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Autops. Case Rep ; 10(2): e2020147, Apr.-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131811


In adults, B-lymphocytes comprise approximately 10% of circulating lymphocytes. The majority of peripheral B cells are B2 cells ("Mature" B-cells), which function as part of the humoral adaptive immune system. B1 cells ("Innate-like" B cells) are another sub-class of B lymphocytes, considered as innate immune cells with a characteristic phenotype (CD20+, CD27+, CD43+, CD70-, CD11b+, sIgM++, sIgD+) which can be divided into two subtypes; B1a (CD5+): spontaneously produce broadly reactive natural IgM, and B1b (CD5-): can generate T-cell independent, long-lasting IgM. There is very limited data available, indicating a correlation between allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and an increase in B1a cells. Here we present a case of a 17-year-old female with homozygous sickle cell disease (HbSS disease) who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Approximately seven months post-transplant, she was found to have 16% immature mononuclear cells on complete blood count (CBC)-differential report. A follow-up peripheral blood flow cytometry showed that these cells were polyclonal CD5+/CD20+ B-cells, and comprised 66% of lymphocytes. Further workup and follow up failed to reveal any lymphoproliferative disorders. It is important not to misdiagnose these cells as an atypical CD5+ lymphoproliferative disorder. The presence of B1a cells has not been widely reported in non-neoplastic post-stem cell transplanted patients. This case also adds to and expands our knowledge regarding the presence of increased circulating B1a cells after stem cell transplant in a patient with no history of hematological malignancy.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Blood Cell Count , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/pathology , Flow Cytometry , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/diagnosis
Autops. Case Rep ; 7(3): 13-19, July.-Sept. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-905311


BRAF protein is a serine/threonine kinase with 766 amino acids. Approximately 15% of human cancers harbor BRAF mutations as well as other BRAF anomalies (amplifications, fusions). Somatic mutations mainly occur in the catalytic kinase domain (CR3), and the predominant mutation is p.V600E which is the substitution of glutamic acid (E) for valine (V) as result of a mutation at codon 600 of the kinase domain. To our knowledge, the vast majority of the cancers have non-germline BRAF mutations. Here we describe a case of a 60-year-old female with a history of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) who presented with aphasia and forgetfulness. A follow-up Brain CT scan showed three distinct brain lesions which were found to be diagnostic of melanoma (confirmed by immunohistochemistry) with no evidence of a concurrent brain involvement by a B-cell neoplasm. Molecular studies confirmed the same BRAF p.V600E mutation in both malignancies (hairy cell leukemia and melanoma). Thereafter the patient was started on BRAF inhibitor treatment and is now symptom-free after one year of follow up. Having two concurrent malignancies with a shared BRAF mutation is extremely rare and makes this an excellent example of a genomic marker-driven treatment in two histologically and immunophenotypically distinct tumors.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Leukemia, Hairy Cell/drug therapy , Melanoma/drug therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/therapeutic use , Brain/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/antagonists & inhibitors