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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927981

ABSTRACT

Obvious epigenetic differentiation occurred on Lycium barbarum in different cultivation areas in China. To investigate the difference and change rule of DNA methylation level and pattern of L. barbarum from different cultivation areas in China, the present study employed fluorescence-assisted methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism(MSAP) to analyze the methylation level and polymorphism of 53 genomic DNA samples from Yinchuan Plain in Ningxia, Bayannur city in Inner Mongolia, Jingyuan county and Yumen city in Gansu, Delingha city in Qinghai, and Jinghe county in Xinjiang. The MSAP technical system suitable for the methylation analysis of L. barbarum genomic DNA was established and ten pairs of selective primers were selected. Among amplified 5'-CCGG-3' methylated sites, there were 35.85% full-methylated sites and 39.88% hemi-methylated sites, showing a high degree of epigenetic differentiation. Stoichiometric analysis showed that the ecological environment was the main factor affecting the epigenetic characteristics of L. barbarum, followed by cultivated varieties. Precipitation, air temperature, and soil pH were the main ecological factors affecting DNA methylation in different areas. This study provided a theoretical basis for the analysis of the epigenetic mechanism of L. barbarum to adapt to the diffe-rent ecological environments and research ideas for the introduction, cultivation, and germplasm traceability of L. barbarum.


Subject(s)
China , DNA Methylation , DNA Primers , Epigenesis, Genetic , Lycium/genetics
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927928

ABSTRACT

An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UHPLC-MS/MS) method was established to investigate the pharmacokinetic behaviors of psoralenoside, isopsoralenoside, calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, psoralen, isopsoralen, methylnissolin, and neobavaisoflavone in rat plasma after oral administration of Bufei Huoxue Capsules. After SD rats were administered with Bufei Huoxue Capsules suspension by gavage, blood samples were collected from the inner canthus at different time points. After protein precipitation, plasma samples were separated on ACQUITY UPLC BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm). The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile(A) and water(B) containing 0.1% formic acid in gradient elution. The positive and negative ions were measured simultaneously in the multi-reaction monitoring(MRM) mode. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and fitted by DAS 3.2.8. Psoralenoside, isopsoralenoside, calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, psoralen, isopsoralen, methylnissolin, and neobavaisoflavone were detected in the rat plasma after drug administration, with AUC_(0-t) of(3 357±1 348),(3 555±1 696),(3.03±0.88),(2.21±0.33),(1 787±522),(2 295±539),(5.69±1.41) and(3.40±0.75) μg·L~(-1)·h, and T_(max) of(1.56±0.62),(1.40±0.70),(0.21±0.05),(0.25±0.12),(0.26±0.11),(0.34±0.29),(0.74±0.59), and 0.25 h. The method is proved specific and repeatable and is suitable for the determination of psoralenoside, isopsoralenoside, calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, pso-ralen, isopsoralen, methylnissolin, and neobavaisoflavone in the rat plasma, which can be applied to pharmacokinetic study.


Subject(s)
Animals , Capsules , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1035-1048, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886969

ABSTRACT

To study the regulating effect of total phenolic acids from the stems and leaves of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. on the intestinal flora and short-chain fatty acids in spontaneous type 2 diabetic nephropathy mice, db/db mice were taken as the research object, and were treated with the total phenolic acid of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. Animal welfare and experimental procedures followed the regulations of the Animal Ethics Committee of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine Drug Safety Evaluation Research Center. Fresh feces and cecal contents of mice were collected for analysis of intestinal flora composition and differential flora. Gas chromatography was used to detect short-chain fatty acids in fresh feces and cecal content. Then the correlation analysis of the two results was made. Compared with the normal group, the most significant decreased differential flora in the model group were g_Rikenellaceae_ RC9_gut_group and g_Bacteroidales_S24-7_group, while the most significant increased were g_unclassified_f__ Coriobacteriaceae and g_unclassified_p__Firmicutes. Compared with the blank group, the contents of isovaleric acid and valeric acid in fresh feces and the contents of 6 short-chain fatty acids in the cecal contents of the model group were significantly reduced (P < 0.01). After drug intervention, the intestinal flora disorder and the reduction of short-chain fatty acids were improved to varying degrees, and the effect of the total phenolic acids from the stems and leaves of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. was slightly better than that from the roots in regulating some flora and short-chain fatty acids. The results of correlation analysis showed that g_Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group was moderately positively correlated with acetic acid and isobutyric acid in the cecal contents (r > 0.4). It is suggested that the total phenolic acid from the stems and leaves of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. can improve the intestinal flora disorder of mice with type 2 diabetic nephropathy, and can regulate the content of short-chain fatty acids in the intestine via adjusting the content of some short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria, thereby helping to restore normal.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879138

ABSTRACT

In this paper, network pharmacology method and molecular docking technique were used to investigate the target genes of Olibanum and Myrrha compatibility and the possible mechanism of action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis(RA). Our team obtained the main active components of Olibanum-Myrrha based on literatures study, relevant traditional Chinese medicine systematic pharmacological databases and literature retrieval, and made target prediction of the active components through SwissTargetPrediction database. At the same time, RA-related targets were collected through DrugBank, GeneCards and Therapeutic Target Database(TDD) databases; and VENNY 2.1 was use to collect intersection targets to map common targets of drug and disease of Venn diagram online. The team used STRING database to construct PPI protein interaction network diagram, and screen out core targets according to the size of the interaction, and Cytoscape 3.6.0 software was used to construct network models of "traditional Chinese medicine-component-target" "traditional Chinese medicine-component-target-disease" and core target interaction network model. The intersection target was analyzed by using DAVID 6.8 online database for GO function analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, and Pathon was used to visualization. AutoDock Vina and Pymol were used to connect the core active components with the core targets. Sixteen active components of Olibanum-Myrrha pairs were found and collected in the laboratory, and 320 relevant potential targets, 468 RA-related targets and 62 intersection targets were obtained through the Venn diagram. It mainly acted on multiple targets, such as IL6, TNF, IL1 B and MAPK1, involving TNF signaling pathway and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway in RA treatment. Finally, in this study, possible targets and signaling pathways of Olibanum-Myrrha compatibility therapy for RA were discussed, and molecular docking between core targets and core active components was conducted, which could provide scientific basis for the study on the mechanism of Olibanum-Myrrha compatibility.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Frankincense , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878814

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to determine the metabolites of Zhali Nusi Prescription(ZLNSP) in rats. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometric(UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) and mass defect filter techniques were applied to analyze the metabolites of ZLNSP in rat plasma, bile, urine and feces. The biological samples were analyzed by ACQUITY UPLC BEH T_3 column(2.1 mm×100 mm,1.7 μm), with 0.1% formic acid water(A)-acetonitrile(B) as mobile phase, and the biological samples were analyzed in negative ion mode by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry(ESI-MS). An analytical method for biological samples of rats was established, and 8 prototype components and 36 metabolites were identified. The results showed that the metabolic pathways of the main components of ZLNSP in rats included methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation and so on. It provi-ded information for the therapeutic effect of ZLNSP in vivo.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Bile , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Feces , Plasma , Prescriptions , Rats
6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1564-1573, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780263

ABSTRACT

The herb pair is the simple and exquisite experience summary accumulated by generations of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) experts in the process of long-term herbal prescription for curing diseases. Although it is only a combination of two herbs, it is cleverly matched and properly proportioned, which can well interpret TCM characteristics of "great combination and artful application". Moreover, the herb pair is an intermediate point between single herb and several TCM formulae, which implicates certain regularity and some connotation of many TCM formulae for diagnosis and treatment based on an overall analysis of the illness and the patient's condition. Our team has long been focusing on the complexity of drug interactions and the diversity of TCM components to carry out systematic research on herb pair by using modern scientific and technological knowledge and approaches. As results, a series of modern research approaches and strategies formed for the compatibility effect and bio-active components of the herb pair. By representing the principles and application characteristics of these approaches, this paper provides important support for elucidating scientific connotation of compatibility regularity of herb pairs and application of formulae optimization, as well as explorative ideas and approaches for modern research on other herb pairs.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773744

ABSTRACT

The quality marker( Q-maker) of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) has been the core concept of TCM quality evaluation and control in recent years. Based on the knowledge and long-term practice of the researches on TCM quality,we put forward that " Taking the effectiveness as the core,the measurability and peculiarity as necessary conditions,and considering compatibility for TCM formulae,TCM Q-makers are selected and confirmed,and then the transmission and traceability should be investigated as its functional attributes". Selecting the commonly used representative TCM as the research object,based on the score of TCM effectiveness,measurability and peculiarity,a layered three-dimensional integrated technology was adopted for the quantitative evaluation and grading identification of the Q-markers for TCM. And after Q-markers for TCM are selected and confirmed,the transmission variation of the Q-markers is studied in the whole process from the formation of TCM to its function representation. Based on TCM chemical and biological characteristics as well as effectiveness,and integrating multidisciplinary techniques and methods,researches on innovative methods for system identification and confirmation of the TCM Q-makers are developed emphatically to form representative and exemplary extensive application,which will provide significant theoretical and methodological support for effectively improving the quality control level of TCM.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reference Standards , Quality Control
8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 630-635, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779917

ABSTRACT

The response surface method was used to evaluate the concentration range, property and degree of Scutellaria (HQ) and Coptis (HL) herb pair on improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism in this paper. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was induced in rats by low a dose of streptozotocin (STZ) in combination with high-fat diet feeding. The rats were administered with HQ-HL extract pairs at different ratio (1:0, 3:1, 2:1, 3:2, 1:1, 2:3, 1:2, 1:3, 0:1). To investigate the influence of herb pair extracts on glucose and lipid metabolism of T2DM rats, the multi index synthetic index method was adopted to integrate the indexes, then the response surface method was applied to analyze the integration results. The ratio of HQ and HL from 3:1 to 1:3 showed a synergistic effect (with the value between -0.2 and -0.8). Especially, when the proportion was between 3:2 and 1:3, herb pair extracts possessed stronger synergistic effects (value:-0.8). The high dose of HQ-HL with the ratio of 1:1 exhibited the strongest synergistic effect.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812056

ABSTRACT

The roots of Paeoniae lactiflora Pall. are widely consumed as crude drugs in Asian countries due to their remarkable beneficial health effects. The present research was undertaken to illuminate the dynamic changes in metabolites and enzymes and facilitate selection of the harvesting time when the herb can provide optimum health benefits. P. lactiflora roots were analyzed at 12 stages of growth for monoterpenoid glycosides, phenols, nucleosides, nucleobases, amino acids, and polysaccharides by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector, ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, and UV spectrophotometry. The enzyme activities of plant β-glucosidases and esterases were determined by UV methods. The total content of monoterpenoid glycosides and phenols peaked in December. For nucleosides and nucleobases, the highest content appeared in April. The maximum phasic accumulation of the total amino acids took place in March, and the content of total polysaccharides reached a peak value in September. December, April, and March were selected as the appropriate harvesting times for producing natural medicinal or health food products. Plant β-glucosidases and esterases showed the highest activity in December and May, respectively. When the activity of β-glucosidase increased, esterase activity decreased, while the contents of oxypaeoniflora and paeoniflorin increased. When esterase activity increased, the contents of benzoylpaeoniflorin, paeoniflorin, and gallic acid decreased. In conclusion, the results from the present study would be useful in determination of the suitable time for harvesting P. lactiflora roots for medicinal purposes.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Paeonia , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335900

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis effects of Danshen-Honghua(DH) herb pair with different preparations (alcohol, 50% alcohol and water) on blood rheology and coagulation functions in acute blood stasis rats, and optimize the best preparation method of DH based on principal component analysis(PCA), hierarchical cluster heatmap analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods. Ice water bath and subcutaneous injection of adrenaline were both used to establish the acute blood stasis rat model. Then the blood stasis rats were administrated intragastrically with DH (alcohol, 50% alcohol and water) extracts. The whole blood viscosity(WBV), plasma viscosity(PV), erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR) and haematocrit(HCT) were tested to observe the effects of DH herb pair with different preparations and doses on hemorheology of blood stasis rats; the activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT), thrombin time(TT), prothrombin time(PT), and plasma fibrinogen(FIB) were tested to observe the effects of DH herb pair with different preparations on blood coagulation function and platelet aggregation of blood stasis rats. Then PCA, hierarchical cluster heatmap analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods were all used to comprehensively evaluate the total promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis effects of DH herb pair with different preparations. The hemorheological indexes and coagulation parameters of model group had significant differences with normal blank group. As compared with the model group, the DH herb pair with different preparations at low, middle and high doses could improve the blood hemorheology indexes and coagulation parameters in acute blood stasis rats with dose-effect relation. Based on the PCA, hierarchical cluster heatmap analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods, the high dose group of 50% alcohol extract had the best effect of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. Under the same dose but different preparations, 50% alcohol DH could obviously improve the hemorheology and blood coagulation function in acute blood stasis rats. These results suggested that DH herb pair with different preparations could obviously ameliorate the abnormality of hemorheology and blood coagulation function in acute blood stasis rats, and the optimized preparation of DH herb pair on promoting blood effects was 50% alcohol extract, providing scientific basis for more effective application of the DH herb pair in modern clinic medicine.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335718

ABSTRACT

To study the pharmacokinetic effect of Mori Folium flavones and alkaloids in normal and diabetic rats. An UPLC-TQ-MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of rutin, isoquercitrin, astragalin, kaempferol, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, DNJ and fagomine in plasma of rats. The diabetic rat model was induced through intravenous injection with alloxan and high-fat diet. Samples of plasma of rats were obtained at different time points, after the rats were administrated with Mori Folium flavones and alkaloids. After the deproteinization with acetonitrile, the concentrations of Mori Foliam constituents in rats at different time points were detected by UPLC-TQ-MS method, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 software. The results showed that quercetin and kaempferol reached peak at 0.333 h, indicating that Mori Folium flavonoid constituents were absorbed and distributed quickly. At about 4 h after administration, both of them reached the peak concentrations for the second time, suggesting that they stayed in intestine for a long time. DNJ and fagomine in gastrointestinal tract can be quickly absorbed into blood, and the concentration in plasma reached peak after 0.667 h, suggesting that both of them could be rapidly distributed in the systemic circulation of rats. Cryptochlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, quercetin, kaempferol and rutin were found to have a higher Cmax and AUC0-t in normal rats than those in diabetic rats. The t1/2values of cryptochlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid were shorter in diabetic rats, while quercetin, kaempferol and rutin had a longer t1/2value in diabetic rats. Chlorogenic acid, astragalin, isoquercitrin, fagomine had a higher Cmax in diabetic rats, and the t1/2values of astragalin and fagomine were longer, which suggested differences in absorption of active ingredients under normal and diabetic conditions.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304857

ABSTRACT

To study the effect of different penetration enhancers on the pharmacokinetic characters of six active components in Xiangfu Siwu transdermal patch (XBW) and optimize the best penetration enhancers. During the experiment, the patches containing different penetration enhancers were stuck on the rat's skin, and then the blood samples were acquired at different time points. Six active components in plasma were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The main pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with DAS software package. The total factor scores (F) of the plasma concentrations of six components at every time point in different groups were calculated using principle component analysis, and the areas under F versus time curves (AUCF-t) were employed to be the indexes for selecting penetration enhancers. The results demonstrated that compared with the control group, the AUCF-t from other groups increased prominently and furthermore, 5% menthol manifested the best effect. In this research, 5% menthol could remarkably promote the percutaneous penetration effect of the six active compounds in XBW, and it could provide a scientific basis for the preparation research of XBW.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258418

ABSTRACT

To study the mechanism of Xiangfu Siwu decoction in treating primary dysmenorrhea, differentially-expressed proteins in ovary of primary dysmenorrheal mice with Xiangfu Siwu decoction administration were screened based on proteome technology using nano LC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS. Estradiol benzoate and oxytocin were used to produce dysmenorrheal mice model. The model mice were orally administrated with Xiangfu Siwu decoction for 3 days, and 1 h after the last administration, the ovary samples were collected. After protein denaturation, reduction, alkylation, desalination and enzymatic hydrolysis, identification was carried out by nano LC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS technology. The obtained data was processed by using Thermo Proteome discoverer 1.4 software. The differentially-expressed proteins were screened and identified, and their biological information was also analyzed. The significant differentially-expressed protein was checked using Western blot technology in ovary samples. A total of 106 differentially-expressed proteins were identified during the normal, model and administration group. Most of them participate cellular processes. Adherens junction and focal adhesion pathways play a regulatory role in various cell signaling pathways. Protein ADRM1 was validated. Compared to the normal group, it was up-regulated expression in the model group. After administration, the expression of ADRM1 was down-regulated. Through the comparative analysis, a series of differentially-expressed proteins involved in primary dysmenorrheal mice with Xiangfu Siwu decoction administration were obtained. Protein ADRM1 may become a target for Xiangfu Siwu decoction.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351294

ABSTRACT

The incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines is related to the clinical medication safety, so has attracted wide attentions from the public. With the deepening of studies on the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines represented by 18 incompatible herbs, the incompatibility of theory traditional Chinese medicines has raised to new heights. From the origin of incompatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicines, relationship of herbs, harms of incompatible herbs and principle of prevention to toxic effects of specific incompatible medicines, the innovation and development of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory was explored. Structurally, the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines refers to the opposition of two herbs based on seven emotions and clinical experience. The combination of incompatible herbs may lead to human harms, especially latent harm and inefficacy of intervention medicines. The avoidance of the combination of incompatible herbs and the consideration of both symptoms and drug efficacy are the basic method to prevent adverse reactions. The recent studies have revealed five characteristics of incompatible herbs. Toxicity potentiation, toxication, efficacy reduction and inefficacy are the four manifestations of the incompatible relations. The material changes can reflect the effects of toxicity potentiation and toxication of opposite herbs. The accumulation of toxicity and metabolic changes are the basis for latent harms. The antagonistic effect of main efficacies and the coexistence of positive and negative effects are the distinctive part of the incompatibility. The connotation of incompatible herbs plays an important role in the innovation of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory.


Subject(s)
Drug Incompatibility , Drug Therapy , History , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , History , Pharmacology , History, Ancient , Humans , Medicine in Literature , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 594-598, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257095

ABSTRACT

This study is to analyze and identify the water soluble components of water buffalo horn (Bubali Cornu, WBH), and also establish a method for investigating these components. Shotgun proteomic analysis identified proteins in WBH aqueous extraction: keratin, collagen, desmoglein, etc. Ultrafiltration and LC-MS/MS were used to separate and identify the peptides in WBH aqueous extract, as a result, identified peptides were mainly derived from nonspecific degradation products of keratin and collagen, which including C-terminal peptides and non C-terminal peptides. Hypoxanthine, uridine, guanosine, and adenosine were identified by comparing with the standards. The strategy in present study could be used in analyzing water soluble components of animal horn derived TCM. It provides a reference for investigation of the material basis of animal horn derived TCM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Buffaloes , Chromatography, Liquid , Guanosine , Horns , Chemistry , Hypoxanthine , Mass Spectrometry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Peptides , Proteomics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Uridine
16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 830-835, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257060

ABSTRACT

In order to evaluate the effect and mechanism of the mulberry leaf alkaloid, flavones, and polysaccharide intervention on diabetes, the overall metabolite profiling characteristics for the plasma of diabetic mouse was performed by using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS). The 8 potential biomarkers were found in diabetic mice plasma based on the data of MS/MS characteristics obtained from the UPLC-OrbitrapMS analysis, which mainly involved in sphingolipids, amino acid metabolic pathway. The principal component analysis showed that the normal group and model group were obviously distinguished and implied that metabolic disturbance was happened in diabetic mice plasma. The extracts of mulberry leaf flavonoids, polysaccharide, alkaloid had exhibited the effects of callback function for diabetic mice through regulating the amino acid metabolism and sphingolipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chemistry , Amino Acids , Metabolism , Animals , Biomarkers , Blood , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Flavones , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Metabolomics , Mice , Morus , Chemistry , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Sphingolipids , Metabolism , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812210

ABSTRACT

Ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) and the Metabolynx™ software, combined with mass defect filtering, were applied to identity the metabolites of quercetin-3-O-β-D-gluco-pyranosyl-(4→1)-α-L-rhamnoside (QGR) in rats after intravenous administration. MS(E) was used for simultaneous acquisition of precursor ion information and fragment ion data at high and low collision energy in one analytical run, which facilitated the rapid structural characterization of eight metabolites in rat plasma, urine and bile. The results indicated that methylation and glucuronidation were the major metabolic pathways of QGR in vivo. The present study provided important information about the metabolism of QGR which will be useful for fully understanding the mechanism of action of this compound. Furthermore, this work demonstrated the potential of the UPLC-Q-TOF/MS approach using Metabolynx for rapid and automated research of the metabolites of natural products.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Ginkgo biloba , Chemistry , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Plant Extracts , Metabolism , Quercetin , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1162-1168, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299152

ABSTRACT

The study aims to screen the ability of the bacteria to metabolize ononin and assess the effect of ononin on the intestinal bacteria. Fresh human fecal sample was obtained from a healthy volunteer, diluted serially in sterile water and sixty-nine different bacterial colonies were picked out ultimately. UPLC-Q-TOF/MS with automated data analysis software (MetaboLynx) was applied to fast analysis of ononin metabolites. Furthermore, an E(max) precision microplate reader was employed to determine the growth situation of Enterococcous sp., Enterobacter sp., Lactobacilli sp., and Bifidobacteria sp. Results indicated that hydrogenation, demethylation, hydroxylation and deglycosylation were the major metabolic pathways of ononin by human intestinal bacteria in vitro. Ononin can inhibit the growth of pathogen such as Enterococcus sp., Enterobacter sp. and can promote the growth of probiotics such as Bifidobacteria sp. and Lactobacilli sp. This study suggested that intestinal bacteria have the metabolic effects of ononin and the biotransformation was completed by different bacteria. And ononin can affect the balance of intestinal flora and the degree of influence varies depending on the bacterial species and the concentration of ononin.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Metabolism , Biotransformation , Feces , Microbiology , Glucosides , Metabolism , Humans , Intestines , Microbiology , Isoflavones , Metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways
19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1304-1309, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299135

ABSTRACT

The combination of Danggui and Honghua (GH) is a popular herb pair commonly used in clinic for the treatment of blood stasis syndrome in China. To evaluate the activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis effects of the combination of different proportions of Danggui and Honghua on acute blood stasis rats, and optimize the proportion of GH to have the best activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis effect. Acute blood stasis rat model was induced by subcutaneous injection of adrenaline and ice water bath. The blood stasis rats were administrated intragastrically with GH (1 : 0, 4 : 1, 2 : 1, 3 : 2, 1 : 1, 2 : 3, 1: 2, 1 : 4 and 0 : 1) extracts. The whole blood viscosity (WBV), plasma viscosity (PV), and high shear whole blood relative index (HSWBRI), low shear whole blood relative index (LSWBRI), and erythrocyte aggregation index (EAI) were tested to observe the effects of GH on hemorheology of blood stasis rats. And the maximum aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was tested to observe the effect of GH on platelet aggregation index of blood stasis rats. In addition, the prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and plasma fibrinogen (FIB) were tested to observe the effects of GH on blood coagulation function of blood stasis rats. Then principal component analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods were both used to comprehensively evaluate the total activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis effects of GH. The results showed that the hemorheological indexes and coagulation parameters of model group both had significant differences with normal group. Compared with model group, GH (1 : 0, 4 : 1, 2: 1, 3 : 2, 1 : 1, 2 : 3, 1 : 2, 1 : 4 and 0 : 1) could improve all the blood hemorheology indexes and regulate part indexes of blood coagulation function and platelet aggregation in acute blood stasis rats. Based on principal component analysis and multi-attribute comprehensive index methods, GH 1 : 1 and GH 3 : 2 both had the best effect of blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis, and the effect of GH 1 : 1 was slightly better than GH 3 : 2. These results suggest that GH could obviously ameliorate the abnormality of hemorheology and blood coagulation function in acute blood stasis rats. The optimized proportion of GH was consistent with regulations of medicine usage that GH 1 : 1 had the highest frequency used in traditional Chinese formulae. It could provide scientific basis for more effective application of the compatibility between Danggui and Honghua in modern clinic medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Coagulation , Blood Viscosity , Carthamus tinctorius , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Erythrocyte Aggregation , Hemorheology , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Platelet Aggregation , Principal Component Analysis , Prothrombin Time , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Thrombin Time
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321322

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a method for studying efficacious materials of traditional Chinese medicines from an overall perspective.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Carthamus tinctorius was taken the example. Its major components were depleted by preparing liquid chromatography. Afterwards, the samples with major components depleted were evaluated for their antioxidant effect, so as to compare and analyze the major efficacious materials of C. tinctorius with antioxidant activity and the contributions.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Seven major components were depleted from C. tinctorius samples, and six of them were identified with MS data and control comparison. After all of the samples including depleted materials are compared and evaluated for their antioxidant effect, the findings showed that hydroxysafflor yellow A, anhydrosafflor yellow B and 6-hydroxykaempferol-3, 6-di-O-glucoside-7-O-glucuronide were the major efficacious materials.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>This study explored a novel and effective method for studying efficacious materials of traditional Chinese medicines. Through this method, we could explain the direct and indirect contributions of different components to the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, and make the efficacious material expression of traditional Chinese medicines clearer.</p>


Subject(s)
Alkalies , Chemistry , Antioxidants , Chemistry , Carthamus tinctorius , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Glucosides , Chemistry , Mass Spectrometry
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