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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901785

ABSTRACT

Background@#In ABO-incompatible (ABOi) solid organ transplantation, the minimization and management of isoagglutinin (IA) against donor ABO antigens between before and two weeks after transplantation is important for preventing hyper-acute rejection. Several factors that can affect the IA titer have been reported. This is the first study to evaluate whether there are IA titer differences between kidney transplantation (KT) and liver transplantation (LT) recipients. @*Methods@#Thirty-eight KT and 32 LT type O recipients, who underwent ABOi KT or LT between March 2013 and March 2018, were enrolled consecutively. The IgM IA and IgG IA titers of the LT and KT recipients at different time points (initial, operation day [day-0], postoperative one week, four weeks, and one year) were evaluated. @*Results@#The LT recipients showed higher initial IgG IA titers than the KT recipients (P=0.01). This higher titer in the LT recipients persisted during the critical phase (from before transplantation to postoperative one week). The IgG and IgM IA titers were similar in the KT and LT recipients at postoperative four weeks. @*Conclusion@#The difference in IA titer between the underlying diseases should be considered in the desensitization protocol before ABOi SOT.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917536

ABSTRACT

Immune-related adverse events, including immune hemolytic anemia, have been reported in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. In particular, RBC autoantibodies are important because they can cause hemolytic anemia and interfere with pre-transfusion tests. On the other hand, there are few reports on the characteristics of RBC autoantibodies induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors in Korea. The medical history and laboratory results, including pretransfusion tests of ten patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors, were reviewed retrospectively. The median interval from the first administration of immune checkpoint inhibitors to the development of autoantibodies was 12 weeks. In eight patients, only cold autoantibodies were developed. Both warm and cold autoantibodies developed in one patient, and warm autoantibodies alone were detected in one patient.Of seven patients tested by a direct antiglobulin test, two were negative, and the remaining five were positive for IgG and negative for C3d. In conclusion, this study presented ten cases of autoantibody developments in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors and the possible relationship between the immune checkpoint inhibitors and RBC autoantibody development. Further comprehensive studies will be needed to elucidate this relationship.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894081

ABSTRACT

Background@#In ABO-incompatible (ABOi) solid organ transplantation, the minimization and management of isoagglutinin (IA) against donor ABO antigens between before and two weeks after transplantation is important for preventing hyper-acute rejection. Several factors that can affect the IA titer have been reported. This is the first study to evaluate whether there are IA titer differences between kidney transplantation (KT) and liver transplantation (LT) recipients. @*Methods@#Thirty-eight KT and 32 LT type O recipients, who underwent ABOi KT or LT between March 2013 and March 2018, were enrolled consecutively. The IgM IA and IgG IA titers of the LT and KT recipients at different time points (initial, operation day [day-0], postoperative one week, four weeks, and one year) were evaluated. @*Results@#The LT recipients showed higher initial IgG IA titers than the KT recipients (P=0.01). This higher titer in the LT recipients persisted during the critical phase (from before transplantation to postoperative one week). The IgG and IgM IA titers were similar in the KT and LT recipients at postoperative four weeks. @*Conclusion@#The difference in IA titer between the underlying diseases should be considered in the desensitization protocol before ABOi SOT.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785393

ABSTRACT

Methods for reproducibly isolating and enriching small extracellular vesicles (EVs) from blood are essential for clinical utilization of small EVs in cancer patients. We combined ultracentrifugation (UC) with polymer-based precipitation (ExoQuick [EQ] or Total Exosome Isolation [TEI] kit) to isolate small EVs (diameter, 30–150 nm) from the serum of breast cancer patients. We compared the performance of four cycles of UC (UC4x) with that of two cycles of UC followed by enrichment using the EQ (UC2x→EQ) or TEI (UC2x→TEI) kits. The mean concentration of small EVs isolated from 1 mL of serum using UC2x→EQ (139.0±29.1 µg) and UC2x→TEI (140.4±5.0 µg) did not differ from that obtained using UC4x (141.8±26.9 µg). The mean number of EV particles obtained using UC4x was 29.2±9.9×109 per mL of serum, whereas UC2x→EQ and UC2x→TEI yielded higher numbers of EVs (50.7±17.0×10⁹ and 59.3±20.6×10⁹, respectively). Concentrations of EV microRNAs, including miR-21 and miR-155, did not differ between the three methods. In conclusion, performing UC prior to the use of polymer-based precipitation kits could be feasible for isolating small EVs from human serum in large sample-based translational researches.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , MicroRNAs , Translational Medical Research , Ultracentrifugation
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901774

ABSTRACT

The Korean Journal of Blood Transfusion (KJBT) is a representative journal in the field of transfusion medicine and has contributed to the development of the national blood business and clinical research. The KJBT was selected as a candidate journal registered in the Korea Citation Index (KCI) in 2009 and was selected as a KCI-registered journal in 2016. The KJBT has published 796 articles, including 601 original articles and 144 case reports from the first issue to volume 31, number 2. The KJBT has continuously introduced new tools for improving journals but was assessed as having a high self-citation rate because of the characteristics of the journal. Nevertheless, it is necessary to increase the number of papers to improve the value of the KJBT. To accomplish this, continuous efforts of the editorial committee will be needed to provide better services to authors and readers and to promote journals.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901768

ABSTRACT

Cis-AB and B(A) alleles encode an ABO enzyme with dual A and B glycosyltransferase activity. Although globally rare, the cis-AB phenotype is found relatively often in Korean, Japanese, and Chinese populations. Cases of the B(A) allele have been reported mostly in the Chinese population. Forward typing performed in a Cambodian woman with an ABO discrepancy demonstrated a strong reaction with anti-A and anti-B reagents, while there was no reaction with lectin anti-A 1. The anti-A 1 antibody was detected in reverse typing. Through ABO gene sequence analyses of exons 6 and 7, one of the alleles was identified as ABO*B.01. In contrast, the other allele harboring a c.803G>C substitution was either ABO*cisAB.05 or ABO*BA.06 allele. The ABO*cisAB.05 and ABO*BA.06 alleles remain indistinguishable despite routine serological testing and ABO genotyping. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first case report of these variants discovered in a Cambodian individual residing in Korea.

8.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 326-329, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902674

ABSTRACT

Weak D and partial D result in quantitative and qualitative changes in RhD protein expression respectively. It is difficult to discriminate weak D from partial D by serological tests alone. RHD genotyping is a useful method that complements serological results. A 64-year-old woman visited our hospital for microvascular decompression surgery. Her blood type was O, D negative by manual tube test and as per auto analyzer results (QWALYS-3 system; DIAGAST, France). Weak D and partial D tests were performed by using two different monoclonal anti-D reagents (Bioscot; Merck Millipore, UK; Bioclone; Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, USA) and a panel of nine monoclonal antibodies, including anti-D IgM and IgG (D-Screen; DIAGAST, France). However, these serological tests could not confirm the subtype of partial D. Therefore, sequencing of RHD exon 1 to 10 was additionally performed for the patient and the case was revealed to be partial DVI type 3.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811093

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836489

ABSTRACT

Weak D type 102 allele (RHD*01W.102) carrying a missense variant (c.73A>T, p.Ile25Phe) in exon 1 of the RHD has not been reported in Koreans to date. This is the first report of the weak D type 102 allele in the Korean population. The proposita, a 35-year-old woman, showed a serological weak D phenotype in routine RhD typing. Sequencing of all 10 RHD exons and zygosity testing targeting the hybrid Rhesus box revealed this proposita to harbor the weak D type 102 allele, as well as an RHD deletion (RHD*01W.102/RHD*01N.01). Family studies showed that the weak D type 102 allele was also present in her father and older brother (both assumed to be RHD*01W.102/RHD*01) but not in her mother and oldest brother (both assumed to be RHD*01/RHD*01N.01). In silico analysis of the replacement of isoleucine by phenylalanine at position 25 was done with PolyPhen-2, SIFT, and PROVEAN. While PolyPhen-2 predicted the variant as benign, SIFT and PROVEAN predicted it as damaging and deleterious, respectively, suggesting RHD c.73A>T (I25F) as the cause of serologic weak D phenotype. This patient should be treated as D-negative, when transfusion is needed.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830431

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological studies of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) have been conducted in limited geographical regions. Little is known about the prevalence of MBL in Asia. We investigated the prevalence and immunophenotypic characteristics of MBL in Koreans who had idiopathic lymphocytosis (lymphocyte count >4.0×109/L) and were ≥40 years of age. A total of 105 leftover peripheral blood samples met these criteria among those from 73,727 healthy individuals who visited the Health Promotion Center, Samsung Medical Center, Korea, from June 2018 to August 2019. The samples were analyzed using eight-color flow cytometry with the following monoclonal antibodies: CD45, CD5, CD10, CD19, CD20, CD23, and kappa and lambda light chains. The overall prevalence of MBL in the study population was 2.9% (3/105); there was one case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)-like MBL (CD5+CD23+), one case of atypical CLL-like MBL (CD5+CD23−), and one case of CD5−MBL with a lambda restriction pattern. This is the first study on the MBL prevalence in an East Asian population, and it reveals a relatively low prevalence of MBL in healthy Korean individuals with lymphocytosis.

12.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 326-329, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894970

ABSTRACT

Weak D and partial D result in quantitative and qualitative changes in RhD protein expression respectively. It is difficult to discriminate weak D from partial D by serological tests alone. RHD genotyping is a useful method that complements serological results. A 64-year-old woman visited our hospital for microvascular decompression surgery. Her blood type was O, D negative by manual tube test and as per auto analyzer results (QWALYS-3 system; DIAGAST, France). Weak D and partial D tests were performed by using two different monoclonal anti-D reagents (Bioscot; Merck Millipore, UK; Bioclone; Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, USA) and a panel of nine monoclonal antibodies, including anti-D IgM and IgG (D-Screen; DIAGAST, France). However, these serological tests could not confirm the subtype of partial D. Therefore, sequencing of RHD exon 1 to 10 was additionally performed for the patient and the case was revealed to be partial DVI type 3.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894070

ABSTRACT

The Korean Journal of Blood Transfusion (KJBT) is a representative journal in the field of transfusion medicine and has contributed to the development of the national blood business and clinical research. The KJBT was selected as a candidate journal registered in the Korea Citation Index (KCI) in 2009 and was selected as a KCI-registered journal in 2016. The KJBT has published 796 articles, including 601 original articles and 144 case reports from the first issue to volume 31, number 2. The KJBT has continuously introduced new tools for improving journals but was assessed as having a high self-citation rate because of the characteristics of the journal. Nevertheless, it is necessary to increase the number of papers to improve the value of the KJBT. To accomplish this, continuous efforts of the editorial committee will be needed to provide better services to authors and readers and to promote journals.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894064

ABSTRACT

Cis-AB and B(A) alleles encode an ABO enzyme with dual A and B glycosyltransferase activity. Although globally rare, the cis-AB phenotype is found relatively often in Korean, Japanese, and Chinese populations. Cases of the B(A) allele have been reported mostly in the Chinese population. Forward typing performed in a Cambodian woman with an ABO discrepancy demonstrated a strong reaction with anti-A and anti-B reagents, while there was no reaction with lectin anti-A 1. The anti-A 1 antibody was detected in reverse typing. Through ABO gene sequence analyses of exons 6 and 7, one of the alleles was identified as ABO*B.01. In contrast, the other allele harboring a c.803G>C substitution was either ABO*cisAB.05 or ABO*BA.06 allele. The ABO*cisAB.05 and ABO*BA.06 alleles remain indistinguishable despite routine serological testing and ABO genotyping. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first case report of these variants discovered in a Cambodian individual residing in Korea.

16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759595

ABSTRACT

Antibodies to high-incidence red blood cell antigens should be considered if panagglutination reactions are noted in all panel cells, and negative reactions to autologous red blood cells are detected on antibody screening and identification tests. In Korea, most of those antibodies are identified through international reference laboratories. To prevent a hemolytic transfusion reaction, antigen-negative red cells should be provided for those patients who have antibodies to red cell antigens. However, this is nearly impossible when the antibody has specificity to high-incidence red cell antigen. In those cases, transfusion of autologous blood, cryopreserved rare blood and the least incompatible blood components can be considered. In the case of surgery, acute normovolemic hemodilution or intraoperative blood salvage can also be considered. For the patients who have antibodies to high-incidence red cell antigens, it should be discussed to set up a national reference laboratory to quickly identify antibody specificities, and to consider establishing rare blood donor registry and frozen rare blood storage/supply system. This article reviews characteristics of antibodies to high-incidence antigens found in Koreans and also the transfusion experiences of those patients based on literature.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Antibody Specificity , Blood Donors , Erythrocytes , Hemodilution , Humans , Isoantibodies , Korea , Mass Screening , Operative Blood Salvage , Sensitivity and Specificity , Transfusion Reaction
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759588

ABSTRACT

D antigens are clinically significant, and routine tests on the D antigen requires the inclusion of weak D testing, which is performed using indirect antihuman immunoglobulin methods. On the other hand, exact typing of the D type of an individual can be done more precisely with RHD genotyping, which is a useful tool in cases where the RHD gene is intact. The majority of weak-D or partial-D cases are from single nucleotide changes or hybridization of RHD and RHCE genes. Nevertheless, frameshift mutations can also result in weak or partial-D. The characteristics of a frameshift mutation is typically a change in protein product after a problematic mutation and early termination of transcription, leading into truncated protein products. This paper reports a D-variant case with RHD 711delC along with a review of the relevant literature. In addition, the results of software analysis are reported.


Subject(s)
Frameshift Mutation , Genotype , Hand , Immunoglobulins
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759578

ABSTRACT

RHD genotyping is a useful adjunct to serologic testing. Although the use of RHD genotyping in the detection of Asia type DEL in serological D negative Koreans is gradually increasing, it is rarely requested for patients with a known weak D phenotype. This paper reports the first Korean case of a 52-year-old female patient with serologic weak D phenotype and weak D type 33 (c.520G>A at exon 4 of RHD) identified by RHD exon 1 to 10 sequencing. In silico analysis predicted that the RHD c.520G>A (V174M) results in a serologic weak D phenotype.


Subject(s)
Asia , Computer Simulation , Exons , Female , Humans , Korea , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Serologic Tests
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919157

ABSTRACT

In multiple myeloma (MM), the impaired function of several types of immune cells favors the tumor’s escape from immune surveillance and, therefore, its growth and survival. Tremendous improvements have been made in the treatment of MM over the past decade but cellular immunotherapy using dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and genetically engineered T-cells represent a new therapeutic era. The application of these treatments is growing rapidly, based on their capacity to eradicate MM. In this review, we summarize recent progress in cellular immunotherapy for MM and its future prospects.

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