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Braz. j. biol ; 68(4): 813-817, Nov. 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-504499


Many species of microhymenopterous parasitoids have been registered on Phyllocnistis citrella, the citrus leafminer. The present study aimed to identify the spatial distribution pattern of the native and introduced parasitoids of P. citrella in two citrus orchards in Montenegro, RS. The new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees in each orchard were inspected at the bottom (0-1.5 m) and top (1.5-2.5 m) stratum and had their position relative to the quadrants (North, South, East and West) registered at every 15 days from July/2002 to June/2003. The leaves with pupae were collected and kept isolated until the emergence of parasitoids or of the leaf miner; so, the sampling was biased towards parasitoids that emerge in the host pupal phase. The horizontal spatial distribution was evaluated testing the fitness of data to the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. In Montenegrina, there was no significant difference in the number of parasitoids and in the mean number of pupae found in the top and bottom strata (χ2 = 0.66; df = 1; P > 0.05) (χ2 = 0.27; df =1; P > 0.05), respectively. In relation to the quadrants, the highest average numbers of the leafminer pupae and of parasitoids were registered at the East quadrant (χ2 = 11.81; df = 3; P < 0.05), (χ2 = 10.36; df = 3; P < 0.05). In the Murcott orchard, a higher number of parasitoids was found at the top stratum (63.5 percent) (χ2 = 7.24; df =1 P < 0.05), the same occurring with the average number of P. citrella pupae (62.9 percent) (χ2 = 6.66; df = 1; P < 0.05). The highest number of parasitoids and of miners was registered at the North quadrant (χ2 = 19. 29; df = 3; P < 0.05), (χ2 = 4.39; df = 3; P < 0.05). In both orchards, there was no difference between the numbers of shoots either relative to the strata as well as to the quadrants. As the number of shoots did not varied much relative to the quadrants, it is possible that the higher number...

Vários microimenópteros parasitóides têm sido registrados em populações de Phyllocnistis citrella (minador-dos-citros). Este estudo objetivou identificar o padrão de distribuição espacial de parasitóides nativos de P. citrella e do introduzido Ageniaspis citricola em dois pomares de citros em Montenegro, RS. Em amostragens quinzenais de julho de 2002 a junho de 2003, todos os brotos de 24 plantas sorteadas aleatoriamente em cada pomar foram inspecionados no estrato inferior (0-1,5 m) e superior (1,5-2,5 m) e registrada a localização destes em relação aos quadrantes (Norte, Sul, Leste e Oeste). As folhas com pupas foram coletadas e individualizadas até a emergência dos parasitóides ou do minador, assim, a amostragem foi focada em parasitóides que emergem na fase pupal do hospedeiro. A distribuição espacial horizontal foi avaliada testando-se os ajustes dos dados à distribuição Poisson e binomial negativa. Em Montenegrina não houve diferença significativa no número de parasitóides e no número médio de pupas encontrados no estrato superior e inferior, (χ2 = 0,66; gl = 1; P > 0,05) e (χ2 = 0,27; gl = 1; P > 0,05), respectivamente. Em relação aos quadrantes, o maior número médio de pupas do minador e de parasitóides encontra-se no quadrante Leste (χ2 = 11,81; gl = 3; P < 0,05), (χ2 =10,36; gl = 3; P < 0,05). No pomar de Murcott, um maior número de parasitóides foi constatado no estrato superior (63,5 por cento) (χ2 = 7,24; gl = 1 P < 0,05), o mesmo ocorrendo com o número médio de pupas de P. citrella (62,9 por cento) (χ2 = 6,66; gl =1; P < 0,05). O maior número de parasitóides e de minadores foi registrado no quadrante Norte (χ2 = 19,29; gl = 3; P < 0,05), (χ2 = 4,39; gl = 3; P < 0,05). Em ambos os pomares, não houve diferença entre o número de brotos nos dois estratos ou entre os quadrantes. Como o número de brotos não variou muito em relação aos diferentes quadrantes, é possível que a presença maior...

Animals , Citrus/parasitology , Lepidoptera/physiology , Brazil , Lepidoptera/classification , Population Density , Population Dynamics , Seasons
Braz. j. biol ; 63(4): 627-633, Nov. 2003. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-355881


Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm, is a very significant polyphagous pest due to the damages it causes, and control difficulties. Lack of information about its impact on sweet corn motivated a comparison of its biology, with respect to the larval and pupal stages, among the genotypes ELISA, BR 400 (sweet corns), and BR PAMPA (field corn). In laboratory conditions (25 ± 1ºC; 70 ± 10 percent RH; photophase 12 hours), 35 caterpillars were individualized and fed daily with 3.14 cm² sections of corn leaves from the referred-to genotypes, cultivated in plots in the experimental area of the Departament of Fitossanidade, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS from October to November 2000. The caterpillars were weighed daily; after each molt, the cephalic capsules were collected and measured (in width), to establish growth rate; pupae were weighed and sexed when 24 hours old. The duration of the larval instars, the pupal sex ratio, and the mortality of larvae and pupae were evaluated. In the first three instars there were no differences registered in capsule width. In the fourth and fifth instars, capsules of caterpillars kept in BR 400 were smaller. The weight of caterpillars and pupae, instar duration and sex ratio did not differ among the genotypes. Pupal phase duration was less in females kept in BR 400. Mortality was greater in the larval phase in ELISA and in the pupal phase in BR PAMPA.

Animals , Female , Male , Spodoptera , Genotype , Larva , Pupa