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1.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 32-48, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966698

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to compare recommendations of the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder 2022 (KMAP-BP 2022) with other recently published guidelines for treating bipolar disorder. We reviewed a total of six recently published global treatment guidelines and compared treatment recommendation of the KMAP-BP 2022 with those of other guidelines. For initial treatment of mania, there were no significant differences across treatment guidelines. All guidelines recommended mood stabilizer (MS) or atypical antipsychotic (AAP) monotherapy or a combination of an MS with an AAP as a first-line treatment strategy in a same degree for mania. However, the KMAP-BP 2022 recommended MS + AAP combination therapy for psychotic mania, mixed mania and psychotic depression as treatment of choice. Aripiprazole, quetiapine and olanzapine were the first-line AAPs for nearly all phases of bipolar disorder across guidelines. Some guideline suggested olanzapine is a second-line options during maintenance treatment, related to concern about long-term tolerability. Most guidelines advocated newer AAPs (asenapine, cariprazine, long-acting injectable risperidone, and aripiprazole once monthly) as first-line treatment options for all phases while lamotrigine was recommended for depressive and maintenance phases. Lithium and valproic acid were commonly used as MSs in all phases of bipolar disorder. KMAP-BP 2022 guidelines were similar to other guidelines, reflecting current changes in prescription patterns for bipolar disorder based on accumulated research data. Strong preference for combination therapy was characteristic of KMAP-BP 2022, predominantly in the treatment of psychotic mania, mixed mania and psychotic depression.

2.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 188-196, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966683

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) is a relatively specific test for bipolar disorders designed to assess the main functioning problems experienced by patients. This brief instrument includes 24 items assessing impairment or disability in 6 domains of functioning: autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning, financial issues, interpersonal relationships, and leisure time. It has already been translated into standardized versions in several languages. The aim of this study is to measure the validity and reliability of the Korean version of FAST (K-FAST). @*Methods@#A total of 209 bipolar disorder patients were recruited from 14 centers in Korea. K-FAST, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument Brief Form (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered, and psychometric analysis of the K-FAST was conducted. @*Results@#The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) of the K-FAST was 0.95. Test-retest reliability analysis showed a strong correlation between the two measures assessed at a 1-week interval (ICC = 0.97; p < 0.001). The K-FAST exhibited significant correlations with GAF (r = −0.771), WHOQOL-BREF (r = −0.326), YMRS (r = 0.509) and BDRS (r = 0.598). A strong negative correlation with GAF pointed to a reasonable degree of concurrent validity. Although the exploratory factor analysis showed four factors, the confirmatory factor analysis of questionnaires had a good fit for a six factors model (CFI = 0.925; TLI = 0.912; RMSEA = 0.078). @*Conclusion@#The K-FAST has good psychometric properties, good internal consistency, and can be applicable and acceptable to the Korean context.

3.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 447-456, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000108

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To develop an evidence-based guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia by adapting existing high-quality clinical guidelines with a view to improve the clinical symptoms and long-term quality of life of patients by providing appropriate management. @*Methods@#This guideline was developed according to the ADAPTE methodology. The adaptation process included determining key health questions, systematically searching and screening guidelines, evaluating the quality and contents of these guidelines, deriving recommendations for key questions, and performing a peer review. The selection criteria for the guideline search were (1) evidence-based guidelines, (2) published within the last 5 years, and (3) written in English or Korean. @*Results@#After evaluating the quality and content, we finally selected three guidelines for adaptation. The final output of the development process was 25 recommendations for 10 key questions. We adopted the Agency for Health Research Quality methodology and presented the level of evidence from levels I to IV. In addition, we defined the recommendation grades from grade A (strongly recommended) to D (no recommendation) based on the level of evidence and clinical significance of the recommendation. @*Conclusion@#The development and dissemination of the adapted guideline is expected to increase the certainty of medical decision making and improve the quality of medical care. Further studies on the effectiveness and applicability of the developed guideline are necessary.

4.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 98-109, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926005

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The pharmacotherapy of bipolar disorder is complex. A treatment guideline or algorithm can help clinicians implement better practices and clinical decisions. Therefore, the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was revised through expert consensus on pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder. @*Methods@#We revised the KMAP-BP 2018 questionnaire and conducted a survey of expert clinicians. Out of ninety-three members of the review committee, eighty-seven completed the survey. We analyzed the answers, discussed the data, and held a clinician hearing. Here, we report the results from KMAP-BP 2022. @*Results@#The preferred first-step strategies for acute euphoric mania are a combination of a mood stabilizer (MS) and an atypical antipsychotic (AAP), MS monotherapy, and AAP monotherapy. For psychotic mania, an MS and AAP combination, and AAP monotherapy are preferred. For hypomania, MS monotherapy and AAP monotherapy are preferred. The first-step strategies for mild to moderate bipolar depression are MS monotherapy, lamotrigine (LMT) monotherapy, AAP monotherapy, an MS+AAP combination, and an AAP+LMT combination. For non-psychotic severe depression, the MS+AAP combination, the AAP+LMT combination, and the MS+LMT combination are preferred. For psychotic severe depression, MS+AAP and AAP+LMT are preferred. @*Conclusion@#We obtained expert consensus and developed KMAP-BP 2022. Compared with KMAP-BP 2018, we can figure out clinicians’ preferences and decisions in real clinical situations more clearly. The preference for AAP increased, and that of MS and an antidepressant decreased. We hope KMAP-BP 2022 is helpful for clinicians who treat patients with bipolar disorder.

5.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 110-122, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926004

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) is a consensus-based medication guideline. To reflect advances in pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorders, we updated KMAP-BP to provide more timely information for clinicians. @*Methods@#We conducted a survey using a questionnaire on treatments formanic/hypomanic episodes. Eighty-seven members among ninety-three members of the review committee (93.5%) completed the survey. Each treatment strategy or treatment option for manic/hypomanic episodes was evaluated with an overall score of 9, and the resulting 95% confidence interval treatment options were categorized into three recommendation levels (primary, secondary, and tertiary). The executive committee analyzed the results and discussed the final production of an algorithm by considering the scientific evidence. @*Results@#The combination of a mood stabilizer and an atypical antipsychotic, monotherapy with a mood stabilizer, or monotherapy with an atypical antipsychotic were recommended as the firstline pharmacotherapeutic strategy for the initial treatment of mania without psychotic features. The mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic combination was the treatment of choice, and atypical antipsychotic monotherapy was the first-line treatment for mania with psychotic features. When initial treatment fails, a combination of mood stabilizer+atypical antipsychotic and switching to another first-line agent is recommended. For hypomania, monotherapy with either mood stabilizer or atypical antipsychotic is the recommended first-line treatment, but the mood stabilizer+atypical antipsychotic combination is recommended as well. @*Conclusion@#It is notable that there were changes in the preferences for the use of individual atypical antipsychotics, and the preference for the use of mood stabilizer increased for treatment-resistant mania.

6.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 123-132, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926003

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#After the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was developed in 2002, its fifth revision was completed in 2022 to reflect the recent rapid developments and research into bipolar disorder and its psychopharmacology. @*Methods@#According to the methodology for previous versions, the depressive episode section of KMAP-BP 2022 was revised based on a survey consisting of 11 questions. Among ninetythree experts, eighty-seven members of the review committee (93.5%) completed the survey.The executive committee analyzed the results and discussed the final production of an algorithm by considering the scientific evidence. @*Results@#Overall, the results from this study showed little change in comparison with previous versions of KMAP-BP. However, there have been significant changes in recommendations over the span of about 20 years. The preferences for lamotrigine and atypical antipsychotics, especially aripiprazole, quetiapine, and olanzapine, have shown a tendency to continuously increase, but the preferences for risperidone and ziprasidone have not increased, but have decreased. Moreover, the preference for typical antipsychotics has significantly decreased. Additionally, concerns over the use of antidepressants in bipolar depression have been raised, and their use is not recommended in KMAP-BP 2022 as a first-line treatment. @*Conclusion@#Pharmacotherapy for acute depressive episodes with various clinical progressions and various subtypes still shows diversity, compared to pharmacotherapy for mania. We look forward to the development of bipolar depressive, episode-specific therapeutic drugs in the future, and hope the fifth update of KMAP-BP will be a complementary option for clinicians and their patients with bipolar disorder.

7.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 133-142, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926002

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Treatment guidelines or an algorithm can help clinicians implement better practices and clinical decisions. Therefore, the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder 2022 (KMAP-BP 2022) was revised again through a consensus of expert opinion. The diagnosis and treatment of mixed features are not simple, and there are many things to discuss. We describe the preferences and recommendations from KMAP-BP 2022 for the treatment of mood episodes with mixed features. @*Methods@#We revised the KMAP-BP 2018 questionnaire and conducted the survey with expert clinicians. Out of ninety-three members of the review committee, eighty-seven completed the survey. We analyzed the answers, discussed the data, and held a clinician hearing. @*Results@#In first-step strategies for mixed features with more manic symptoms, a combination of a mood stabilizer and an atypical antipsychotic is the treatment of choice. Mood stabilizer monotherapy and atypical antipsychotic monotherapy are preferred strategies. For mixed features with more depressive symptoms, a combination of mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic, a combination of atypical antipsychotic and lamotrigine (LMT), atypical antipsychotic monotherapy, a combination of mood stabilizer and LMT, and mood stabilizer monotherapy are preferred. For mixed features with similar manic symptoms and depressive symptoms, a combination of mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic, atypical antipsychotic monotherapy, and mood stabilizer monotherapy are preferred. @*Conclusion@#For mixed features, a combination of mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic is generally preferred, and LMT is preferred for depressive symptoms. Compared with KMAP-BP 2018, more diverse strategies and drugs are being attempted for the treatment of mixed features.

8.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 37-50, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924836

ABSTRACT

The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) first was published in 2002, and has been revised four times, in 2006, 2012, 2017, and 2021. In this review, we compared recommendations from the recently revised KMAP-DD 2021 to four global clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for depression published after 2010. The recommendations from the KMAP-DD 2021 were similar to those from other CPGs, although there were some differences. The KMAP-DD 2021 reflected social culture and the healthcare system in Korea and recent evidence about pharmacotherapy for depression, as did other recently published evidence-based guidelines. Despite some intrinsic limitations as an expert consensus-based guideline, the KMAP-DD 2021 can be helpful for Korean psychiatrists making decisions in clinical settings by complementing previously published evidence-based guidelines, especially for some clinical situations lacking evidence from rigorously designed clinical trials.

9.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 126-134, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924828

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study investigated the prevalence and comorbidities of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adults and children/adolescents in Korea. @*Methods@#This study used data from the Korea Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service collected from 2008 to 2018. Study participants comprised patients with at least one diagnosis of ADHD (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Provisions, 10th revision code F90.0). Prevalence rates and psychiatric comorbidities were also analyzed. @*Results@#We identified 878,996 patients diagnosed with ADHD between 2008 and 2018. The overall prevalence rate of diagnosed ADHD increased steeply from 127.1/100,000 in 2008 to 192.9/100,000 in 2018; it increased 1.47 times in children/adolescents (≤ 18 years) and 10.1 times in adults (> 18 years) during this period. Among adult and children/adolescent ADHD patients, 61.84% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 61.74−61.93) and 78.72% (95% CI 78.53− 78.91) had at least one psychiatric comorbidity, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Our results showed that the prevalence rate of diagnosed ADHD has increased in Korea; however, it is lower than the global average. Further studies are required to identify and treat vulnerable populations appropriately.

10.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 174-185, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900084

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) is a consensus-based medication guideline. To reflect advances in pharmacotherapy for depressive disorders, we have undertaken a fourth revision of the KMAP-DD. @*Methods@#The review committee for the new version of the KMAP-DD (KMAP-DD 2021) included 143 Korean psychiatrists with clinical experience in the field of depressive disorders. Each treatment strategy or treatment option was evaluated with an overall score of nine, and the treatment option was categorized into the three levels of recommendation of primary, secondary, and tertiary. @*Results@#The first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for mild to moderate major depressive episodes (MDE) was antidepressant (AD) monotherapy. For severe MDE without psychotic features, AD monotherapy or the combination of AD and atypical antipsychotics (AAP) was the first-line strategy. The combination of AD and AAP was recommended as the first-line for the MDE with psychotic features as well. When treatment response to initial AD monotherapy was insufficient, a combination of AAP or another AD was recommended. In the case of unsatisfactory response to initial treatment with an AD and AAP combination, switching to another AAP or adding another AD was recommended. @*Conclusion@#Generally, there were no significant changes in the recommendations for MDE management in the KMAP-DD 2021 compared to previous versions. However, it was notable that the preference for the use of AAP and AD with the novel mechanism of action including vortioxetine and agomelatine increased.

11.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 186-192, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900083

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) was developed in 2002 and revised in 2006, 2012, 2017. In 2021, the fifth edition was published.This edition reflected new findings and the latest trends in the areas of pharmacological treatment. The aim of this study is to present strategies and treatment options according to the subtype of depression using data from the KMAP-DD-2021. @*Methods@#Ninety-seven psychiatrists with clinical experience in depressive disorder were selected. The questionnaires for KMAP-DD 2021 were sent to participants via mail. KMAP-DD 2021 consists of overall treatment strategies and treatment options under specific circumstances.Each treatment strategy or treatment option was evaluated with an overall score of nine and was divided into the three phases of recommendation that include primary, secondary, and tertiary. @*Results@#For persisting depressive disorder, antidepressant monotherapy including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) (escitalopram, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine), serotoninnorepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) (desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran), vortioxetine, and mirtazapine, was recommended as first-line medications. For melancholia of major depressive disorder, SSRI, SNRI, vortioxetine, and mirtazapine also were recommended as first-line medications. For mixed features, SSRI, bupropion, mirtazapine, SNRI, except for duloxetine, and milnacipran were recommended as first-line medications. For anxious distress, SSRI, mirtazapine, and SNRI, except milnacipran, were recommended as first-line medications. @*Conclusion@#The preferences of antidepressants by experts differed according to the subtype of depression. These findings suggest that experts treat patients with a major depressive disorder after considering the subtype of depression involved.

12.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 193-203, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900082

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder 2021 (KMAP-DD 2021) was a revision of previous works. The main purpose of the current study was to amend guidelines for the treatment of a major depressive disorder (MDD) for children and adolescents. @*Methods@#The survey consisted of 21 questionnaires for children and adolescents. A total of 33 of the 46 experts in child and adolescent psychiatry answered the survey. @*Results@#Antidepressant (AD) monotherapy was selected as the 1st line option for MDD with mild to moderate severity. As the 1st line of treatment for MDD severe without psychotic features in children and adolescents, AD monotherapy and AD augmented with atypical antipsychotics (AAP) were recommended. For MDD with psychotic features, AD augmented with AAP was preferred as the 1st line of treatment. @*Conclusion@#We developed an algorithm for child and adolescent populations with depressive disorders, more specifically than the KMAP-DD 2017. We expect this algorithm will provide clinicians useful information and help in the treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorders.

13.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 174-185, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892380

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) is a consensus-based medication guideline. To reflect advances in pharmacotherapy for depressive disorders, we have undertaken a fourth revision of the KMAP-DD. @*Methods@#The review committee for the new version of the KMAP-DD (KMAP-DD 2021) included 143 Korean psychiatrists with clinical experience in the field of depressive disorders. Each treatment strategy or treatment option was evaluated with an overall score of nine, and the treatment option was categorized into the three levels of recommendation of primary, secondary, and tertiary. @*Results@#The first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for mild to moderate major depressive episodes (MDE) was antidepressant (AD) monotherapy. For severe MDE without psychotic features, AD monotherapy or the combination of AD and atypical antipsychotics (AAP) was the first-line strategy. The combination of AD and AAP was recommended as the first-line for the MDE with psychotic features as well. When treatment response to initial AD monotherapy was insufficient, a combination of AAP or another AD was recommended. In the case of unsatisfactory response to initial treatment with an AD and AAP combination, switching to another AAP or adding another AD was recommended. @*Conclusion@#Generally, there were no significant changes in the recommendations for MDE management in the KMAP-DD 2021 compared to previous versions. However, it was notable that the preference for the use of AAP and AD with the novel mechanism of action including vortioxetine and agomelatine increased.

14.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 186-192, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892379

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) was developed in 2002 and revised in 2006, 2012, 2017. In 2021, the fifth edition was published.This edition reflected new findings and the latest trends in the areas of pharmacological treatment. The aim of this study is to present strategies and treatment options according to the subtype of depression using data from the KMAP-DD-2021. @*Methods@#Ninety-seven psychiatrists with clinical experience in depressive disorder were selected. The questionnaires for KMAP-DD 2021 were sent to participants via mail. KMAP-DD 2021 consists of overall treatment strategies and treatment options under specific circumstances.Each treatment strategy or treatment option was evaluated with an overall score of nine and was divided into the three phases of recommendation that include primary, secondary, and tertiary. @*Results@#For persisting depressive disorder, antidepressant monotherapy including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) (escitalopram, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine), serotoninnorepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) (desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran), vortioxetine, and mirtazapine, was recommended as first-line medications. For melancholia of major depressive disorder, SSRI, SNRI, vortioxetine, and mirtazapine also were recommended as first-line medications. For mixed features, SSRI, bupropion, mirtazapine, SNRI, except for duloxetine, and milnacipran were recommended as first-line medications. For anxious distress, SSRI, mirtazapine, and SNRI, except milnacipran, were recommended as first-line medications. @*Conclusion@#The preferences of antidepressants by experts differed according to the subtype of depression. These findings suggest that experts treat patients with a major depressive disorder after considering the subtype of depression involved.

15.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 193-203, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892378

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder 2021 (KMAP-DD 2021) was a revision of previous works. The main purpose of the current study was to amend guidelines for the treatment of a major depressive disorder (MDD) for children and adolescents. @*Methods@#The survey consisted of 21 questionnaires for children and adolescents. A total of 33 of the 46 experts in child and adolescent psychiatry answered the survey. @*Results@#Antidepressant (AD) monotherapy was selected as the 1st line option for MDD with mild to moderate severity. As the 1st line of treatment for MDD severe without psychotic features in children and adolescents, AD monotherapy and AD augmented with atypical antipsychotics (AAP) were recommended. For MDD with psychotic features, AD augmented with AAP was preferred as the 1st line of treatment. @*Conclusion@#We developed an algorithm for child and adolescent populations with depressive disorders, more specifically than the KMAP-DD 2017. We expect this algorithm will provide clinicians useful information and help in the treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorders.

17.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 258-266, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915569

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#An expert consensus guideline for the treatment of depressive disorder, the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD), was first established in 2002 and updated in 2017. To provide an up-to-date treatment guideline, KMAP-DD 2021 was recently completed. This study was undertaken to provide a guideline for the treatment of depressive disorder in a selected population that included females and elderly. @*Methods@#The survey conducted consisted of 7 questionnaires for each population, females and elderly, with depressive disorder. A total of 65 of 97 experienced psychiatrists answered the survey. @*Results@#For the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine, and desvenlafaxine were recommended as first-line therapies. For major depressive disorder (MDD) during pregnancy, antidepressant (AD) monotherapy was recommended as a first-line therapy for mild to moderate and severe depression, and combined electroconvulsive therapy and AD with atypical antipsychotics (AAP) were recommended as a first-line therapy for severe depression with psychotic features. AD plus AAP was generally recommended for post-partum depression. In elderly with depression, AD monotherapy was recommended as the treatment of choice for mild to moderate episodes, and AD monotherapy and AD plus AAP were recommended as a first-line therapy for severe depression without psychotic features. Lastly, AD plus AAP was chosen as the treatment of choice for psychotic depression. @*Conclusion@#Present study provides an updated algorithm for the treatment of females and elderly with depressive disorders. This algorithm provides a practical aid to clinicians for the treatment of females and elderly with MDD.

18.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 267-274, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915568

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#To revise Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder 2017 (KMAPDD 2017) guidelines by revising antidepressant choices based on their safety, adverse effects, comorbid physical illnesses, and the clinical definition of treatment-resistant depression (TRD). @*Methods@#A 33-item questionnaire comprised of six parts was developed. A 65-expert consensus (65/97, 67.0%) was obtained on pharmacological treatment strategies regarding antidepressant choice with respect to safety, adverse effects, and comorbid physical illnesses. Multiple response sets were subjected to statistical analysis. @*Results@#The results obtained showed that first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategies based on various clinical considerations were as follows: mirtazapine (for patients with increased suicidality, Gastrointestinal discomfort, and insomnia), bupropion (for patients with orthostatic hypotension, history of a safety accident, serotonin syndrome, sedation, sexual dysfunction, and weight gain), and escitalopram (for patients with anticholinergic side effects). For patients exhibiting comorbid conditions, duloxetine was the first line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for chronic pain, escitalopram was the first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, Parkinson’s disease, renal disease, epilepsy, and thyroid disease, and sertraline was a first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for arrhythmia and cardiovascular disease. @*Conclusion@#Pharmacological treatment strategy of KMAP-DD 2021 is similar to that of KMAPDD 2017. Additional study is required to determine antidepressant choices for TRD and cancer patients with depression.

19.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 275-283, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915567

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder 2021 (KMAP-DD 2021) was made to update new researches and data. This study focused on non-pharmacological biological treatments. @*Methods@#Ninety-seven psychiatrists with extensive clinical experience in the non-pharmacological biological treatment of depressive disorder were primary selected and a questionnaire was sent to each of them by mail, 65 of the 97 replied. @*Results@#Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was recommended as an initial strategy for major depressive disorder, severe depressive disorder with/without psychotic features with urgent suicidal risk, or a severe depressive episode with psychotic features in pregnant patients, for non-responders on pharmacotherapy for a moderate depressive episode, and as a second strategy for non-responders on antidepressant monotherapy or combination therapy combined with physical illness. For pregnant women with a severe episode of major depressive disorder, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was preferred as a first-line strategy, and as a second strategy for non-responders on combined antipsychotic and antidepressant therapy and non-responders with comorbidity and physical illness. Complementary or novel treatment was not recommended as the first-line treatment strategy for depressive disorder, but transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), light therapy, and omega-3 fatty acid nutritional therapy were second-line treatment strategies. @*Conclusion@#ECT and rTMS are initial strategies in specific clinical situations. Preferences for complementary or novel treatments such as tDCS, light therapy, and omega-3 fatty acid nutritional therapy have increased gradually, but in practice, their usages are still limited.

20.
Journal of Korean Geriatric Psychiatry ; : 70-75, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915399

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common among patients with major neurocognitive disorder. Antipsychotic medica-tions have been widely used to manage behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), however efficacy and safety of these agents are conflicting. In this study, we tried to overview the association of antipsychotic medication use and neuropsychi-atric symptoms with cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. @*Methods@#We reviewed the medical charts of patients who were diagnosed as major neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimer’s disease from November 2014 to October 2015. We reviewed whether the subjects had used antipsychotics, and whether patients had neuropsychiatric symptoms. We used linear mixed models to examine the statistical difference between each group. @*Results@#Total of 106 subjects were included in the study. There was no statistically significant difference in cognitive function decline (Korean Version of Mini-Mental State Examination score change) between subjects with or without BPSD (p=0.62), and between subjects with or without antipsychotic medication (p=0.09). @*Conclusion@#There was no evidence that antipsychotic medication and BPSD are associated with more cognitive decline. Findings imply that neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment come from different etiologic causes, which highlights the heterogeneity of the disorder. Clinician should decide whether to use antipsychotic medication while carefully considering the effect and side effects of antipsychotic medication throughout the treatment period.

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