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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204856

ABSTRACT

Cherry tomatoes are usually cultivated under greenhouse which is out of the reach of the marginal farmers. Due to unavailability of microclimatic and biochemical data in cherry tomato, meagre yield is obtained at open field conditions. Since the microclimatic factors and growing environment have immense influence on yield and quality attributes of any crop, this experiment was aimed to study the correlation of microclimate with the yield and quality contributing traits of eighteen genetically diverse genotypes of cherry tomato at open field trained on trellis and under naturally ventilated polyhouse conditions. In the given study, under open conditions, mean canopy temperature in morning at 7 a.m. (15.3-19.4°C) showed highly significant positive correlation with total yield, whereas total yield possessed highly significant negative association with the mean mid-day (12 noon) canopy temperature and mean mid-day soil temperature above 25°C. In poly house condition, total yield reflected significant negative correlation with morning mean canopy temperature (24.6°C) and mid-day mean canopy temperature (25.8-26°C), whereas total yield was negatively correlated with morning and mid-day mean soil temperature when the temperature was above 20.7°C. Among biochemical parameters, lycopene and beta-carotene content increased with mean canopy temperature at 19.5°C and further decreased above 21.5°C, however TSS increased with increase in mean canopy temperature from 15 to 25°C and decreased beyond 30°C temperature.

2.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204816

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at research farm, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, India during 2017 and 2018 to gain insight crop phonology mediated greenhouse gas emission under different tillage and nitrogen management practices in direct seeded rice (DSR). The experiment was conducted in split plot design with two tillage viz. zero tillage (ZT) and conventional tillage (CT) as main plot and four nitrogen management practices viz. 100% nitrogen through neem coated urea (S1), SPAD based nitrogen management (S2), 75% through neem coated urea + 25% nitrogen through vermicompost, (S3) and ¼ nitrogen as basal and rest in equal three splits at 20, 40, 60 DAS (S4) as sub plot, in three replication. The highest yield (4.69 t ha-1), net return (Rs 46440 ha-1) and B:C ratio (1.44) were recorded from zero tilled DSR. Further, highest yield (4.82 t ha-1), net return (Rs 44880 ha-1) and B:C ratio (1.36) was obtained under split application of nitrogenous fertilizers among other subplot treatments. The range of methane (0.57- 1.47 mg m-2 hr-1) carbon dioxide (0.32- 0.61 mg m-2 hr-1) and nitrous oxide (19.58- 38.79 µg m-2 hr-1) emission was recorded lowest in zero tilled plots and split application of nitrogenous fertilizer also emitted lowest values of 1.59 mg m-2 hr-1 methane, 0.86 mg m-2 hr-1 carbon dioxide and 46.76 µg m-2 hr-1 nitrous oxide at maximum tillering stage of crop growth. Moreover, methane and nitrous oxide emission was gradually decreased from maximum tillering to harvesting stage. Zero tilled DSR with split nitrogen fertilizer application ascribed lowest greenhouse gas intensity among the other crop establishment and nitrogen management options. Thus, zero tilled method of crop establishment with split application of nitrogenous fertilizer could be a remunerative and environmentally stable method for direct seeded rice cultivation.

3.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157607

ABSTRACT

Globus hystericus is a functional esophageal disorder, contributes a significant portion of ENT referral. Severe incapacitating symptoms of globus invariably compromise their quality of life which is further hampered by associated psychiatric co-morbidities. But in literature, conflicting results were reported regarding the pattern of psychiatric co-morbidities. Method: In an observational cross sectional study 53 consecutive consenting patients (N=53) of globus diagnose by criteria of R E Clouse, attending to the Department of ENT of tertiary care hospital of Eastern part of India were referred to Psychiatry OPD and screened for psychiatric comorbidities using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) English Version 5.0.0 and confirmed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Result: 79.25 % (n=42) of globus patients had psychiatric co-morbidities which was significantly higher (p<0.05, odds ratio 14.02) than their relatives attending with the patients. Among the patients of globus, 32.01% (n=17) had multiple diagnoses. Major depressive disorder was found in 43.04% (n=23), obsessive compulsive personality disorder in 16.98% (n=9), undifferentiated somatoform disorder in 13.21% (n=7), generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder with agoraphobia each in 9.43% (n=5), borderline personality disorder in 7.55% (n=4), obsessive compulsive disorder and dysthymia each in 3.77% (n=2) and hypochondriasis in 1.89% (n=1). No association was found between presence of psychiatric morbidity and socio-demographic variables of the globus patients. Conclusion: Burden of psychiatric co-morbidities among the patients of globus is quiet high. So, they should be regularly screened for psychiatric illness and an integrated treatment approach can be taken for them to get the opportunity of effective psychopharmacological and behavioral approaches.


Subject(s)
Adult , Comorbidity , Conversion Disorder/complications , Conversion Disorder/epidemiology , Conversion Disorder/psychology , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Tertiary Care Centers
4.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2010 Nov; 48(11): 1094-1097
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145067

ABSTRACT

A proximo-distal gradient of reduced glutathione (GSH), a non enzymatic antioxidant was observed in the original tails of the lizard, H. leschenaultii. In the regenerating tails, a gradual increase in the level of GSH was noted with tail elongation. In the newly regenerated tails also the level of GSH remained higher in the proximal part than the corresponding distal parts.

5.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2006 Feb; 44(2): 123-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56931

ABSTRACT

The study was designed to examine the binding of diclofenac sodium with bovine serum albumin (BSA) at different temperatures (20 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees C), pH (6.4, 7.4 and 8.4) and ionic strengths (micro = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) by means of equilibrium dialysis method. The concentration of diclofenac sodium was maintained at wider range from 15 to 900 micromole/l and BSA concentration was maintained at 61.5 micromole/l. The data obtained were interpreted by nonlinear regression method using Graphpad prism software. The analysis showed that the interaction between diclofenac sodium with BSA results in two-site saturable binding. A decrease in association constant was observed with increasing temperature. The average standard free energy change (deltaGdegrees) value was -7.07 (site I) and -4.2 (site II) Kcal/mol. The standard enthalpy change (deltaHdegrees) and the standard entropy change (deltaSdegrees) were -7.8 Kcal/mole, -2.35 cal/mole (site I) and -7.4 Kcal/mole, -10.5 cal/mole (site II), respectively. The negative enthalpy change suggested the binding between diclofenac sodium and the binding sites of BSA were spontaneous and exothermic. The negative value of deltaHdegrees and deltaSdegrees indicated hydrogen bonding and van der Waal's force was the major mechanism for diclofenac sodium and BSA interaction. Increase in pH and ionic strength also caused decrease in association constant of diclofenac sodium and BSA binding.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Cattle , Dialysis/methods , Diclofenac/pharmacology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Osmolar Concentration , Protein Binding/drug effects , Serum Albumin, Bovine/metabolism , Thermodynamics
6.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2004 Apr; 47(2): 206-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-74226

ABSTRACT

Prolonged exposure to arsenic contaminated water produces various clinical features, cutaneous features e.g. melanosis, keratosis and cancers being very common. Evaluation of such lesions by proliferative markers can provide useful information in regards to the biological behaviour of the lesions. Thus, cases with high proliferative status can be ominous sign for development of cancers. We studied skin biopsy of 42 cases. These were evaluated with AgNOR score and PCNA stain, in addition to H & E examination. Here, invasive cancer cases had mean AgNOR score of 3.56, those with severe dysplasia had 3.0, moderate and mild dysplasia scored 1.73, benign changes had mean score of 1.35 while normal control cases had 1.08. PCNA index in cancers was above 50, that of severe dysplasia 25-30, mild to moderate dysplasia 1.0-5.0, those with benign changes 0.5 -1.0 and normal control had LI of less than 0.5%. PCNA has the advantage of less chance of observer error over AgNOR stain.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Arsenic/toxicity , Case-Control Studies , Cell Proliferation , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Skin Neoplasms/chemically induced , Staining and Labeling , Biomarkers, Tumor
7.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2003 Dec; 41(12): 1424-30
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62461

ABSTRACT

With a view to determine ectopic limb developing capacity along with normal hind limb regeneration in response to vitamin A palmitate in well-differentiated hind limb stage tadpoles of P. maculatus, higher doses of vitamin A (30 IU/ml and 20 IU/ml) were administered for a longer period (120 hr) to the tadpoles following tail amputation through middle and hind limb amputation through middle of thigh. Simultaneous development of ectopic pelvic zone was observed along with hind limbs from the cut end of tail and duplication of regenerated hind limbs in the same tadpole for the first time. Besides, development of double ectopic pelvic girdle was also reported in one case. Results also indicate that induction of pelvic zone and duplication of regenerated limbs are concentration dependent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anura/growth & development , Larva/drug effects , Pelvis/growth & development , Teratogens/toxicity , Vitamin A/toxicity
9.
Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci ; 2001 Oct-Dec; 43(4): 217-22
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-29954

ABSTRACT

The close and constant association of allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma, both in children and adults, is hardly mentioned in medical textbooks. Proper treatment is delayed, as these patients are often seen in rotation by chest physicians, allergy experts, otolaryngologists, general physicians and paediatricians. Even then treatment is directed mainly towards asthma with little attention being paid to associated rhinitis, often lying unrecognised in adults. The clinical pattern of asthma in children and adults differs in our country. Unless AR is treated simultaneously with asthma, recurrent AR will result likely in suboptimal control of asthma. Proof and arguement is brougnt forward to recognise the unified concept of nasobronchial allergy or rhinobronchitis for proper management.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthma/epidemiology , Child , Comorbidity , Humans , India/epidemiology , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial/epidemiology
10.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 2001 Aug; 99(8): 421-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-101772

ABSTRACT

Fifty-one breast lumps were studied by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and scrape imprint cytology. Of the 51 cases, 28 were malignant and included infiltrating duct carcinoma (22), well differentiated adenocarcinoma (2), mucinous, papillary and lobular carcinoma (one each) and malignant lymphoma (one). Benign lesions were mastitis, fibroadenoma and fibrocystic disease. The diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was 90.2% and that of imprint 94.1% with no false negatives. Two imprint smears and one aspirate designated suspicious were proved to be benign. The combination of FNAC and imprint cytodiagnosis gave a diagnostic accuracy of 96% thus proving their value in the rapid diagnosis of breast lesions.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Needle/methods , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cytological Techniques , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2001 Jul; 44(3): 297-300
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-75662

ABSTRACT

Twenty-five cases of Ductal carcinoma in situ(DCIS), of breast with an associated invasive component were selected for this study. The aim was to identify the percentage of malignant cases having DCIS component, to analyse the distribution of DCIS according to architecture and cytonuclear grading and evaluate the correlation between grade of DCIS with that of associated invasive component. The DCIS component was classified according to traditional architectural classification and Van-Nuys cytonuclear classification. The grading of the invasive component was done according to Nottingham's modification of Bloom-Richardson system. Architecturally 72% of DCIS components were of pure form, 28% were of mixed pattern. According to cytonuclear grading 24% cases had grade-I, 28% grade-II and 48% grade-III DCIS. The invasive component showed 16% cases in grade-III. After correlating the grade of DCIS and invasive component 91% positive correlation was found in grade-III cases followed by 66.6% in grade-I and 57.1% in grade-II cases.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma in Situ/pathology , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology , Female , Humans , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology
12.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 2001 Jan; 99(1): 20-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-103846

ABSTRACT

A pilot study of 29 patients for research on clinical depression employed the framework of cultural epidemiology to examine illness-related experience, meaning, behaviour with a Bengali version of the explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC). This report examined patterns of distress and stigma with reference to the most troubling patient-specified symptom. All subjects were psychiatric outpatients in the Institute of Psychiatry, Calcutta, and met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV criteria for a major depressive episode. Only 5 patients (17.2%) identified sadness as the most troubling problem, and 48.3% specified pains and other somatic symptoms instead. An internally consistent stigma scale with Cronbach's alpha of .67, comprised 13 items, was used to assess stigma. In addition to the scale score for each subject, the contribution of each item was reported and compared. A suggestive, though not significantly lower value of the stigma score for patients reporting somatic symptoms as most troubling, compared with sadness, was consistent with findings from prior studies showing a positive relationship between the magnitude of depression and stigma. These findings are discussed with reference to their impact on recognition and help seeking among patients, and recognition and management of depression by general practitioner. Culturally distinctive presentations and social contexts of depression and other mental illnesses should be addressed in professional training and public health communications.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cultural Characteristics , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Developing Countries , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Prejudice , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Somatoform Disorders/diagnosis , Urban Population
13.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2000 Oct; 43(4): 387-94
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-74835

ABSTRACT

125 formalin fixed human tissues from different organs and 50 fresh animal tissues were taken. Each tissue piece was divided into two. Fresh animal tissues were fixed and processed in a domestic microwave oven and formalin fixed tissue were only processed in microwave oven. Simultaneous conventional processing was also carried out. Among the fresh tissues, 34 pieces were fixed in 10% formalin and 16 were stabilized in normal saline, with microwave irradiation. For histoprocessing graded ethanol (70% and absolute) for 150 tissues and graded isopropanol (70% and absolute) for 25 tissues were used for dehydration in microwave technique. Chloroform for 95 tissues, xylene for 15 tissues and isopropanol for 65 tissues were used as clearing agent in microwave technique. Liquid paraffin was impregnating agent in all 175 cases. The oven was operated at 50% power for 10 cases and 40% power for 165 cases. Recording of temperature could not be done. Regarding fixation with formalin 80% cases gave satisfactory result, while with normal saline, only 30% cases were satisfactory. Regarding dehydration with ethanol 80% were satisfactory and with isopropanol 60% were satisfactory. Regarding clearing--both chloroform and isopropyl alcohol gave satisfactory results in 80% cases but with, xylene tissues were fragmented and brittle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Formaldehyde , Histocytological Preparation Techniques/instrumentation , Humans , Microwaves , Pathology, Surgical/instrumentation , Rats , Tissue Fixation/methods
14.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2000 Jul; 43(3): 257-64
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-73381

ABSTRACT

Chronic arsenic toxicity (CAT) manifests predominantly as cutaneous lesions in the form of melanosis, keratosis and neoplastic changes. We have studied skin biopsies from 42 patients of CAT. Histological study of H/E stained sections showed--hyperkeratosis in 13, parakeratosis in 13, acanthosis in 12, papillomatosis in 24, elongation of reteridges in 21, increased basal pigmentation in 27 and dysplastic changes in 8 cases. Squamous cell carcinoma was present in 2, basisquamous in 1 and basal cell carcinoma in 1 case. Changes of skin lesions after drug DMSA and DMPS therapy compared to placebo were studied. The result was inconclusive. Proliferative activity of skin lesions in CAT were studied by AgNOR stain to assess the biological behaviour of the lesions. AgNOR score showed--normal control 1.08, benign changes (e.g. Hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, acanthosis, papillomatosis etc.) without dysplasia--1.35, mild to moderate dysplasia--1.735, severe dysplasia--3.0 and carcinoma--3.56. Thus, AgNOR score gives some idea on the biological behaviour of CAT lesions. It is suggested that AgNOR staining should be done regularly along with H&E staining for proper assessment of the cases.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Arsenic/analysis , Arsenic Poisoning/pathology , Biopsy , Carcinoma/chemically induced , Cell Division , Child , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Keratosis/chemically induced , Male , Melanosis/chemically induced , Middle Aged , Skin/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/chemically induced
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-88250

ABSTRACT

In sarcoidosis, diagnosis rests on positive tissue biopsy in association with suggestive clinical features. In absence of guidelines in India, multiple biopsies (494 in total) were undertaken from 170 suspected and later proven cases of sarcoidosis. Involved tissues, Kveim test site, right scalene node, palpable peripheral lymph nodes and open pulmonary biopsy gave 80-100% positive result. (Perbronchial lung biopsy proved positive in India by other workers.) Mantoux test site, a rather unusual tissue, even if negative at 72 hours, may show positive granuloma in 64.5% cases with active sarcoidosis. Positive liver biopsy has only corroborative importance.


Subject(s)
Biopsy/methods , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , India , Retrospective Studies , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/methods
16.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 1996 Jan; 2(1): 13-18
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-159787

ABSTRACT

Gene therapy involves transfer of normal healthy genes in patients to replace abnormal genes. In several human diseases such as cystic fibrosis, HIV infection, Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, Gaucher disease, arthritis, and cancer, gene therapy has been applied with encouraging success. Unfortunately, side effects are showing up, especially the response of host immune system. New directions in gene therapy research are being pursued to resolve these problems. An example of one such problem is the retrovirus gene delivery system. Since retroviruses grow only in dividing cells and integrated into the host genome in a random manner, the risk of tumor formatting increases. A denovirus can infect nondivinding cells but its titer is very low and it also provokes host immune system response. One the other hand, adeno-associated viruses (AAV) and Herpes simplex viruses, with deleted EI gene, which renders them replication defective can be directly injected into the patients or mixed with cells from the patients just prior to rein fusion. The AAV gene delivery system is (i) stable upon storage at room temperature, (ii) is not inactivated by components in the blood when directly injected into the patients and (iii) does not require specific cells for replication and very efficiently transfers genes into the host target cell DNA. The next vector of choice is cationic liposomes which are neither toxic nor causes cancer in cells. In cystic fibrosis, cationic liposomes have already been tried in the initial phase. The last technique which has been tried at least in 3 human trials is naked or particle meditated DNA injection. It suffers from low target ability and low efficiency effect,. Proposal of synthetic 25 the human chromosome has also been made. In this chromosomal vector not only the c DNA but also the regulatory sequences can also be introduced. In summary, the future of genetic therapy lies on the improvement of the delivery system of normal gene(s) into patients.

17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-94912

ABSTRACT

In a study of 847 cases of bronchial asthma and nasal allergy frequent association with raised serum IgE was noticed. Degree of atopy (as judged by skin allergy tests), age, sex and duration of disease tended to influence IgE levels in asthmatics. Both extrinsic and intrinsic varieties of asthma showed similar raised serum IgE levels. In subjects with nasal allergy alone, the values were considerably lower but still much higher than found in control patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Age of Onset , Asthma/blood , Dermatitis, Atopic/blood , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Nose Diseases/blood , Respiratory Hypersensitivity/blood , Sex Factors
19.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 1993 Jun; 91(6): 146-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-103855

ABSTRACT

Balanitis xerotica obliterans consisting of 52 cases had been studied in the present series. This disease entity is an insidious sclerosing disease of unknown aetiology, affecting mainly the skin and mucous membrane of glans, prepuce and sometimes the fossa navicularis urethrae or even terminal urethra. Atrophic white patches on external genitalia and obstructive uropathy are two common presenting features. It has been classified as local form of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Poor local hygiene, circumcision and association of auto-immune diseases like vitiligo are responsible as suggested in this study. Routine tests detected associated cystitis in 8 cases, haematuria in 4 cases, non-reactive VDRL in all cases and impaired glucose tolerance in 5 cases. Immunoglobulin profile (39 cases) showed altered pattern, suggesting some chronic antigenic stimulation. Out of 33 cases where biopsy done, histologically proved typical balanitis xerotica obliterans was found in 19 cases. Malignant change was noted in one case only. Circumcision and dilatation offered temporary relief.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Balanitis/immunology , Cohort Studies , Hematuria/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Urinary Tract Infections/complications
20.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 1992 Jul; 90(7): 184-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-99851
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