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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898119

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890415

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832341

ABSTRACT

Background@#Only few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#From March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated. @*Results@#In total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9± 14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, –1.1%±1.2%; P<0.001). The number of patients with HbA1c <7% increased significantly from 5 to 68 (P<0.005). In addition, lipid profiles and liver enzyme levels were also improved whereas no changes in body weight. There was no significant safety issue in patients treated with quadruple OHA therapy. @*Conclusion@#This study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited information regarding the optimal third-line therapy for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that is inadequately controlled using dual combination therapy. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of pioglitazone or glimepiride when added to metformin plus alogliptin treatment for T2DM.METHODS: This multicenter, randomized, active-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02426294) recruited 135 Korean patients with T2DM that was inadequately controlled using metformin plus alogliptin. The patients were then randomized to also receive pioglitazone (15 mg/day) or glimepiride (2 mg/day) for a 26-week period, with dose titration was permitted based on the investigator's judgement.RESULTS: Glycosylated hemoglobin levels exhibited similar significant decreases in both groups during the treatment period (pioglitazone: −0.81%, P<0.001; glimepiride: −1.05%, P<0.001). However, the pioglitazone-treated group exhibited significantly higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P<0.001) and significantly lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance values (P<0.001). Relative to pioglitazone, adding glimepiride to metformin plus alogliptin markedly increased the risk of hypoglycemia (pioglitazone: 1/69 cases [1.45%], glimepiride: 14/66 cases [21.21%]; P<0.001).CONCLUSION: Among patients with T2DM inadequately controlled using metformin plus alogliptin, the addition of pioglitazone provided comparable glycemic control and various benefits (improvements in lipid profiles, insulin resistance, and hypoglycemia risk) relative to the addition of glimepiride.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol, HDL , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Insulin Resistance , Metformin , Sulfonylurea Compounds , Thiazolidinediones , Treatment Failure
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116060

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Incretin hormone levels as a predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus have not been fully investigated. Therefore, we measured incretin hormone levels to examine the relationship between circulating incretin hormones, diabetes, and future diabetes development in this study. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted in a Korean cohort. The study included the following two groups: the control group (n=149), the incident diabetes group (n=65). Fasting total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and total glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) levels were measured and compared between these groups. RESULTS: Fasting total GIP levels were higher in the incident diabetes group than in the control group (32.64±22.68 pmol/L vs. 25.54±18.37 pmol/L, P=0.034). There was no statistically significant difference in fasting total GLP-1 levels between groups (1.14±1.43 pmol/L vs. 1.39±2.13 pmol/L, P=0.199). In multivariate analysis, fasting total GIP levels were associated with an increased risk of diabetes (odds ratio, 1.005; P=0.012) independent of other risk factors. CONCLUSION: Fasting total GIP levels may be a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This association persisted even after adjusting for other metabolic parameters such as elevated fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and obesity in the pre-diabetic period.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Glucose , Incretins , Multivariate Analysis , Obesity , Risk Factors
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-215490

ABSTRACT

Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a common disorder that is characterized by elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in conjunction with free thyroxine concentrations within the normal reference range. Thyroid hormones are known to affect the heart and vasculature and, as a result, the impact of SCH on the cardiovascular (CV) system has recently become an important topic of research. Strong evidence points to a link between SCH and CV risk factors such as alterations in blood pressure, lipid levels, and atherosclerosis. Additionally, accumulating evidence indicates that SCH is associated with metabolic syndrome and heart failure. The present review proposes that SCH may be a potentially modifiable risk factor of CV disease and mortality. However, large-scale clinical trials with appropriate power investigating the risks and benefits of SCH treatment are required to determine whether these benefits can be achieved with levothyroxine therapy.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart , Heart Failure , Hypothyroidism , Mortality , Reference Values , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thyroid Hormones , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-649824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: As a prognostic factor, the association of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is still controversial. The aim of this study is to compare clinicopathologic parameters between PTC alone and PTC with HT patients. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: We reviewed the medical record retrospectively. 205 patients underwent thyroid surgery from January 2006 to December 2008. Among the 205 patients, 120 patients were included in this study. We compared various clinicopathologic parameters such as gender, tumor size, multifocality, lymphovascular invasion, extrathyroidal extension, central lymph node metastasis, and lateral lymph node metastasis between PTC alone and PTC with HT patients. RESULTS: 18.3% of PTC patients were associated with HT. There were no significant differences in clinocopatholgic parameters such as gender, tumor size, multifocality, lymphovascular invasion, extrathyroidal extension, central lymph node metastasis or lateral lymph node metastasis. Tumor recurrences were found in 6 out of 98 cases of PTC alone and in 3 out of 22 cases of PTC with HT. There was no significance between two groups (p=0.363). CONCLUSION: Results indicate that HT may not be associated with clinicopathologic factors in PTC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymph Nodes , Medical Records , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroiditis
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a condition characterized by a cluster of metabolic disorders and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study analyzed data from the Korean Health and Genome Study to examine the impact of MetS on CVD. METHODS: A total of 8,898 subjects (4,241 males and 4,657 females), 40 to 69 years of age, were enrolled and evaluated for the development of new onset CVD from 2001 to 2012 (median 8.1 years of follow-up). RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS at baseline was 22.0% (932/4,241) and 29.7% (1,383/4,657) in males and females, respectively. MetS was associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD; hazard ratio [HR], 1.818; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.312 to 2.520 in males; HR, 1.789; 95% CI, 1.332 to 2.404 in females) and CVD (HR, 1.689; 95% CI, 1.295 to 2.204 in males; HR, 1.686; 95% CI, 1.007 to 2.192 in females). Specifically, MetS was associated with risk of future stroke in females only (HR, 1.486; 95% CI, 1.007 to 2.192). Among MetS components, abdominal obesity and hypertension were independent predictors of both CHD and CVD. In addition, a higher number of MetS components correlated with higher CVD risk. CONCLUSION: MetS is a significant risk factor for the development of CVD although its impact varies between sexes.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronary Disease , Female , Genome , Humans , Hypertension , Male , Obesity, Abdominal , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Stroke
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200221

ABSTRACT

We studied the efficacy and safety of acarbose in comparison with voglibose in type 2 diabetes patients whose blood glucose levels were inadequately controlled with basal insulin alone or in combination with metformin (or a sulfonylurea). This study was a 24-week prospective, open-label, randomized, active-controlled multi-center study. Participants were randomized to receive either acarbose (n=59, 300 mg/day) or voglibose (n=62, 0.9 mg/day). The mean HbA1c at week 24 was significantly decreased approximately 0.7% from baseline in both acarbose (from 8.43% +/- 0.71% to 7.71% +/- 0.93%) and voglibose groups (from 8.38% +/- 0.73% to 7.68% +/- 0.94%). The mean fasting plasma glucose level and self-monitoring of blood glucose data from 1 hr before and after each meal were significantly decreased at week 24 in comparison to baseline in both groups. The levels 1 hr after dinner at week 24 were significantly decreased in the acarbose group (from 233.54 +/- 69.38 to 176.80 +/- 46.63 mg/dL) compared with the voglibose group (from 224.18 +/- 70.07 to 193.01 +/- 55.39 mg/dL). In conclusion, both acarbose and voglibose are efficacious and safe in patients with type 2 diabetes who are inadequately controlled with basal insulin. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00970528)


Subject(s)
Acarbose/adverse effects , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Inositol/adverse effects , Insulin/blood , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , alpha-Glucosidases/antagonists & inhibitors
10.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 603-608, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-140475

ABSTRACT

Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an inherited, autosomal dominant syndrome that manifests as a variety of benign and malignant tumors in various organs. Notably, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients with VHL disease tends to be multifocal and bilateral, and tends to recur or new tumors develop after removal. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has recently been introduced as a minimally invasive treatment for small hereditary RCCs with a low complication rate and a minimal decrease in renal function. We present a case of successful RFA of multiple bilateral RCCs in a 24-year-old female with VHL. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed multiple bilateral RCCs. The patient received sequential RFA for the bilateral RCCs, resulting in a complete response. At the time of writing, there was no sign of recurrence or renal failure. In conclusion, percutaneous RFA is a promising treatment for VHL patients who cannot undergo surgery, with excellent treatment outcomes and minimal change in renal function.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Catheter Ablation , Female , Humans , Recurrence , Renal Insufficiency , von Hippel-Lindau Disease , Writing , Young Adult
11.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 603-608, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-140474

ABSTRACT

Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an inherited, autosomal dominant syndrome that manifests as a variety of benign and malignant tumors in various organs. Notably, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients with VHL disease tends to be multifocal and bilateral, and tends to recur or new tumors develop after removal. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has recently been introduced as a minimally invasive treatment for small hereditary RCCs with a low complication rate and a minimal decrease in renal function. We present a case of successful RFA of multiple bilateral RCCs in a 24-year-old female with VHL. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed multiple bilateral RCCs. The patient received sequential RFA for the bilateral RCCs, resulting in a complete response. At the time of writing, there was no sign of recurrence or renal failure. In conclusion, percutaneous RFA is a promising treatment for VHL patients who cannot undergo surgery, with excellent treatment outcomes and minimal change in renal function.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Catheter Ablation , Female , Humans , Recurrence , Renal Insufficiency , von Hippel-Lindau Disease , Writing , Young Adult
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11726

ABSTRACT

Hyperthyroidism is diagnosed when a patient is presented with typical symptoms, such as weight loss, palpitation, and hand tremor. However, early diagnosis is difficult in elders, because they have no typical symptoms, but only cardiovascular or muscular symptoms. In hyperthyroidism, there are often with neurologic changes, leading to various neurologic symptoms. Generalized or focal seizures are rarely reported in thyrotoxicosis and thyrotoxic crisis. Further, cases of hyperthyroidism presented as generalized seizure attack are extremely rare. We report a case of hyperthyroidism. A patient is presented at the hospital with mental change, as well as generalized seizure, who was finally diagnosed to have Graves' disease. A 56-year-old male was admitted to the hospital because of mental change with generalized seizure attack. Initial neurologic evaluations, including a brain magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalogram proved to be normal. But, thyroid function test showed abnormal results. We diagnosed him as Graves' disease and prescribed anti-thyroid drug. Thereafter, there has been no recurrence of neurologic symptoms for 12 months.


Subject(s)
Brain , Early Diagnosis , Electroencephalography , Graves Disease , Hand , Humans , Hyperthyroidism , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Neurologic Manifestations , Recurrence , Seizures , Thyroid Crisis , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyrotoxicosis , Tremor , Weight Loss
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate the cardio-metabolic parameters and surrogate markers of insulin resistance in a discordant group of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) subjects who satisfy the Adults Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria, but not the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria, for metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: We assessed the prevalence of MetS in T2DM subjects (n=167) who were selected from subjects registered at the diabetes center of Dong-A University Medical Center. We used the ATP III criteria and the IDF criteria for the diagnosis of MetS and sorted the subjects into 2 MetS groups: one group diagnosed per ATP III criteria (MetSa) and one diagnosed per IDF criteria (MetSi). We then compared the clinical characteristics, metabolic parameters (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and uric acid values) and co-morbidities (prevalence of microalbuminuria, fatty liver, and cardiovascular disease) between the MetSa, MetSi, and discordant MetS groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS in the MetSa group (73.6%) was higher than in the MetSi group (62.2%). The MetS prevalence in the discordant group was 11.4%. The discordant group showed no significant differences in clinical characteristics (except waist circumference and body mass index), metabolic parameters, or prevalence of co-morbidities, as compared with subjects with MetS by both criteria. CONCLUSION: In this study, cardio-metabolic features of the subjects diagnosed with MetS using ATP III criteria, but not IDF criteria, are not significantly different from those of subjects diagnosed with MetS using both criteria.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Adenosine Triphosphate , Adult , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Biomarkers , Diabetes Mellitus , Enkephalin, Methionine , Fatty Liver , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Prevalence , Uric Acid , Waist Circumference
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728103

ABSTRACT

Fenofibrate is a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) activator and is prescribed to treat hyperlipidemia. The mechanism through which PPARalpha agonists reduce food intake, body weight, and adiposity remains unclear. One explanation for the reduction of food intake is that fenofibrate promotes fatty acid oxidation and increases the production of ketone bodies upon a standard experimental dose of the drug (100~300 mg/kg/day). We observed that low-dose treatment of fenofibrate (30 mg/kg/day), which does not cause significant changes in ketone body synthesis, reduced food intake in Long-Evans Tokushima (LETO) rats. LETO rats are the physiologically normal controls for Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, which are obese and cholecystokinin (CCK)-A receptor deficient. We hypothesized that the reduced food intake by fenofibrate-treated LETO rats may be associated with CCK production. To investigate the anorexic effects of fenofibrate in vivo and to determine whether CCK production may be involved, we examined the amount of food intake and CCK production. Fenofibrate-treated OLETF rats did not significantly change their food intake while LETO rats decreased their food intake. Treatment of fenofibrate increased CCK synthesis in the duodenal epithelial cells of both LETO and OLETF rats. The absence of a change in the food intake of OLETF rats, despite the increase in CCK production, may be explained by the absence of CCK-A receptors. Contrary to the OLETF rats, LETO rats, which have normal CCK receptors, presented a decrease in food intake and an increase in CCK production. These results suggest that reduced food intake by fenofibrate treatment may be associated with CCK production.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Animals , Body Weight , Cholecystokinin , Diethylpropion , Eating , Epithelial Cells , Fenofibrate , Hyperlipidemias , Ketone Bodies , PPAR alpha , Rats , Rats, Inbred OLETF , Receptor, Cholecystokinin A , Receptors, Cholecystokinin
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our study group established "3H care" in 2002. The meaning of "3H care" attain and maintain adequate controls over hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients. This study evaluated the achievement of target goals after one year or more of "3H care" by specialists in our diabetic clinic. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 200 type 2 diabetic patients who received "3H care" for one year or more in our diabetic clinic. We evaluated achievement of target goals for metabolic controls as suggested by the American Diabetes Association. RESULTS: Overall, 200 type 2 diabetes patients were enrolled, of whom 106 were males (53%) and 94 were females (47%). After one year of "3H care," the mean HbA1c was 7.2+/-1.5% and the percentage of patients achieving glycemic control (HbA1c <7%) was 51.8%. However only 32.2% of hypertensive patients achieved the recommended target. After one year of "3H care," the percentages of those who achieved the target value for dyslipidemia were 80.0% for total cholesterol, 66.3% for low density lipoprotein cholesterol, 57.9% for triglyceride, and 51.8% for high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The percentage that achieved all three targets level was only 4.4% after one year and 14.8% after two years. CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate that only a minor proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes achieved the recommended goals despite the implementation of "3H care." It is our suggestion that better treatment strategies and methods should be used to control hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia.


Subject(s)
Achievement , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Disease Management , Dyslipidemias , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Hyperlipidemias , Hypertension , Lipoproteins , Male , Retrospective Studies , Specialization , Treatment Outcome
17.
Korean Diabetes Journal ; : 359-367, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-87180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There have been few clinical studies on 10 mg atorvastatin as a starting dosage for treatment of hypercholesterolemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. This retrospective study aims to evaluate the efficacy of 10 mg dosage of atorvastatin in clinical setting. METHODS: One hundred five enrolled patients with high levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, > 100 mg/dL) took 10 mg atorvastatin. After 6 months, they were divided into 'Responder group' (LDL-C or = 100 mg/dL), and the response rate was calculated. Thereafter, we subdivided the 'Responder group' into Maintenance (10 mg), Reduced dosage (5 mg), and Discontinuance group (0 mg). The 'Non-Responder group' was subdivided into Maintenance (10 mg) and Double dosage group (20 mg). After consecutive 6 months, the response rates of each 10 mg Maintenance groups were compared to those of the other groups, respectively. RESULTS: Following the first 6 months, the response rate of 10 mg fixed dosage was 74.3%. In the 'Responder group', response rates of 10 mg, 5 mg and Discontinuance groups following 6 months were 52.6%, 53.1%, and 12.5%, respectively. In the 'Non-responder group', response rates of 10 mg and 20 mg groups were 28.6% and 50.0%. Baseline LDL-C levels and body mass index (BMI) of 'Responder group' were significantly lower than those of 'Non-responder group' (P = 0.004, respectively). CONCLUSION: Hypercholesterolemia treatment with 10 mg, fixed dosage of atorvastatin was effective in three quarters of the subjects during the first 6-month treatment; however, a significant number of patients with high LDL-C levels and/or BMI require higher starting and maintenance dosage.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, LDL , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Heptanoic Acids , Humans , Hypercholesterolemia , Lipoproteins , Pyrroles , Retrospective Studies , Atorvastatin
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727338

ABSTRACT

Plasma cholesterol is increased in normal aging in both rodents and humans. This is associated with reduced elimination of cholesterol and decreased receptor-mediated clearance of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. The aims of this study were: (1) to determine age-related changes in plasma lipid profiles, and (2) to determine the effect of fenofibrate, an activator of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha), on plasma lipid profiles in normal rats on a standard diet. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n=15) were fed standard chow and water from 10 to 25 weeks of age. During that period, we measured daily food intake, body weight, fasting and random blood glucose levels, plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and free fatty acid (FFA) levels. At 20 weeks of age, all rats were randomly divided into two groups: a fenofibrate group (in which rats were gavaged with 300 mg/kg/day of fenofibrate) and a control group (gavaged with water). Fenofibrate treatment lasted 5 weeks. There were no significant changes in daily food intake, blood glucose, and plasma TG level with age. Body weight, plasma TC, and FFA levels were significantly increased with age. Fenofibrate significantly decreased plasma concentrations of TC and FFA, which had been increased with age. However, fenofibrate did not influence the plasma concentration of TG, which had not increased with age. These results suggest that fenofibrate might have a novel role in preventing age-related hypercholesterolemia in SD rats on a normal diet.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Blood Glucose , Body Weight , Cholesterol , Diet , Eating , Fasting , Fenofibrate , Humans , Hypercholesterolemia , Lipoproteins , Male , Plasma , PPAR alpha , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rodentia , Triglycerides , Water
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727335

ABSTRACT

The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes (T2D), develops hyperglycemic obesity with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance after the age of 25 weeks, similar to patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DM). In the present study, we determined whether there are differences in the pattern of gene expression related to glucose and lipid metabolism between OLETF rats and their control counterparts, Long-Evans Tokushima (LETO) rats. The experiment was done using 35-week-old OLETF and LETO rats. At week 35 male OLETF rats showed overt T2D and increases in blood glucose, plasma insulin, plasma triglycerides (TG) and plasma total cholesterol (TC). Livers of diabetic OLETF and LETO rats also showed differences in expression of mRNA for glucose and lipid metabolism related genes. Among glucose metabolism related genes, GAPDH mRNA was significantly higher and FBPase and G6Pase mRNA were significantly lower in OLETF rats. For lipid metabolism related genes, HMGCR, SCD1 and HL mRNA were substantially higher in OLETF rats. These results indicate that gluconeogenesis in OLETF rats is lower and glycolysis is higher, which means that glucose metabolism might be compensated for by a lowering of the blood glucose level. However, lipid synthesis is increased in OLETF rats so diabetes may be aggravated. These differences between OLETF and LETO rats suggest mechanisms that could be targeted during the development of therapeutic agents for diabetes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose , Cholesterol , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Gene Expression , Gluconeogenesis , Glucose , Glycolysis , Humans , Hyperinsulinism , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , Liver , Male , Obesity , Plasma , Rats , Rats, Inbred OLETF , RNA, Messenger , Triglycerides
20.
Korean Diabetes Journal ; : 65-72, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, diabetic mortality is lower than ever before, likely due to dramatic improvements in diabetes care. This study set to analyze changes in the cause of death in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the past 10 years. METHODS: All subjects were T2DM patients over the age of 30 whose death certificates were issued at six hospitals in the Busan metropolitan area from 2000 to 2004. The patients were excluded if they had been clinically diagnosed with significant tuberculosis, liver, thyroid, renal, connective tissue diseases and cancers, prior to T2DM diagnosis. We classified the cause of death into several groups by KCD-4. The results were compared with published data on the period from 1990 to 1994. RESULTS: The study comprised 680 patients, of which 374 (55.0%) were male. The average age of death was 66.3 +/- 10.7 years. The most common cause of death was cardiovascular disease (30.6%), followed by infectious disease (25.3%), cancer (21.9%), congestive heart failure (7.1%), renal disease (4.7%), liver disease (2.7%), and T2DM itself (1.9%). In the study from the earlier period, the most common cause of death was also cardiovascular disease (37.6%), followed by infectious disease (24.2%), T2DM (6.0%), liver disease (5.4%), cancer (4.7%), and renal disease (3.3%). CONCLUSION: Over both study periods, the first and second cause of death in T2DM were cardiovascular disease and infectious disease, respectively. However, death by cerebral infarction among cardiovascular disease patients was significantly lower in the latter period, while death by malignancy was markedly increased.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Cause of Death , Cerebral Infarction , Communicable Diseases , Connective Tissue Diseases , Death Certificates , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Heart Failure , Humans , Liver , Liver Diseases , Male , Thyroid Gland , Tuberculosis
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