomena , Anti-Infective Agents
Braz. dent. j ; 32(3): 10-20, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345504


Abstract The host defense response to microbial challenge emerging from the root canal system leads to apical periodontitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of inflammatory cytokines and Nitric Oxide (NO) by macrophages after interaction with Enterococcus faecalis in the: plankton and dislodged biofilm mode; intact biofilm mode stimulated by calcium hydroxide (CH), CH and chlorhexidine (CHX) or Triple Antibiotic Paste (TAP). For this purpose, culture of macrophages from monocytes in human peripheral blood (N=8) were exposed to the different modes of bacteria for 24 hours. Subsequently, the cytokines, such as, Tumor Necrotic Factor- alfa (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10; and NO were quantified by Luminex xMAP and Greiss reaction, respectively. In addition to the potential therapeutic effects of the intracanal medication, their antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm were also tested in vitro by confocal microscopy. The experiments` data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test with the Dunn post hoc test (α < 0.05). Bacteria in dislodged biofilm mode were shown to be more aggressive to the immune system than bacteria in plankton mode and negative control, inducing greater expression of NO and TNF-α. Relative to bacteria in intact biofilm mode, the weakest antimicrobial activity occurred in Group CH. In Groups CH/CHX and TAP the percentage of dead bacteria was significantly increased to the same extent. Interestingly, the biofilm itself did not induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines - except for NO - while the biofilm treated with TAP and CH based pastes enhanced the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α; and IL-1 β, respectively. In contrast, the levels of a potent anti-inflammatory (IL-10) were increased in Group TAP.

Resumo A resposta de defesa do hospedeiro ao desafio microbiano que emerge do sistema de canais radiculares leva à periodontite apical. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a expressão de citocinas pró e anti-inflamatórias e Óxido Nítrico (NO) por macrófagos após interação com Enterococcus faecalis no modo: planctônio e de biofilme desalojado; biofilme intacto estimulado por hidróxido de cálcio (CH), CH e clorexidina ou Pasta Tri Antibiótica (TAP). Para isto, a cultura de macrófagos originados de monócitos do sangue periférico de humanos (N=8) foi exposta aos diferentes tipos de bactéria por 24 horas. Então, a quantificação da produção de of Fator de Necrose Tumoral- alfa (TNF-α), interleucina (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10 e NO por macrófagos se deu por meio do Luminex xMAP e reação de Greiss, respectivamente. Além dos potenciais efeitos terapêuticos desses compostos, sua atividade antimicrobiana contra E. faecalis também foi testada através microscopia confocal. Os dados dos experimentos foram analisados através do teste de Kruskal-Wallis com Dunn`s post hoc (α < 0.05). Bactéria em modo de biofilme desalojado se mostrou mais agressivo ao sistema imune que as bactérias planctônicas e controle negativo induzindo a maior excreção de NO e TNF-α. Em relação ao biofilme intacto, a atividade antimicrobiana mais fraca ocorreu no grupo de CH. Os grupos CHX e TAP aumentaram significativamente a porcentagem de bactérias mortas na mesma extensão. Interessantemente, o biofilme por ele mesmo não induziu a liberação de citocinas pro-inflamatórias - exceto por NO - enquanto que o biofilme tratado com TAP ou pastas a base de CH aumentaram os níveis de IL-6; e TNF-α e IL-1 β respectivamente. Em contraste, os níveis da potente citocina anti-inflamatória (IL-10) foram aumentados pelo grupo TAP.

Humans , Plankton , Biofilms , Root Canal Irrigants , Bacteria , Calcium Hydroxide , Chlorhexidine , Enterococcus faecalis , Anti-Bacterial Agents
Dent. press endod ; 11(1): 63-71, Jan-Apr2021. Tab, Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348216


Objetivo: O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a resistência à fadiga cíclica e torcional de instrumentos rotatórios de níquel-titânio com secções transversais semelhantes e confeccionados com diferentes tipos de tratamentos térmicos: Hyflex CM (HCM 25/.06), Vortex Blue (VB 25/.06), Sequence Rotary File (SRF 25/.06) e EdgeSequel (EDF 25/.06) (n=20). Métodos: O teste de fadiga cíclica avaliou o tempo e o número de ciclos para a fratura (NCF) dos instrumentos em canal artificial com 60° de curvatura e 5mm de raio (n=10). O teste de torção avaliou o torque máximo e a deflexão angular para a fratura dos 3mm da ponta dos instrumentos (n=10). Após o teste de torção e de fadiga cíclica, os instrumentos foram avaliados em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) (n=10). Os dados foram analisados empregando-se os testes ANOVA e de Tukey, sendo selecionado um nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: HCM apresentou o maior tempo e NCF entre todos os instrumentos avaliados (p<0,05). O SRF apresentou um tempo semelhante (p>0,05) e menor NCF (p<0,05) do que o VB. Em relação ao teste torcional, o HCM apresentou menor valor de torque e maior deflexão angular entre os grupos avaliados (p<0,05). Não houve diferenças significativas entre VB, SRF e EDF em relação à deflexão angular (p>0,05). Conclusão: O HCM apresentou maior resistência à fadiga cíclica e deflexão angular. Entretanto, o VB apresentou maior resistência torcional para a fratura (AU).

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cyclic and torsional fatigue resistance of Nickel-Titanium rotary instruments with similar cross-sectional design and manufactured by different thermal treatments: Hyflex CM (HCM 25/.06) Vortex Blue (VB 25/.06), Sequence Rotary File (SRF 25/.06) and EdgeSequel (EDF 25/.06) (n=20). Material and Methods: Cyclic fatigue test evaluated the time and number of cycles to failure (NCF) in an artificial stainless steel canal with 60° and 5-mm radius of curvature (n=10). The torsional test (ISO 3630-1) evaluated he maximum torque and distortion angle to failure at 3 mm from the tip (n=10). After the torsional and cyclic fatigue test the instruments were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests, and the level of significance was set at 5%. Results: The HCM presented the longest time and highest NCF to fatigue than all the groups (P<0.05). The SRF presented similar time (P>0.05) and lower NCF (P<0.05) to fatigue than VB. Regarding to the torsional test, HCM presented the lowest torque load and the highest distortion angle of all the groups (P<0.05). No significant difference was found among VB, SRF and EDF regarding the distortion angle (P>0.05). Conclusion: The HCM presented the highest cyclic fatigue resistance and distortion angle to failure. However, the VB showed higher torsional load to failure. (AU).

Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Torque , Dental Instruments , Endodontics , Titanium , Analysis of Variance , Fatigue , Nickel
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 632-638, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134550


ABSTRACT: The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) associated with the benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on the adhesion and formation of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms attached to coated dentin. Discs standard bovine dentin blocks were treated with the coating materials evaluated: Saline solution (control), 17 % EDTA, 17 % EDTA associated with 1 % BAK for 5 minutes and subsequently washed with saline solution. Afterwards, biofilms of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) were grown on the surface of coated dentin blocks for time intervals of 1 hour and 7 days (n = 20) and were subsequently washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Bacterial viability and total biovolume were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using the Live/Dead technique. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn tests were used to determine statistical differences (a = 5 %). The 17 % EDTA + 1 % BAK group showed significantly lower biovolume and bacterial viability values at the end of 1 hour (p < 0.05). After 7 days of contamination, the 17 % EDTA and 17 % EDTA + 1 % BAK groups showed similar results that differed statistically from those of the control group (p < 0.05). The saline solution group showed higher values. The use of BAK associated with EDTA on dentin blocks surfaces before exposure to contamination was able to interfere in the adhesion of E. faecalis to dentin. Also, dentin treatment by BAK associated with a chelating agent influences the secondary biofilm formation, which could have important effects on the long-term success of root canal treatment.

RESUMEN: El objetivo del estudio consistió en investigar in vitro, la influencia del ácido etilendiamino-tetraacético (EDTA) con cloruro de benzalconio (BAK) en la adhesión y formación de biopelículas de Enterococcus faecalis a la dentina. Discos de dentina bovina fueron tratadas con solución salina (control), 17 % de EDTA, 17% de EDTA asociado con 1 % de BAK durante 5 minutos y lavadas con solución salina. Las biopelículas de E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) se cultivaron sobre los discos de dentina durante intervalos de tiempo de 1 hora y 7 días (n = 20), lavados con solución salina tamponada con fosfato (PBS). La viabilidad bacteriana y el biovolumen total se analizaron mediante microscopía de barrido por láser (CLSM) utilizando la técnica Live / Dead. Se realizó prueba no paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis, seguida por Dunn con una diferencia estadística (a = 5 %). El grupo de 17 % EDTA + 1 % BAK mostró valores significativamente menores de biovolumen y viabilidad bacteriana al final de 1 hora (p < 0,05). Después de 7 días de contaminación, los grupos de 17 % EDTA y 17 % EDTA + 1 % BAK mostraron resultados similares que diferían estadísticamente del grupo control (p < 0,05). La solución salina mostró valores más altos. La asociación de BAK con EDTA antes de la contaminación interfirió en la adhesión de E. faecalis. Además, el tratamiento de la dentina por BAK asociado con EDTA influye en la formación de biopelículas secundarias, lo que podría tener efectos importantes sobre el éxito a largo plazo del tratamiento del conducto radicular.

Animals , Cattle , Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/growth & development , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Dentin/microbiology , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , Statistical Analysis , Microscopy, Confocal , Saline Solution
Dent. press endod ; 10(2): 86-93, maio-ago.2020. Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344683


Introdução: Acidentes e complicações podem acontecer em qualquer fase do tratamento endodôntico. Podem ocorrer devido a diversos fatores, como falhas dos instrumentos, dificuldades anatômicas e limitações do profissional, o que, muitas vezes, pode alterar o prognóstico de um caso. Objetivo: O presente relato de caso aborda uma situação em que uma paciente se apresentava com dois instrumentos fraturados e uma perfuração radicular em um dente molar inferior com periodontite apical. Relato do caso: Os fragmentos foram removidos por meio de técnica mecanizada e ultrassônica padronizada, e a perfuração foi tratada e selada com material à base de silicato de cálcio. Conclusão: O emprego de recursos tecnológicos atuais favoreceu a resolução do caso, melhorando seu prognóstico. O restabelecimento da condição de normalidade do dente e tecidos adjacentes foi confirmado por exames radiográficos e tomográficos (AU).

Introduction: Accidents and complications may happen at any endodontic treatment stage. These are likely to change the prognosis of treatment and can be due to factors related to instrumental failure, anatomic difficulties and the professional's limitations. Objective: This case report addresses a case where a patient presenting two separated instruments and a root perforation in a lower molar with apical periodontitis. Case report: The separated instruments have been removed by mechanical and ultrasonic standardized method and the perforation was treated and sealed by silicate cement-based material. Conclusion: The use of technological resources favored the resolution of the case, increasing its predictability. The reestablishment of the normal condition of the tooth and surrounding tissues was confirmed by radiograph and computed tomography exams (AU).

Humans , Female , Root Canal Therapy , Silicate Cement , Technology , Ultrasonic Therapy , Calcium , Retreatment , Molar
Dent. press endod ; 10(1): 38-42, Jan-Apr2020. Tab, Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344157


Avaliar, em micro-CT, diferentes métodos de inserção da pasta de hidróxido de cálcio para preenchimento de canais laterais simulados em blocos de acrílico. Métodos: Foram utilizados 72 blocos de acrílico com canais laterais simuladas nas porções cervical, média e apical, os quais foram preenchidos com a pasta de hidróxido de cálcio de acordo com os seguintes métodos (n=12): Grupo 1 - lima tipo K #30; Grupo 2 - espiral de Lentulo; Grupo 3 - agitação ultrassônica; Grupo 4 - agitação sônica com EndoActivator; Grupo 5 - seringa + Capillari TIPS; e Grupo 6 - agitação com EasyClean em baixa rotação. Para os grupos que receberam agitação, o canal principal foi preenchido com a pasta utilizando seringa e Capillari Tips. Antes e após o preenchimento, os dentes foram escaneados em micro-CT (SkyScan 1174) e as imagens obtidas foram comparadas utilizando-se o software CTan. O volume de medicação intracanal no interior dos canais simulados foi mensurado e, em seguida, obtida a porcentagem de penetração. Os dados foram submetidos à comparação estatística (p<0,05). Resultados: Os grupos EndoActivator e ultrassom apresentaram resultados significativamente melhores do que a lima #30 nos três níveis analisados, assim como o EasyClean nos terços cervical e médio, e a Lentulo no terço apical, em relação ao Grupo 1 (p <0,05). Nas demais comparações e na análise intragrupos, não houve diferenças significativas (p>0,05). Conclusão: Os métodos de agitação da medicação intracanal, especialmente o ultrassom, proporcionaram uma maior porcentagem de penetração dela em canais laterais simulados (AU).

Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze, in micro-CT, the capacity of different methods for insertion of calcium hydroxide paste in the filling of lateral canals simulated in blocks of acrylic. Methods: A total of 72 acrylic blocks with lateral canals simulated in the coronal, middle and apical portions, were used and filled with calcium hydroxide paste, according to the following methods (n = 12): Group 1 - #30 K-file; Group 2 - Lentulo spiral; Group 3 - Ultrasonic agitation; Group 4 - Sonic agitation with EndoActivator; Group 5 - Syringe + Capillary Tips; Group 6 - Agitation with Easy Clean at low speed. For the groups that received agitation, the blocks were filled with the aid of a syringe and Capillary Tips. Each sample was scanned with SkyScan 1174, before and after the filling procedures, and the volume of calcium hydroxide was measured using CTAN software. The percentage of penetration of intracanal medication inside the simulated canals was calculated. Data were statistically compared (p < 0.05). Results: The agitation with EndoActivator and ultrasonic insert promoted a greater penetration of paste with significant statistical differences in relation to the #30 K-file group in the 3 levels analyzed (p < 0.05). Other statistical differences occurred in the comparison between the Easy Clean group and #30 K-file group in the coronal and middle thirds and in the comparison between Lentulo spiral group and #30 K-file group in the apical (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Methods which use agitation devices , such as ultrasonic insert, promoted higher filling of calcium hydroxide in simulated lateral canals (AU).

Pulpitis , In Vitro Techniques , Calcium Hydroxide , Ultrasonography , Equipment and Supplies
Dent. press endod ; 10(1): 43-48, Jan-Apr2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344213


Avaliar o efeito da ativação ultrassônica e do veículo do MTA no pH dentinário em dentes com reabsorção radicular externa simulada. Métodos: Uma cavidade foi preparada na superfície radicular de 46 dentes bovinos, as quais foram seladas com MTA preparado com 100% de água destilada (DW) ou com 80% DW e 20% de propilenoglicol (PG). Os dentes foram divididos em quatro grupos (n = 10), de acordo com o veículo e o protocolo de ativação ultrassônica utilizado durante a inserção do material (ativação ou sem ativação). O grupo controle (n = 6) foi deixado sem selamento. O pH foi mensurado após 15, 30 e 60 dias de imersão. Resultados: A ativação com ultrassom não alterou significativamente o pH (p>0,05). Os cimentos manipulados utilizando DW + PG apresentaram maior pH aos 15 dias, em relação ao MTA manipulado com DW (p<0,05). Conclusão: A associação de 80% de água destilada com 20% de propilenoglicol aumentou o pH dentinário, o que é positivo para o reparo de reabsorções radiculares (AU).

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ultrasonic activation and MTA vehicle on dentinal pH in simulated external root resorptions. So, a cavity was prepared in the root of forty-six bovine teeth. They were filled with MTA mixed with 100% distilled water (DW) or MTA mixed with 80% DW and 20% propylene glycol (PG). Teeth were divided into four groups (n = 10), according to the vehicle (DW or PG) and ultrasonic protocol used for material insertion (activated or not). Control group (n = 6) was unfilled. The pH was assessed after 15, 30 and 60 days of immersion. As results of all that, activation with ultrasound did not significantly alter the pH (p > 0.05). The cements were mixed with either DW or DW + PG, with the later association presenting higher pH at 15 days of assessment than the former (p < 0.05). Thereby, it can be concluded that mixing MTA with 80% DW and 20% PG increased the dentinal pH, which is positive for root resorption repair (AU).

Animals , Cattle , Root Resorption , Ultrasonics , Biocompatible Materials , Propylene Glycol
Dent. press endod ; 10(1): 49-53, Jan-Apr2020. Tab, Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344228


O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influência da velocidade de rotação na resistência à fadiga cíclica do instrumento rotatório Logic 25.06 (LOG 25.06; Easy Equipamentos Odontológicos, Belo Horizonte, Brasil). Métodos: Foram utilizados 20 instrumentos rotatórios Logic 25.06 (n=10). O teste de fadiga cíclica foi realizado em um aparato com um canal artificial de aço inoxidável com ângulo de curvatura de 60° e raio de 5 mm. Os instrumentos foram utilizados a 950 e 550 rotações por minuto (RPM), sendo mensurados o tempo e o número de ciclos para a fratura. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente por meio do teste t de Student, sendo selecionado um nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: O teste de fadiga cíclica demonstrou que a velocidade de 550 RPM promoveu um aumento significativo no tempo e no número de ciclos para a fratura dos instrumentos LOG 25.06 (p<0,05). Houve um aumento de 95,9% no tempo e de 27,25% do número de ciclos para a fratura. Conclusão: Os resultados desse estudo demonstraram que a velocidade de rotação possui uma influência significativa na resistência à fadiga cíclica dos instrumentos rotatório Logic 25.06. A velocidade de 550 RPM é uma velocidade mais segura, aumentando significativamente a resistência à fadiga cíclica (AU).

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of rotational speed on the cyclic fatigue resistance of Logic 25.06 rotary instruments (LOG 25.06; Easy Equipamentos Odontológicos, Belo Horizonte, Brazil). Methods: 20 Logic 25.06 instruments were used (n=20). The cyclic fatigue test was performed in an artificial canal made of stainless steel with 60° of curvature and 5 mm of radius. The instruments were activated 950 and 550 rotations per minute (RPM) until the fracture occurred. The time (in seconds) and the number of cycles to fracture (NCF) were measured. The data were statistically analyzed using One-way ANOVA and Tukey Test, the level significance used was 5 %. Results: the 550 RPM promoted a significantly higher time and NCF of LOG 25.06 in comparison with 950 RPM (P>0.05). The time increased in 95.9% and the NCF 27.25%. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the rotational speed had a significant influence on the cyclic fatigue resistance of the Logic 25.06 rotary instruments. The 550 RPM rotational speed seems to be safer than 950 RPM, increasing the cyclic fatigue resistance of Logic 25.06 (AU).

Rotation , Dental Equipment , Endodontics , Analysis of Variance , Fatigue
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20200269, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134788


Abstract Tricalcium silicate-based cement are materials used in reparative and regenerative procedures in endodontics. A recently proposed formulation aimed to enhance handling during clinical use with a versatile material applicable by syringe. Although, the use of bismuth oxide as radiopacifier and grey raw powder are drawbacks considering aesthetics. Objectives Evaluate physicochemical, biological, and antimicrobial properties of Grey-MTAFlow (Ultradent) and assess whether the addition of zinc oxide (ZnO) prevents dentinal discoloration caused by bismuth oxide. Methodology Grey-MTAFlow was manipulated in 'thin' consistency for all tests. Luminosity, color change, ion migration to dentine, radiopacity, setting time, ISO 6876:2012 linear flow, volumetric lateral flow and central filling of simulated grooves scanned using micro-computed tomography (μCT), pH, calcium release, volumetric change using μCT, chemical characterisation, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity were assessed. Addition of 5% ZnO to Grey-MTAFlow and a bismuth-containing experimental composition were comparatively tested. Statistical analyses used Shapiro-Wilk, T-test, ANOVA, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (p<0.05). Results The addition of ZnO to Grey-MTAFlow prevented dentine darkening after 90 days due to bismuth migration reduction, although no statistical difference was found (p=0.863). ZnO addition significantly enhanced Grey-MTAFlow radiopacity without differences in initial setting time. Grey-MTAFlow presented an ISO linear flow of 10.9 mm and a balanced volumetric lateral flow with central filling in μCT evaluation. All compositions presented an alkaline pH after immersion. Grey-MTAFlow had a significantly higher calcium ion release after 28 days in comparison to 24 hours (p=0.011) and volumetric expansion of 0.4±1.8% after immersion. ZnO addition altered the hydrated cement matrix once calcium hydroxide (portlandite) could not be detected in characterisation. Neither of the materials produced inhibition halos nor reduced bacterial turbidity, but all presented cytocompatibility above 100%. Conclusion Grey-MTAFlow expanded after immersion and exhibited higher luminosity values after the evaluation period when ZnO was added, but chemical modifications after this addition occurred.

Root Canal Filling Materials , Dental Cements , Anti-Infective Agents , Oxides , Bismuth , Materials Testing , Silicates , Calcium Compounds , Drug Combinations , X-Ray Microtomography
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e117, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132672


Abstract The aim of this study was to assess Brazilian endodontists' level of knowledge about the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and examine its professional repercussions. The link to the online survey that was created for this study was shared with Brazilian endodontists through social networking applications. The questionnaire contained questions that pertained to COVID-19 and its impact on dental practice. The collected data were analyzed using t-test, chi-square analysis, and analysis of variance, and the level of significance was set at 0.05. A total of 2,135 participants responded to the questionnaire, and all five Brazilian regions were represented in the sample. A total of 98.50% of endodontists reported that dental procedures can transmit COVID-19. Complete social distancing was practiced by 96.68% of the participants, and approximately 25% knew someone who had COVID-19. Moreover, in their daily practice, 72.13% of them implemented biosecurity measures that are ineffective in preventing COVID-19. Furthermore, 91.7% of them reportedly suspended elective dental procedures. Only 55.69% of them reported that they performed only emergency procedures in their workplaces. Those who believed that COVID-19 cannot be transmitted during dental procedures were less knowledgeable about the symptoms of COVID-19 (p = 0.0095). Endodontists who believed that personal protective equipment cannot prevent contamination were more knowledgeable about the symptoms of COVID-19 than their counterparts (p = 0.0003). The participating Brazilian endodontists demonstrated adequate knowledge about the risk of contamination during dental procedures and the main symptoms of COVID-19. Only some professionals reported providing emergency dental care during the pandemic.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Endodontists , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Endodontics , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
Braz. j. oral sci ; 19: e209594, jan.-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1152142


Seeking to increase the efficiency of endodontic irrigation, the association of different solutions as final irrigant has been investigated, such as sodium hypochlorite with chlorhexidine. The literature shows that the combination of these substances leads to the formation of a brownish precipitate, but does not reveal measurements of the intensity of this precipitate and its consequences. Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the change in dentin color and the obliteration of the dentinal tubules after the association of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with chlorhexidine (CHX) in the final irrigation. Methods: Fifty sterile human lower premolars were prepared with a ProDesign R 35.05 files and divided into 6 groups. Four different NaOCl concentrations (0.5%; 1%, 2.5% and 5.25%) associated with 2% CHX were tested, in addition to 2 control groups, using only 2.5% NaOCl and 2% CHX, respectively. After the final irrigation protocol, the dentin color change was evaluated by spectrophotometry immediately and after 24 hours, and the dentinal tubule obliteration was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Results: It was possible to verify that regardless the NaOCl concentration used when associated with CHX, a chemical residue was formed, with consequent dentin pigmentation and tubular obstruction. There was a trend towards increased dentin pigmentation and tubular obstruction due to the deposition of the chemical residue formed by this association. Conclusion: It can be concluded that all concentrations of NaOCl associated with CHX caused color changes and tubular obstruction, being proportional to the concentration of NaOCl used

Root Canal Irrigants , Sodium Hypochlorite , Chlorhexidine , Endodontics
Dent. press endod ; 9(3): 75-81, Sept-Dec.2019. Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343933


Objetivo: o objetivo do presente relato de caso foi demonstrar o emprego do ultrassom em diversas etapas do tratamento endodôntico de um segundo molar inferior com anatomia em forma de C, possibilitando um aumento na previsibilidade no tratamento em dentes com complexidades anatômicas. Relato de caso: paciente do sexo masculino, relatou sensibilidade dolorosa no lado direito inferior da face. O exame clínico mostrou ausência de vitalidade pulpar, e o exame radiográfico detectou a presença de lesão cariosa no dente #47, lesão periapical e uma anatomia em forma de C. Assim, o tratamento de escolha foi a necropulpectomia. Após abertura coronária, foi realizado o refinamento da câmara pulpar e das embocaduras dos canais, com ponta de ultrassom. O preparo biomecânico foi realizado com instrumento Reciproc 25.08 e Mtwo 40.04, sendo a agitação final do hipoclorito de sódio e do EDTA realizada com a ponta ultrassônica Irrisonic. A medicação intracanal empregada foi a pasta de hidróxido de cálcio. Após 15 dias, a medicação foi removida por meio de irrigação ultrassônica passiva, e os canais foram secos com pontas de papel absorvente esterilizadas. A obturação dos canais foi realizada com o cimento AH Plus, o qual foi inserido com espiral de Lentulo #40 e, em seguida, agitado por 1 minuto com ultrassom. Então, a técnica de obturação híbrida de Tagger foi realizada. Conclusão: o controle radiográfico após 1 ano e 8 meses mostrou o reparo total da lesão periapical, demonstrando que uso o ultrassom nas diversas etapas da terapia endodôntica pode contribuir para uma maior previsibilidade do tratamento (AU).

The aim of this case report was to describe the use of ultrasonic in several endodontics steps during root canal treatment of second C-shaped mandibular molar, favoring more predictable outcome of endodontic treatment of teeth with complex anatomy. A male patient reported painful symptoms on the right and lower side of the face. Clinical examination revealed absence of pulp vitality of tooth 47 and the radiographic examination showed carious lesion, apical periodontitis and C-shaped anatomy. Therefore, the necropulpectomy treatment was selected. After the coronal access, an ultrasonic tip was used to remove the irregularities of the pulp chamber. The root canal preparation was performed using Reciproc 25.08 and Mtwo 40.04 and a final passive ultrasonic irrigation of the sodium hypochlorite and EDTA was performed with Irrisonic tip. Calcium hydroxide paste was used as intracanal dressing, which was introduced by Lentulo #40 and ultrasonic agitated. After 15 days, a passive ultrasonic irrigation was performed to remove the intracanal dressing and the canals were dried with sterilized paper points. The root filling was performed with AH Plus sealer, which was introduced by Lentulo #40 in a electric motor at 350 rpm and ultrasonic agitated during 1 minute. Then, the hybrid Tagger technique was performed to root canal filling. The radiographic examination showed the suitable isthmus and lateral canals filling. After 1 year and 8 months, the radiographic examination revealed complete apical healing, showing that the use of ultrasonic in several steps of endodontic treatment can favor a more predictable outcomes (AU).

Humans , Male , Periapical Abscess , Ultrasonics , Molar , Therapeutics , Endodontics
Dent. press endod ; 9(2): 71-75, maio 2019. Ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1024858


Objetivo: o objetivo deste artigo é relatar um caso clínico em que um instrumento fraturado e a guta-percha extravasada foram removidos via canal. Relato de caso: paciente do sexo masculino, com 38 anos de idade, foi encaminhado para avaliação do incisivo lateral superior direito (dente #12). O paciente apresentava dor à palpação na região apical e ausência de sintomatologia espontânea. O exame radiográfico revelou a presença de cone de guta-percha extravasado, uma espiral de Lentulo fraturada, além de lesão periapical no dente #12. O retratamento endodôntico foi o procedimento de escolha, na tentativa de remover os dois materiais. A espiral de Lentulo foi removida com Masserann Endokit; e o cone de guta-percha, utilizando limas Hedstroen. Após realizar a instrumentação e o preenchimento do conduto com pasta de hidróxido de cálcio com iodofórmio, constatou- se a presença de reabsorção no terço apical. Depois de dois meses, observou-se redução da lesão; utilizou-se, então, MTA na região da reabsorção, e o conduto foi obturado com cone de guta-percha e cimento endodôntico Sealer 26. Conclusão: controles clínicos e radiográficos foram realizados após dois, quatro e oito anos, demonstrando reparo na região apical e ausência de sintomatologia (AU).

The objective of this article was to report a clinical case of finding a fractured instrument and over-extended guttapercha of a tooth, which were removed via the canal. The patient, a 38-year-old man, was referred for treatment of the right maxillary lateral incisor (tooth 7). The patient presented pain on palpation at the apical level and absence of spontaneous symptomatology. Radiographic examination revealed the presence of a over-extended gutta-percha cone, a fractured Lentulo spiral and periapical lesion in tooth 7. Endodontic retreatment was the chosen procedure in an attempt to remove both materials. The Lentulo spiral was removed by means of the Masserann Endokit, and the gutta-percha cone by using Hedstroen files. While performing instrumentation, and filling the canal with calcium hydroxide with iodoform, the presence of resorption in the apical third was verified. After 2 months, reduction of the lesion was observed, thus MTA was placed in the area of resorption and the remainder of the canal was filled with a gutta-percha cone and Sealer 26 cement. Clinical and radiographic controls performed after 2, 5 and 7 years showed repair of the area and absence of symptomatology (AU).

Humans , Male , Adult , Periapical Periodontitis , Root Canal Filling Materials , Root Canal Preparation , Gutta-Percha , Calcium Hydroxide , Retreatment , Dental Pins
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e097, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039297


Abstract To evaluate the torsional properties of engine-driven pathfinding instruments manufactured from different NiTi alloys - R-Pilot (tip size 12.5;.04 taper; M-Wire) and One G (tip size 14;.03 taper; Conventional NiTi). A total of 40 NiTi instruments from engine-driven pathfinding instruments (n = 20) were used. The torsion tests followed ISO 3630-1 (1992). Three millimeters of each instrument tip was fastened to a small load cell by a lever arm linked to the axis of torsion. During the test, the torsion testing machine software measured the maximum torsional strength and angle of rotation (0) before instrument failure. The fractured surface of each instrument was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, a supplementary examination was performed to measure the cross-sectional area and the metal mass volume of each instrument 3 mm from the tip. Data were analyzed using a t-test, with significance level set at 5%. R-pilot had significantly higher torsional strength than did One G (p < 0.05). Regarding the angle of rotation to fracture, One G had higher angles than did R-Pilot (p < 0.05). The supplementary examination showed that R-Pilot had the highest cross-sectional area and volume of metal mass at 3 mm from the tip (p < 0.05). R-pilot (M-Wire NiTi alloy) had a significantly higher torsional strength and One-G (superelastic NiTi alloy) had the highest angle of rotation to fracture.

Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Dental Alloys/chemistry , Dental Instruments , Alloys/chemistry , Reference Values , Stress, Mechanical , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Equipment Failure Analysis , Torque , Equipment Design
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e057, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011660


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of peracetic acid (PAA) as a single irrigant on the smear layer, on the intraradicular dentinal bond strength, and on the penetrability of an epoxy-based resin sealer into the dentinal tubules. A total of 120 roots were distributed into 4 groups according to the irrigant used in root canal preparation: 1% PAA (PAA); 2.5% NaOCl followed by final irrigation with 17% EDTA and 2.5% NaOCl (NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl); 2.5% NaOCl (NaOCl); and saline solution (SS). The smear layer was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The bond strength of an epoxy-based resin sealer (AH Plus) to root dentin was evaluated by the push-out test and penetrability of the sealer into dentinal tubules was observed by confocal laser microscopy. The results were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and the Dunn post-test (α = 0.05). The use of 1% PAA as single root canal irrigant provided smear layer removal and improved the penetrability and bond strength of AH Plus to root dentin in a manner similar to that of the NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl group (p > 0.05). The NaOCl and SS groups had higher values of smear layer and lower values of sealer penetrability and dentin bond strength than the PAA and NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl groups (p < 0.05). Thus, 1% PAA has the potential to be used as a single irrigant in root canals.

Humans , Peracetic Acid/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Smear Layer/chemistry , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Reference Values , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Dental Bonding/methods , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Microscopy, Confocal , Dental Pulp Cavity/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e011, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989484


Abstract To evaluate the influence of novel ultrasonic tips as an auxiliary method for the rotary preparation of flattened/oval-shaped canals. Forty-five mandibular incisors were selected and divided into one of three experimental groups (n = 15): Group PFCP - ProDesign Logic 25/.05 + Flatsonic + Clearsonic + Prodesign Logic 40/.01; Group FCP - Flatsonic + Clearsonic + ProDesign Logic 40/.01; and Group PP - Prodesign Logic 25/.05 + Prodesign Logic 40/.05. The teeth were scanned preoperatively and postoperatively using microcomputed tomography. The percentage values for increase in volume, non-instrumented surface area, dentin removal, degree of canal transportation, and centering ratio between the experimental groups were examined. Data were analyzed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests (p < 0.05). Group PFCP showed the greatest volume increase in the total portion of the root canal and the lowest percentage of non-instrumented surface area. Regarding the degree of transportation in the buccolingual direction, statistically significant differences between groups PFCP and PP were observed at the coronal third of the canal. In the mesiodistal direction, no statistically significant differences were observed at the coronal, middle, and apical thirds. As for the centering ratio, statistically significant differences were found in the buccolingual direction. In the mesiodistal direction, no statistically significant differences were observed at the coronal, middle, and apical thirds. The use of novel ultrasonic tips combined with rotary instruments in group PFCP provided a significant increase in volume and reduced the percentage of non-instrumented areas during the preparation of flattened/oval-shaped canals.

Humans , Ultrasonic Therapy/instrumentation , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Instruments/standards , Dentin/surgery , Equipment Design , X-Ray Microtomography/methods
Braz. dent. j ; 29(6): 536-540, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974197


Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of a calcium silicate-based sealer (Sealer Plus BC; MK Life, Porto Alegre, Brazil) compared with an epoxy-resin sealer (AH Plus; Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany). Initial and final setting time was assessed based on ISO 6876:2012 and ASTM C266:03. Calcium ion release and pH were evaluated by filling polyethylene tubes with sealers and then immersing them in 10 mL of deionized water. Following experimental periods of 1, 24, 72 and 168 hours, the samples were measured regarding pH and calcium ion release with a pH meter and a colorimetric spectrophotometer, respectively. The flow was examined based on ISO 6876:2012. Rings of 10 mm in diameter with 1 mm thickness were prepared to analyze the radiopacity (ISO 6876:2012 and ADA n.57) and solubility (ISO 6876:2012). The data were analyzed by variance analysis, Student-T and Tukey tests (p<0.05). The calcium ion release and pH values were significantly higher for the Sealer Plus BC compared with the AH Plus (p<0.05). Lower setting time, flow and radiopacity were observed for the bioceramic sealer than for AH Plus (p<0.05). Sealer Plus BC exhibited higher solubility compared with AH Plus (p<0.05). Sealer Plus BC showed physicochemical properties as setting time, pH, calcium release, flow, and radiopacity following the required standards, but higher solubility than the minimum values required by ISO 6876:2012.

Resumo Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar as propriedades físico-químicas de um cimento à base de silicato de cálcio (Sealer Plus BC MK Life, Porto Alegre, Brasil) e compará-las a um cimento à base de resina epóxica (AH Plus, Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Alemanha). Tempo de presa inicial e final foram avaliados com base na ISO 6876:2012 e ASTM C266:03. Liberação de íons cálcio e pH foram avaliados após o preenchimento de tubos de polietileno com os cimentos e imersão em 10 mL de água deionizada. Após os tempos experimentais de 1,24,72 e 168 horas, os valores de pH e liberação de íons cálcio foram mensurados utilizando um medidor de pH e um espectofotômetro colorimétrico, respectivamente. Escoamento foi avaliado com base na ISO 6876:2012. Moldes de 10 mm de diâmetro e 1 mm de espessura foram preparados para análise de radiopacidade (ISO 6876:2012 e ADA n.57), solubilidade (ISO 6876:2012). Os dados foram analisados por análise de variância, teste T de Student e teste de Tukey (p<0,05). A liberação de íons cálcio e os valores de pH foram significativamente maiores para o Sealer Plus BC em comparação com o AH Plus (p<0,05). Menores valores de tempo de presa, escoamento e radiopacidade foram observados para o cimento biocerâmico quando comparados com o AH Plus (p<0,05). Sealer Plus BC apresentou propriedades físico-químicas de tempo de presa, pH, liberação de íons cálcio, escoamento, radiopacidade de acordo com as normas exigidas, porém maior solubilidade que aquelas previstas pela ISO 6876:2012.

Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Silicates/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Materials Testing , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170215, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893700


Abstract Objective To evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris, percentage of foraminal enlargement and apical foramen (AF) deformation that occurred during root canal preparation with different reciprocation systems: Reciproc, WaveOne (M-Wire), and ProDesign R (Shape Memory Technology Wire) at two different working lengths (WLs): 0.0 and 1.0 mm beyond the AF. Material and methods The AF of 120 root canals in 60 mesial roots of mandibular molars were photographed with stereomicroscope and randomly assigned into four groups: manual, Reciproc (REC), WaveOne (WO), and ProDesign R (PDR); subsequently, they were further subdivided according to the WL (n=15). Teeth were instrumented, coupled to a dual collecting chamber, and then another photograph of each AF was captured. Extrusion was analysed by determining the weight of extruded debris. Each AF diameter was measured in pre- and post-instrumentation images to determine deformation, which was analysed, and afterwards the final format of AFs was classified (circular/oval/deformed). Results We found no significant differences when analysing each system at different WLs. When considering each WL, REC and WO showed highest extrusion values (P<.05); for AF enlargement, differences were observed only for WO, when it was used beyond the AF; differences were observed among M-Wire groups beyond the AF (P<.05). AF deformation was observed in all groups; PDR showed the lowest AF deformation values at both WLs; M-Wire groups showed 50% strain beyond the AF. Conclusion Authors concluded that beyond the apical limit, the alloy and taper are important aspects when considering extrusion and deformation.

Humans , Titanium/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation/adverse effects , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Tooth Apex/chemistry , Nickel/chemistry , Reference Values , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Tooth Apex/anatomy & histology , Dental Instruments/adverse effects , Equipment Design