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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834582

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study was conducted to explore recent trends in the prevalence of pediatric elevated blood pressure and hypertension (HTN) in Korea and the United States, applying the new HTN reference values for adolescents. @*Methods@#This study analyzed 17 339 (8755 Korean and 8584 American) adolescents aged 10 to 17 who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, respectively, between 2005 and 2016. HTN was defined using percentile-based reference values for non-overweight adolescents from 7 nations, and obesity was defined by body mass index (BMI) based on country-specific growth charts. All analyses were stratified by sex and year-over-year changes were evaluated by calculating the p for trend. @*Results@#Systolic blood pressure showed a statistically meaningful upward trend in Korean boys and girls, while diastolic blood pressure did not show any significant changes. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels declined among United States boys and girls. The prevalence of elevated blood pressure and HTN remained similar in Korean adolescents, but declined in both sexes among United States adolescents. BMI increased in both sexes among Korean adolescents, although the overweight and obesity rates stayed the same. No significant trends were found in any obesity indices among United States adolescents. The prevalence of elevated blood pressure and HTN by obesity level was higher among Korean adolescents than among their United States peers in both sexes, and the gap became higher at more severe levels of obesity. @*Conclusions@#Despite the strong correlation between obesity and HTN, recent trends in the prevalence of HTN and obesity among Korean and United States adolescents were strikingly different. Follow-up studies are necessary to determine why the prevalence of HTN was more than twice as high among Korean adolescents than among their United States counterparts.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832377

ABSTRACT

Background@#Low-dose persistent organic pollutants (POPs), especially organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), have emerged as a new risk factor of many chronic diseases. As serum concentrations of POPs in humans are mainly determined by both their release from adipose tissue to circulation and their elimination from circulation, management of these internal pathways may be important in controlling the serum concentrations of POPs. As habitual physical activity can increase the elimination of POPs from circulation, we evaluated whether chronic physical activity is related to low serum POP concentrations. @*Methods@#A cross-sectional study of 1,850 healthy adults (age ≥20 years) without cardio-metabolic diseases who participated in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2004 was conducted. Information on moderate or vigorous leisure-time physical activity was obtained based on questionnaires. Serum concentrations of OCPs and polychlorinated biphenyls were investigated as typical POPs. @*Results@#Serum concentrations of OCPs among physically active subjects were significantly lower than those among physically inactive subjects (312.8 ng/g lipid vs. 538.0 ng/g lipid, P<0.001). This difference was maintained after adjustment for potential confounders. When analyses were restricted to physically active subjects, there were small decreases in the serum concentrations of OCPs with increasing duration of physical activity, showing a curvilinear relationship over the whole range of physical activity (Pquadratic <0.001). In analyses stratified by age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status, a strong inverse association was similarly observed among all subgroups. @*Conclusion@#Physical activity may assist in decreasing serum concentrations of lipophilic chemical mixtures such as OCPs.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831603

ABSTRACT

Background@#Seroprevalence studies of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from many countries have shown that the number of undiagnosed missing cases is much larger than that of confirmed cases, irrespective of seroprevalence levels. Considering the strategy of Korea entailing massive testing and contact tracing from the beginning of epidemic, the number of undiagnosed missing cases in Korea may be negligible. This study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of COVID-19 among individuals who were never diagnosed with COVID-19 in Daegu, the epicenter of COVID-19 epidemic in Korea. @*Methods@#Serologic testing for immunoglobulin G antibody based on immunochromatographic assay was conducted in 103 patients and 95 guardians aged 18 to 82 years without any history of COVID-19 diagnosis, who visited outpatient clinics of a single university-affiliated hospital from May 25 to June 5, 2020. @*Results@#The estimated seroprevalence was 7.6% (95% confidence interval, 4.3%–12.2%) with 15 positive cases. Among them, only one had a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed case among their close contacts and 13 did not experience COVID-19-related symptoms. Seroprevalence was similar between patients and guardians. Based on this figure, the number of undiagnosed missing cases in Daegu was estimated to be a dozen times more than the number of confirmed cases based on PCR testing. @*Conclusion@#Despite the limitation of a small and unrepresentative sample, this is the first study on seroprevalence of COVID-19 in Korea. Our study suggested that the number of undiagnosed missing cases was substantial even with the stringent strategy adopted in Korea, similar to that of other countries.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lack of sunlight exposure is the primary reason for the worldwide epidemic of vitamin D deficiency. Although recommended sunlight exposure guidelines exist, there is no evidence regarding whether current guidelines are optimal for increasing vitamin D levels among individuals with vitamin D deficiency.METHODS: Sixty Korean adults aged 20–49 years with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels of < 20 ng/mL were randomly assigned to three groups: sunlight exposure (n = 20), vitamin D supplementation groups (n = 20), and daily living (n = 20) for 1 month. The sunlight exposure group had sunlight exposure on 20% to 30% of their body surface areas for 30–60 minutes per day, 3 times a week during the summer season. Vitamin D supplementation was prescribed with 800 IU/day of vitamin D. The serum levels of 25(OH)D were measured at baseline and at 1-month follow-up examinations.RESULTS: The largest change in serum 25(OH)D was observed among the vitamin D supplementation group (+3.5 ng/mL, P < 0.001). The sunlight exposure group showed a slight increase in serum 25(OH)D level, but the absolute increase was less than one-third that of the vitamin D supplementation group (+0.9 ng/mL, P = 0.043). Only two participants in the sunlight exposure reached serum concentrations of 25(OH)D ≥ 20 ng/mL at follow-up. The daily living group showed no difference in vitamin D levels (−0.7 ng/mL, P = 0.516).CONCLUSION: Sunlight exposure was not sufficient to overcome vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the current study subjects. Effectiveness of current sunlight exposure guidelines among various populations should be reassessed in larger clinical studies.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0002671


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Surface Area , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Information Services , Seasons , Solar System , Sunlight , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , Vitamins
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763689

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial function is crucial for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis under physiological and stress conditions. Thus, chronic exposure to environmental chemicals that affect mitochondrial function can have harmful effects on humans. We argue that the concept of hormesis should be revisited to explain the non-linear responses to mitochondrial toxins at a low-dose range and develop practical methods to protect humans from the negative effects of mitochondrial toxins. Of the most concern to humans are lipophilic chemical mixtures and heavy metals, owing to their physical properties. Even though these chemicals tend to demonstrate no safe level in humans, a non-linear dose-response has been also observed. Stress response activation, i.e., hormesis, can explain this non-linearity. Recently, hormesis has reemerged as a unifying concept because diverse stressors can induce similar stress responses. Besides potentially harmful environmental chemicals, healthy lifestyle interventions such as exercise, calorie restriction (especially glucose), cognitive stimulation, and phytochemical intake also activate stress responses. This conceptual link can lead to the development of practical methods that counterbalance the harm of mitochondrial toxins. Unlike chemical hormesis with its safety issues, the activation of stress responses via lifestyle modification can be safely used to combat the negative effects of mitochondrial toxins.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Pollutants , Homeostasis , Hormesis , Humans , Life Style , Metals, Heavy , Mitochondria , Nonlinear Dynamics , Organic Chemicals
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713489

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a significant public health problem worldwide. Suicide rates among elderly persons (≥ 65 years of age) are three times higher than those of younger people in Korea. The emergency department is an important entry of drug-related suicide attempt patients. In this study, we compared the frequency of drug types by age subgroup. Furthermore, we provide suggestions for preventing suicide attempts in the elderly. METHODS: We investigated 433 patients who were admitted to the emergency department for drug-related suicide attempts between 1 May 2015 and 30 April 2017. RESULTS: The proportion of patients who overdosed on antidepressants was 32.5% in the non-elderly age group and 8.0% in the elderly group (≥ 65 years of age) (P < 0.001). Among the elderly, the most commonly ingested agent was hypnotics (59.1%) (P < 0.001). Compared with the non-elderly, the results showed that the elderly used fewer antidepressants (P < 0.001) and analgesics (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, the elderly used more hypnotics (P < 0.001). Over-the-counter drugs and other medications showed similar usage trends in both age groups (P = 0.664, P = 0.193). CONCLUSION: The categories of drugs ingested for suicide attempts vary widely between different age groups. Younger people used antidepressants more frequently in suicide attempts, while the elderly used hypnotics more frequently. And the elderly required longer hospital stays. Suicide ideation and depressive mood in older patients who are prescribed hypnotics for various reasons should not be neglected. Further prevention efforts are needed to prevent suicide among the elderly.


Subject(s)
Aged , Analgesics , Antidepressive Agents , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Korea , Length of Stay , Nonprescription Drugs , Public Health , Suicide
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713176

ABSTRACT

Evidence has emerged that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can produce adverse effects, even at low doses that are assumed safe. However, systemic reviews and meta-analyses focusing on human studies, especially of EDCs with short half-lives, have demonstrated inconsistent results. Epidemiological studies have insuperable methodological limitations, including the unpredictable net effects of mixtures, non-monotonic dose-response relationships, the non-existence of unexposed groups, and the low reliability of exposure assessment. Thus, despite increases in EDC-linked diseases, traditional epidemiological studies based on individual measurements of EDCs in bio-specimens may fail to provide consistent results. The exposome has been suggested as a promising approach to address the uncertainties surrounding human studies, but it is never free from these methodological issues. Although exposure to EDCs during critical developmental periods is a major concern, continuous exposure to EDCs during non-critical periods is also harmful. Indeed, the evolutionary aspects of epigenetic programming triggered by EDCs during development should be considered because it is a key mechanism for developmental plasticity. Presently, living without EDCs is impossible due to their omnipresence. Importantly, there are lifestyles which can increase the excretion of EDCs or mitigate their harmful effects through the activation of mitohormesis or xenohormesis. Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions should be evaluated as practical ways against EDCs in the real world.


Subject(s)
Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology , Epigenomics , Humans , Life Style , Plastics
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715055

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Several abbreviated versions of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) have been developed and are widely used in clinical settings. In this study, we provide evidence supporting the use of abbreviated versions of AUDIT by comparing the utility of various abbreviated versions and determining cut-off values for the population of South Korea. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 4th to 6th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. After calculating the whole AUDIT score, we applied the cut-off value of at-risk drinking proposed by the World Health Organization and divided the study sample into normal and at-risk drinking groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn for AUDIT-3rd question (Q3) alone, AUDIT-quantity and frequency (QF), AUDIT-consumption (C), AUDIT-4, and AUDIT-primary clinic (PC), and optimal cut-off values were obtained for each group. RESULTS: A total of 46,450 subjects were analyzed. The at-risk drinking group comprised 29.2% of all subjects. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of the abbreviated versions of AUDIT increased from 0.954 to 0.991 as the number of questions increased from one to four. The differences in AUROC between the abbreviated versions of AUDIT were statistically significant. The most appropriate cut-off values for AUDIT-Q3 alone, AUDIT-QF, AUDIT-C, AUDIT-4, and AUDIT-PC for adults over age 19 were 2, 4, 5, 6, and 4 points, respectively. CONCLUSION: As the number of items analyzed increased from one to four items, the AUROC increased to a statistically significant level. Cut-off values for abbreviated versions of AUDIT are similar in South Korea to other countries.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alcohol-Related Disorders , Alcoholism , Drinking , Humans , Korea , Nutrition Surveys , ROC Curve , World Health Organization
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714801

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Several abbreviated versions of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) have been developed and used widely in clinical settings. This paper provides evidence supporting the use of abbreviated versions of AUDIT by comparing the utility of various abbreviated versions and determining the cut-off values for the population of South Korea. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 4th to 6th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. After calculating the whole AUDIT score, the cut-off value of at-risk drinking proposed by the World Health Organization was applied and the study sample was divided into normal and at-risk drinking groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn for the AUDIT-3rd question (Q3) alone, AUDIT-quantity and frequency (QF), AUDIT-consumption (C), AUDIT-4, and AUDIT-primary clinic (PC), and the optimal cut-off values were obtained for each group. RESULTS: A total of 46,450 subjects were analyzed. The at-risk drinking group comprised 29.2% of all subjects. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of the abbreviated versions of AUDIT increased from 0.954 to 0.991 as the number of questions was increased from one to four. The differences in the AUROC between the abbreviated versions of AUDIT were statistically significant. The most appropriate cut-off values for AUDIT-Q3 alone, AUDIT-QF, AUDIT-C, AUDIT-4, and AUDIT-PC for adults over age 19 were 2, 4, 5, 6, and 4 points, respectively. CONCLUSION: As the number of items analyzed increased from one to four, the AUROC increased to a statistically significant level. The cut-off values for the abbreviated versions of AUDIT were similar in South Korea to other countries.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alcohol-Related Disorders , Alcoholism , Drinking , Humans , Korea , Nutrition Surveys , ROC Curve , World Health Organization
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716319

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Body Weight
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61404

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Activated charcoal (AC) has been widely used as a universal antidote. Currently, emergency medical centers in Korea cannot administer AC due to discontinuation of the supply of commercial ready-mixed AC suspension. This study was conducted to investigate the proportion of emergency medical centers that administer AC to poisoning patients and provide basic information for emergency physicians and toxicologists. METHODS: A prospective telephone survey of all of the included emergency medical institutions was conducted. The type of emergency medical institution, average annual number of patients admitted to the emergency department, annual average number of patients who were poisoned and whether the hospital currently utilizes gastric lavage and administration of AC were determined. RESULTS: AC was administered to poisoning patients in 40% of regional emergency medical centers, 59.3% of local emergency medical centers, and 45.9% of local emergency medical rooms. Overall, 37% of total emergency medical institutions did not administer AC due to discontinuation of the commercial ready-mixed AC suspension. Additionally, 77% of emergency physicians in institutions without AC knew AC is necessary for poisoning patients. The rate of vomiting experienced by the medical staff according to types of charcoal showed that the average rate of vomiting was 33% for commercial ready-mixed activated charcoal suspension and 51% for self-prepared charcoal powder (p=0.02). CONCLUSION: AC should be secured promptly in emergency medical institutions. Before the supply of commercial ready-mixed AC suspension becomes again it is essential to develop a standardized regimen for self-preparation of charcoal powder and to educate emergency physicians and toxicologists to its use.


Subject(s)
Charcoal , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Gastric Lavage , Humans , Korea , Medical Staff , Poisoning , Prospective Studies , Telephone , Vomiting
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135454

ABSTRACT

There are substantial variations of relative risks (RR) in smoking-related mortality by country and time. We hypothesized the RRs in smoking-related mortality might differ depending on serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). We evaluated the associations of cigarette smoking with total mortality in 610 elderly (aged > or = 70 yr) (702 elderly for organochlorine pesticides [OCPs]) after stratification by serum concentration of POPs, in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 followed through 2006. Summary measures of POPs subclasses showed significant or marginally significant interaction with cigarette smoking on the risk of total mortality. P values for interaction were 0.069 for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 0.008 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 0.024 for OCPs. The effect of smoking on total mortality showed different patterns according to the serum concentration of some POPs. Former or current smokers had 1.4 to 2.9 times higher mortality rates compared with never smokers among participants with higher serum concentrations of POPs (2nd or 3rd tertiles). However, when the level of PCBs or OCPs were low (1st tertile), there were little positive associations between smoking and mortality. Our study suggests that the background exposure to several POPs may be related to variability in smoking-related total mortality.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Pollutants/blood , Female , Humans , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/blood , Male , Nutrition Surveys , Pesticides/blood , Polychlorinated Biphenyls/blood , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk , Smoking/mortality , Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/analogs & derivatives
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135451

ABSTRACT

There are substantial variations of relative risks (RR) in smoking-related mortality by country and time. We hypothesized the RRs in smoking-related mortality might differ depending on serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). We evaluated the associations of cigarette smoking with total mortality in 610 elderly (aged > or = 70 yr) (702 elderly for organochlorine pesticides [OCPs]) after stratification by serum concentration of POPs, in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 followed through 2006. Summary measures of POPs subclasses showed significant or marginally significant interaction with cigarette smoking on the risk of total mortality. P values for interaction were 0.069 for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 0.008 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 0.024 for OCPs. The effect of smoking on total mortality showed different patterns according to the serum concentration of some POPs. Former or current smokers had 1.4 to 2.9 times higher mortality rates compared with never smokers among participants with higher serum concentrations of POPs (2nd or 3rd tertiles). However, when the level of PCBs or OCPs were low (1st tertile), there were little positive associations between smoking and mortality. Our study suggests that the background exposure to several POPs may be related to variability in smoking-related total mortality.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Pollutants/blood , Female , Humans , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/blood , Male , Nutrition Surveys , Pesticides/blood , Polychlorinated Biphenyls/blood , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk , Smoking/mortality , Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/analogs & derivatives
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100597

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare liver function indices (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and gamma glutamyl transferase [GGT]) among males who work with lead, organic solvents, or both lead and organic solvents, under the permissible exposure limit (PEL). METHODS: A total of 593 (out of 2,218) male workers who agreed to share their personal health information for medical research were selected for this study. Those excluded were hepatitis B carriers, individuals exposed to occupational risk factors other than lead and organic solvents, and individuals without liver function results. The 593 were divided into five groups: a lead-exposed group, an organic solvent-exposed group exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE co-exposed solvent group), an organic solvent-exposed group not exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE non-exposed solvent group), a lead and organic solvent-exposed group (mixed exposure group), and a non-exposed group (control group). We performed a one way-analysis of variance (one way-ANOVA) test to compare the geometric means of liver function indices among the groups, using a general linear model (GLM) to adjust for age, work duration, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol intake. In addition, we performed a binary logistic regression analysis to compare the odds ratios among groups with an abnormal liver function index, according to a cut-off value. RESULTS: The ALT and AST of the mixed exposure group were higher than those of the other groups. The GGT of the mixed exposure group was higher than the TCE co-exposed solvent group, but there was no difference among the control group, TCE non-exposed solvent group, lead-exposed group, and mixed exposure group. The same result was evident after adjusting by GLM for age, work duration, BMI, smoking, and alcohol intake, except that ALT from the mixed exposure group showed no difference from the TCE co-exposed solvent group. When the cut-off values of the AST, ALT, and GGT were 40 IU/L, 42 IU/L, and 63 IU/L, respectively, a logistic regression analysis showed no differences in the odds ratios of those who had an abnormal liver function index among the groups. However, if the cut-off values of the AST, ALT, and GGT were 30 IU/L, 30 IU/L, and 40 IU/L, respectively, the odds ratio of the AST in the mixed exposure group was 4.39 (95% CI 1.86-10.40) times higher than the control. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that a mixed exposure to lead and organic solvents is dangerous, even if each single exposure is safe under the permissible exposure limit. Therefore, to ensure occupational health and safety in industry, a continuous efforts to study the effects from exposure to mixed chemicals is needed.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Body Mass Index , Hepatitis B , Humans , Linear Models , Liver Function Tests , Liver , Logistic Models , Male , Occupational Health , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Solvents , Transferases , Trichloroethylene
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226764

ABSTRACT

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) include a variety of chemicals with different structures. Disruption of the complicated endocrine system by these chemicals has been suspected to affect the health of wildlife and humans. Exposure to EDCs has been linked to malformations of the genital tract, alterations in reproduction, some cancers in the reproductive organs, and changes in neurodevelopment and behavior for several decades even though the evidence from experimental or human studies is not completely consistent. On the other hand, the growing body of recent evidence has strongly suggested that EDCs may contribute to the development of obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions like type 2 diabetes. EDCs may be involved in the pathogenesis of various chronic diseases, particularly obesity-related diseases, which have increased with industrialization. However, the complicated characteristics of EDCs like non-linear dose-response relationships and mixture effects hamper researchers from obtaining consistent results from experimental or human studies. More basic and clinical studies should be performed in order to understand the health effects of EDCs, including the effects on the epigenome, developmental programming, transgenerational effects, and crosstalk among endocrine systems and metabolic and immune systems. Also, researchers need to keep in mind that traditional approaches may not be satisfactory in studying the health effects of EDCs. Considering the complexity of EDCs, a precautionary approach should be applied to the field of EDCs. Any effort to decrease exposure to EDCs would be beneficial in the prevention and control of various diseases.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Endocrine Disruptors , Endocrine System , Hand , Humans , Immune System , Obesity , Reproduction
16.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2012002-2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721175

ABSTRACT

Even though obesity is a well-established risk factor of type 2 diabetes, there is emerging evidence that persistent organic pollutants (POPs), a variety of lipophilic chemicals accumulated in adipose tissue, may be critically involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Among various POPs, serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the most strongly and consistently linked to type 2 diabetes in both cross-sectional and prospective studies. In particular, obesity did not seem to be related to type 2 diabetes among persons with very low serum concentrations of POPs, suggesting a more fundamental role of chlorinated POPs in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. These POPs were also associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and adverse lipid profiles like high triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol among persons without diabetes, all metabolic dysfunctions commonly observed before developing type 2 diabetes. Recent animal studies supported the findings from epidemiological studies. If all these findings on POPs are true, it suggests that any effort to reduce the external and internal exposure to POPs would be necessary to decrease the social burden of type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Animals , Cholesterol , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Lipoproteins , Obesity , Pesticides , Polychlorinated Biphenyls , Risk Factors
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74825

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Even though several epidemiological studies have observed positive associations between blood lead levels and homocysteine, no study has examined whether this association differs by the levels of micronutrients, such as folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, which are involved in the metabolism of homocysteine. In this study, we examined the interactions between micronutrients and blood lead on homocysteine levels. METHODS: This study was performed with 4089 adults aged > or =20 years old in the US general population using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004. RESULTS: There were significant or marginally significant interactions between micronutrients and blood lead levels on mean homocysteine levels. Positive associations between blood lead and homocysteine were clearly observed among subjects with low levels of folate or low vitamin B6 (p-trend 15 micromol/L) as the outcome, there were similar patterns of interaction, though p-values for each interaction failed to reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: In the current study, the association between blood lead and homocysteine differed based on the levels of folate, vitamin B6, or vitamin B12 present in the blood. It may be important to keep sufficient levels of these micronutrients to prevent the possible harmful effects of lead exposure on homocysteine levels.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Folic Acid/blood , Homocysteine/blood , Humans , Lead/blood , Male , Micronutrients/blood , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , Odds Ratio , United States , Vitamin B 12/blood , Vitamin B 6/blood
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-111474

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Even though experimental studies have suggested that iron can be involved in generating oxidative stress, epidemiologic studies on the association of markers of body iron stores with cardiovascular disease or cancer remain controversial. This study was performed to examine the association of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation (%TS) with all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality. METHODS: The study subjects were men aged 50 years or older and postmenopausal women of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1994. Participants were followed-up for mortality through December 31, 2006. RESULTS: Serum ferritin was not associated with all-cause, cancer, or cardiovascular mortality for either men or postmenopausal women. However, all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality were inversely associated with %TS in men. Compared with men in the lowest quintile, adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality were 0.85, 0.86, 0.76, and 0.74 (p for trend < 0.01), 0.82, 0.73, 0.75, and 0.63 (p for trend < 0.01), and 0.86, 0.81, 0.72, and 0.76 (p for trend < 0.01), respectively. For postmenopausal women, inverse associations were also observed for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, but cancer mortality showed the significantly lower mortality only in the 2nd quintile of %TS compared with that of the 1st quintile. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike speculation on the role of iron from experimental studies, %TS was inversely associated with all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality in men and postmenopausal women. On the other hand, serum ferritin was not associated with all-cause, cancer, or cardiovascular mortality.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cause of Death , Female , Ferritins/blood , Follow-Up Studies , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/mortality , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Transferrins/blood
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23566

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Chronic inflammation is now thought to play a key pathogenetic role in the associations of obesity with insulin resistance and diabetes. Based on our recent findings on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including the lack of an association between obesity and either insulin resistance or diabetes prevalence among subjects with very low concentrations of POPs, we hypothesized that POP concentrations may be associated with inflammation and modify the associations between inflammation and insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects. METHODS: Cross-sectional associations among serum POPs, C-reactive protein (CRP), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were investigated in 748 non-diabetic participants aged > or =20 years. Nineteen types of POPs in 5 subclasses were selected because the POPs were detectable in > or =60% of the participants. RESULTS: Among the five subclasses of POPs, only organochlorine (OC) pesticides showed positive associations with CRP concentrations, while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) showed inverse associations with CRP concentrations. There were statistically significant interactions between CRP and OC pesticides and between CRP and PCBs, in estimating HOMA-IR (P for interaction <0.01 and <0.01, respectively). CRP was not associated with HOMA-IR among subjects with low concentrations of OC pesticides or PCBs, while CRP was strongly associated with HOMA-IR among subjects with high concentrations of these POPs. CONCLUSIONS: In the current study, OC pesticides were associated with increased levels of CRP, a marker of inflammation, and both OC pesticides and PCBs may also modify the associations between CRP and insulin resistance.


Subject(s)
Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/adverse effects , Inflammation/chemically induced , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , Pesticides/adverse effects , Polychlorinated Biphenyls/adverse effects
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20132

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The optimal dose of oximes for use in the treatment of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning has not been conclusively established. In this retrospective study, we assessed the effectiveness of the use of high-dose pralidoxime infusion in treating organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. METHODS: From January 1998 to December 2009, 71 patients visited the hospital Emergency Department (ED) as a result of organophosphate pesticide intoxication. All of these patients received an initial bolus of 2 g of pralidoxime as the first step of treatment. Patients who then received continuous infusion of pralidoxime at a dose of 500 mg/hr were entered into study group 1 (low dose), and those treated by continuous infusion of pralidoxime at a dose of 1000 mg/hr were entered into study group 2 (high-dose). Plasma cholinesterase activities for each patient were evaluated at ED arrival and re-evaluated 24 hours after pralidoxime infusion. The effectiveness of the two treatment modalities was gauged by comparing the required duration of mechanical ventilation, time spent in the intensive care unit (ICU) and total time spent in the hospital. RESULTS: The mean duration of mechanical ventilation was 9.98+/-6.47 days for group 1 and 4.39+/-6.44 days for group 2. The respective mean duration of time spent in ICU and the total number of days in the hospital were 16.38+/-18.84 days and 21.87+/-20.16 days for group 1, and 7.83+/-9.99 days and 11.71+/-13.53 days for group 2. High-dose pralidoxime treatment was associated with shorter required durations for mechanical ventilation, ICU and hospital stay. In addition, plasma cholinesterase reactivation rates were higher for those patients receiving high-dose pralidoxime treatment. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that high-dose pralidoxime treatment has greater efficacy for patients suffering from organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.


Subject(s)
Cholinesterases , Emergencies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Organophosphates , Oximes , Plasma , Pralidoxime Compounds , Resin Cements , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Stress, Psychological
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