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1.
Acta cir. bras ; 36(3): e360306, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248539

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To evaluate the preventive cardioprotective effects of resveratrol and grape products, such as grape juice and red wine, in animal model of cardiac ischemia and reperfusion. Methods Male Wistar rats orally pretreated for 21-days with resveratrol and grape products were anesthetized and placed on mechanical ventilation to surgically induce cardiac ischemia and reperfusion by obstruction (ischemia) followed by liberation (reperfusion) of blood circulation in left descending coronary artery. These rats were submitted to the electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis to evaluate the effects of pretreatment with resveratrol and grape products on the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias (VA), atrioventricular block (AVB) and lethality (LET) resulting from cardiac ischemia and reperfusion. Results It was observed that the incidence of AVB was significantly lower in rats pretreated with resveratrol (25%), grape juice (37.5%) or red wine (12.5%) than in rats treated with saline solution (80%) or ethanol (80%). Similarly, incidence of LET was also significantly lower in rats pretreated with resveratrol (25%), grape juice (25%) or red wine (0%) than in rats treated with saline solution (62.5%) or ethanol (75%). Conclusions These results indicate that the cardioprotective response stimulated by resveratrol and grape products prevents the lethal cardiac arrhythmias in animal model of ischemia and reperfusion, supporting the idea that this treatment can be beneficial for prevention of severe cardiac arrhythmias in patients with ischemic heart disease.

2.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(3): e202000306, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130620

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To evaluate whether the attenuation of mitochondrial Ca2+ overload produced by pharmacological blockade of mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) protects the myocardium against injuries caused by cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (CIR). Methods CIR was induced in adult male Wistar rats (300-350 g) by occlusion of the left anterior descendent coronary artery (10 min), followed by reperfusion (120 min). Rats were treated with different doses of MCU blocker ruthenium red (RuR), administered 5 min before ischemia or reperfusion. Results In untreated rats, the incidences of ventricular arrhythmias (VA), atrioventricular block (AVB) and the lethality (LET) induced by CIR were 85%, 79% and 70%, respectively. In rats treated with RuR before ischemia, the incidences of VA, AVB and LET were significantly reduced to 62%, 25% and 25%, respectively. In rats treated with RuR after ischemia, the incidences of VA, AVB and LET were significantly reduced to 50%, 25% and 25%, respectively. Conclusion The significant reduction of the incidence of CIR-induced VA, AVB and LET produced by the treatment with RuR indicates that the attenuation of mitochondrial Ca2+ overload produced by pharmacological blockade of MCU can protect the myocardium against injuries caused by CIR.

4.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(5): e201900505, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010872

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the cardioprotective response of the pharmacological modulation of β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) in animal model of cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (CIR), in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive (NWR) rats. Methods: CIR was induced by the occlusion of left anterior descendent coronary artery (10 min) and reperfusion (75 min). The SHR was treated with β-AR antagonist atenolol (AT, 10 mg/kg, IV) 5 min before CIR, and NWR were treated with β-AR agonist isoproterenol (ISO, 0.5 mg/kg, IV) 5 min before CIR. Results: The treatment with AT increased the incidence of VA, AVB and LET in SHR, suggesting that spontaneous cardioprotection in hypertensive animals was abolished by blockade of β-AR. In contrast, the treatment with ISO significantly reduced the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia, atrioventricular blockade and lethality in NWR (30%, 20% and 20%, respectively), suggesting that the activation of β-AR stimulate cardioprotection in normotensive animals. Serum CK-MB were higher in SHR/CIR and NWR/CIR compared to respective SHAM group (not altered by treatment with AT or ISO). Conclusion: The pharmacological modulation of β-AR could be a new cardioprotective strategy for the therapy of myocardial dysfunctions induced by CIR related to cardiac surgery and cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Atenolol/pharmacology , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/drug effects , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Isoproterenol/pharmacology , Rats, Inbred SHR , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Biomarkers/blood , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Heart Function Tests
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(7): 588-596, July 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949370

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the cardioprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning (preIC) and postconditioning (postIC) in animal model of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion. Methods: Adult rats were submitted to protocol of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and randomized into three experimental groups: cardiac I/R (n=33), preCI + cardiac I/R (n=7) and postCI + cardiac I/R (n=8). After this I/R protocol, the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia (VA), atrioventricular block (AVB) and lethality (LET) was evaluated using the electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. Results: After reestablishment of coronary blood flow, we observed variations of the ECG trace with increased incidence of ventricular arrhythmia (VA) (85%), atrioventricular block (AVB) (79%), and increase of lethality (70%) in cardiac I/R group. The comparison between I/R + preIC group with I/R group demonstrated significant reduction in VA incidence to 28%, AVB to 0% and lethality to 14%. The comparison of I/R + postIC group with I/R group was observed significance reduction in AVB incidence to 25% and lethality to 25%. Conclusion: The preconditioning strategies produce cardioprotection more efficient that postconditioning against myocardial dysfunctions and lethality by cardiac ischemia and reperfusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial/methods , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/prevention & control , Time Factors , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Electrocardiography , Atrioventricular Block/physiopathology , Atrioventricular Block/prevention & control
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(6): 524-532, June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949352

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate in vivo animal model of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion the cardioprotective activity of pancreatic lipase inhibitor of the orlistat. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized, placed on mechanical ventilation and underwent surgery to induce cardiac I/R by obstructing left descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion to evaluation of ventricular arrhythmias (VA), atrioventricular block (AVB) and lethality (LET) with pancreatic lipase inhibitor orlistat (ORL). At the end of reperfusion, blood samples were collected for determination of triglycerides (TG), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB). Results: Treatment with ORL has been able to decrease the incidence of VA, AVB and LET. Besides that, treatment with ORL reduced serum concentrations of CK and LDL, but did not alter the levels of serum concentration of TG, VLDL and HDL. Conclusion: The reduction of ventricular arrhythmias, atrioventricular block, and lethality and serum levels of creatine kinase produced by treatment with orlistat in animal model of cardiac isquemia/reperfusion injury suggest that ORL could be used as an efficient cardioprotective therapeutic strategy to attenuate myocardial damage related to acute myocardial infarction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Lactones/pharmacology , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/prevention & control , Triglycerides/blood , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/blood , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Creatine Kinase/blood , Electrocardiography , Atrioventricular Block/prevention & control , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Lipoproteins, LDL/blood , Lipoproteins, VLDL/blood , Myocardial Infarction/blood
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(11): 964-972, Nov. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886186

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of atenolol in inflammatory mediator and oxidative stress in a myocardial injury by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rat model. Methods: Adult Wistar male rats were randomly (n=8), anesthetized and divided in: Sham: submitted to operation only; group SS+IR: intravenous saline infusion following superior mesenteric artery occlusion during 60 minutes (ischemia) and open for 120 minutes (reperfusion); group AT+IR: intravenous atenolol infusion (2 mg/kg) following superior mesenteric artery occlusion during 60 minutes (ischemia) and open for 120 minutes (reperfusion); and group AT+I+AT+R: intravenous atenolol infusion following superior mesenteric artery occlusion during 60 minutes (ischemia) and in the time 45 minutes other atenolol doses were administrated and the artery was open for 120 minutes (reperfusion), all animals were submitted to muscular relaxation for mechanical ventilation. In the end of experiment the animals were euthanized and the hearts tissue were morphology analyzed by histology and malondialdehyde by ELISA, and the plasma were analyzed for tumor necrosis factor-alpha by ELISA. Results: The group SS+IR demonstrated the higher malondialdehyde levels when compared with the atenolol treated-groups (p=0.001) in the heart tissue. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha level in plasma decrease in the treated groups when compared with SS+IR group (p=0.001). Histology analyses demonstrate pyknosis, edema, cellular vacuolization, presence of inflammatory infiltrate and band contraction in the heart tissue of the rats. Conclusion: Atenolol significantly reduce the degree of cardiac damage after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Atenolol/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Heart/drug effects , Intestines/blood supply , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Atenolol/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Rats, Wistar , Mesenteric Artery, Superior , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacokinetics
8.
Conscientiae saúde (Impr.) ; 16(2): 2017217223, jun. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-875793

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A hipertensão arterial é um dos fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares, estando diretamente associada ao elevado consumo de sódio. Objetivo: Avaliar os níveis de marcadores de lesão hepática, renal e cardíaca em ratos hipertensos comparados aos seus controles normotensos, tratados com um salgante isento de sódio, água ou NaCl. Métodos: Ratos hipertensos (SHR) e seus controles normotensos (NWR) foram divididos em 3 grupos (n=7): G1 (água); G2 (solução aquosa contendo NaCl 70 mg/kg/dia); G3 (solução aquosa contendo salgante sem sódio 70 mg/kg/dia). Após 30 dias, o sangue dos animais foi processado. Resultados: Não houve diferença entre os níveis séricos de creatina quinase total, creatina quinase-MB, lactato desidrogenase, ácido úrico, aspartato aminotransferase e fosfatase alcalina tanto nos NWR como nos SHR tratados com NaCl ou Salgante. Houve diminuição da creatinina nos NWR e SHR tratados com NaCl e Salgante em relação aos controles (p<0,005). Conclusões: A suplementação diária com o Salgante e NaCl diminuiu os níveis séricos de creatinina nos grupos NWR e SHR. Contudo, não houve modificação nos níveis séricos de marcadores de lesão cardíaca e hepática. (AU)


Introduction: Hypertension is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, being directly associated with high consumption of sodium. Objective: To assess the levels of hepatic, renal and cardiac injury markers in hypertensive rats compared to their normotensive controls, treated with a salt free saline solution, water or NaCl. Methods: Hypertensive rats (SHR) and their normotensive controls (NWR) were divided into 3 groups (n = 7): G1 (water); G2 (aqueous solution containing NaCl 70 mg / kg / day); G3 (sodium salt-free aqueous solution 70 mg / kg / day). After 30 days, the animals' blood was processed. Results: There was no difference between serum levels of total creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in both NWR and SHR1 treated NaCl or Salgante. There was a decrease in creatinine in NWR and SHR treated with NaCl and Salgante comparing to controls (p <0.005). Conclusions: Daily supplementation with sodium salt-free aqueous solution and NaCl decreases serum creatinine levels in NWR and SHR groups. However, there was no change in serum levels of cardiac and hepatic injury markers. (AU)

9.
Conscientiae saúde (Impr.) ; 15(1): 114-121, 31 mar. 2016.
Article in French | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-2233

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A displasia ectodérmica anidrótica com imunodeficiência (DEA) é uma doença caracterizada por mutações nos genes que codificam o NF-kB. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito do NF-kB na regulação gênica dos componentes do sistema NADPH oxidase de pacientes com DEA. Métodos: Sangue periférico de pacientes com DEA e indivíduos saudáveis foram coletados para a separação de células mononucleares obtidas a partir de sangue periférico e as células B foram imortalizadas com vírus Epstein-Barr (B-EBV) para produção de ânion superóxido e extração de RNA para reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real dos componentes do sistema NADPH oxidase. Resultados: A produção de ânion superóxido e a expressão dos genes NCF1 e NCF2 de pacientes DEA foi estatisticamente menor quando comparado com o grupo controle. Conclusão: O NF-kB é necessário para a expressão dos genes NCF1 e NCF2 do sistema NADPH oxidase e produção de ânion superóxido, importantes na defesa contra microrganismos.


Introduction: Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (AED) is a disease characterized by mutations in the genes encoding NF-kB. Objective: To evaluate the effect of NF-kB in gene regulation of NADPH oxidase components of patients with AED. Methods: Peripheral blood of patients with AED and healthy individuals were collected for separation of mononuclear cells obtained from peripheral blood and B cells were immortalized with Epstein-Barr virus (B-EBV) to produce superoxide anion and RNA extraction for polymerase chain reaction in real time of NADPH oxidase components. Results: The production of superoxide anion and the expression of NCF1 and NCF2 genes in AED patients was statistically lower when compared to the control group. Conclusion: NF-KB is required for the expression of NCF1 and NCF2 gens of NADPH oxidase system and superoxide anion production, important in the defense against microorganisms.

10.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 56(1): 58-68, jan.-fev. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775213

ABSTRACT

Resumo As imunodeficiências primárias (IDP) representam um grupo heterogêneo de doenças resultantes de defeitos hereditários no desenvolvimento, na maturação e na função normal de células do sistema imunológico; assim, tornam os indivíduos suscetíveis a infecções recorrentes, alergia, autoimunidade e doenças malignas. Neste estudo retrospectivo descrevem-se doenças autoimunes (DAI), em especial o lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES), que surgiram associadas ao curso das IDP. Classicamente, a literatura descreve três grupos de IDP associadas ao LES: (1) deficiência de componentes da via do complemento, (2) defeitos na síntese de imunoglobulinas e (3) doença granulomatosa crônica (DGC). Na atualidade, outras IDP têm sido descritas como manifestações clínicas do LES, como a síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich (WAS), a poliendocrinopatia autoimune-candidíase-distrofia ectodérmica (APECED), a síndrome linfoproliferativa autoimune (ALPS) e a linfocitopenia idiopática CD4+. Também são apresentados achados de uma coorte de adultos do ambulatório da Divisão de Reumatologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. As manifestações de IDP encontradas pelo nosso grupo de estudo foram consideradas leves em termos de gravidade de infecções e mortalidade no início da vida. Assim, é possível que alguns estados de imunodeficiência sejam compatíveis com a sobrevivência em relação à suscetibilidade infecciosa; no entanto, esses estados podem representar um fator de predisposição forte para o desenvolvimento de doenças imunológicas, como observado no LES.


Abstract Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) represent a heterogeneous group of diseases resulting from inherited defects in the development, maturation and normal function of immune cells; thus, turning individuals susceptible to recurrent infections, allergy, autoimmunity, and malignancies. In this retrospective study, autoimmune diseases (AIDs), in special systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) which arose associated to the course of PID, are described. Classically, the literature describes three groups of PID associated with SLE: (1) deficiency of Complement pathway components, (2) defects in immunoglobulin synthesis, and (3) chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Currently, other PID have been described with clinical manifestation of SLE, such as Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS), autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia. Also we present findings from an adult cohort from the outpatient clinic of the Rheumatology Division of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. The PID manifestations found by our study group were considered mild in terms of severity of infections and mortality in early life. Thus, it is possible that some immunodeficiency states are compatible with survival regarding infectious susceptibility; however these states might represent a strong predisposing factor for the development of immune disorders like those observed in SLE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Complement System Proteins/deficiency , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/physiopathology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Rheumatology , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, University
11.
Conscientiae saúde (Impr.) ; 14(1): 11-23, 31 mar. 2015.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-633

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an immunological disorder characterized by defective antibody production. Objectives: To study lymphocytes number, surface activation molecules, cell markers, lymphoproliferative response, cytokine production, and cell death. Methods: A study was led on thirty four patients with CVID selected from the Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergies of the Faculty of Medicine of São Paulo University (FMUSP), Brazil. Peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMC) of CVID patients and healthy individuals were evaluated in regard to the expression of cell surface markers, activation molecules, lymphoproliferative response, cytokine synthesis and apoptosis. Results: CVID patients showed decrease in T and B lymphocyte counts, CD25, CD69, CD40L, and CD70 expression, and low synthesis levels of IL-4 and IL-5. Furthermore, their lymphocytes were more susceptible to apoptosis following activation. Conclusion: The higher susceptibility to apoptosis following activation may also be responsible for the decrease in the expression of activation molecules and CD40L, in cytokine synthesis, and in levels of circulating T and B cells.


Introdução: A imunodeficiência comum variável (CVID) é uma enfermidade imune caracterizada pela produção deficiente de anticorpos. Objetivo: Avaliar o número de linfócitos, moléculas de ativação, resposta linfoproliferativa, produção de citocinas e morte celular. Métodos: Foram selecionados 34 pacientes com CVID na Divisão de Imunologia Clínica e Alergia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), Brasil. Células mononucleares obtidas a partir de sangue periférico (PBMC) foram isoladas para avaliação de marcadores de superfície celular, moléculas de ativação, resposta linfoproliferativa, quantificação de citocinas e apoptose. Resultados: Os pacientes analisados apresentaram diminuição na contagem de linfócitos T e B, expressão de CD25, CD69, CD40L, CD70, e baixa produção de IL-4 e IL-5. Os linfócitos se apresentaram mais suscetíveis à apoptose pós-ativação. Conclusão: A maior susceptibilidade à apoptose pós-ativação pode ser responsável pela diminuição na expressão de moléculas de ativação e CD40L, síntese de citocinas e linfócitos T e B circulantes.

12.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-743689

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Nucleic acid methylation may have major effects on gene expression patterns and, by consequence, on the development of autoimmunity, like Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Objective: To investigate the pattern of global DNA methylation in SLE patients and compare this pattern with laboratory parameters. Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from SLE patients with non-active disease (SLEDAI<6), SLE patients with active disease (SLEDAI>6), and healthy individuals. Global DNA methylation was evaluated by digestion of genomic DNA with Hpa II and Msp I and compared with laboratory parameters. Results and conclusion: A statistical difference in DNA global methylation was observed when SLE patients were compared to healthy individuals. A positive correlation was observed between the frequency of global methylation and C3 and C4 serum levels for SLE patients with SLEDAI<6. These results suggest that the relative amount of DNA methylation is increased in SLE patients, and differential methylation of genes related to the complement pathway alters gene expression involved in autoimmune response in SLE patients.


Introdução: Metilação do ácido nucleico pode alterar a expressão gênica e favorecer o desenvolvimento de autoimunidade, como lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES). Objetivo: Investigar o padrão de metilação global do DNA em pacientes com LES e comparar com parâmetros laboratoriais. Métodos: DNA genômico foi isolado de pacientes com LES com doença não ativa (SLEDAI <6), pacientes com doença ativa (SLEDAI> 6) e indivíduos saudáveis. Metilação do DNA global foi avaliada por digestão do DNA genômico com Hpall e MspI e comparados com parâmetros laboratoriais. Resultados e conclusão: Foi observada diferença estatística na metilação global do DNA em pacientes com LES. Verificou-se correlação positiva entre a frequência de metilação global e níveis séricos C3 e C4 em pacientes com SLEDAI <6. Estes resultados sugerem que a quantidade relativa de metilação do DNA está aumentada em pacientes com LES, e a metilação de diferentes genes relacionados com o sistema complemento podem alterar a expressão de genes envolvidos no LES.

13.
Braz. j. allergy immunol ; 2(2): 56-65, mar.-apr.2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-775987

ABSTRACT

A imunodeficiência combinada grave (SCID) é uma condição clínica caracterizada por marcante comprometimento da resposta imune envolvendo linfócitos T e/ou B e/ou células NK, que conduza aumento da susceptibilidade a infecções e alta taxa de mortalidade em crianças acometidas. Dificuldades na interpretação dos sintomas clínicos e na identificação de mutações genéticas, devido à ampla variedade fenotípica e genotípica da doença, representam obstáculos para o diagnóstico. Por outro lado, o tratamento é realizado de forma independente da identificação de mutação genética. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi revisar aspectos fisiopatológicos, métodos diagnósticos e tratamentos utilizados em pacientes com SCID. A revisão foi realizada com base em levantamento bibliográfico de banco de dados indexados disponíveis na Internet incluindo LILACS, MEDLINE, PubMed, SciELO Brasil, periódicos CAPES e Cochrane, e foi conduzida com os seguintes critérios de inclusão: artigos científicos publicados nos idiomas português e inglês, dentro do período de 1963 a 2014 e que possuíam as palavras-chave “Imunodeficiência Combinada Grave”, “SCID”, “Leucopenia”, “Diagnóstico”, “Tratamento” e “Transplante de medula óssea”. O levantamento bibliográfico revelou dificuldades no diagnóstico clínico, laboratorial e genético-molecular, e ressaltou a importância do diagnóstico precoce conduzindo ao tratamento adequado. O diagnóstico precoce da SCID tem papel crucial na melhora da qualidade de vida e na sobrevida dos pacientes, além de favorecer intervenções terapêuticas que previnem o surgimento de infecções e complicações clínicas subsequentes...


Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a clinical condition characterized by marked impairment of immune responses involving T and/or B lymphocytes and/or NK cells, leading to increased susceptibility to infections and a high mortality rate among affected infants. Difficulties in the interpretation of clinical symptoms and in the detection of genetic mutations make diagnosis a challenge because of the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity associated with the disease. Treatment is performed regardless of the detection of a genetic mutation. The objective of the present study was to review pathophysiological aspects, diagnostic methods, and therapies used in patients with SCID. The review included papers available in online databases, including LILACS, MEDLINE, PubMed, SciELO Brazil, Periódicos CAPES, and Cochrane. Papers were searched considering the following inclusion criteria: research articles published in Portuguese or English, between years 1963 and 2014, containing the keywords "Severe Combined Immunodeficiency," "SCID," "Leukopenia," "Diagnosis," "Treatment," and "Bone Marrow Transplantation." The review revealed difficulties in clinical, biochemical, and molecular genetic diagnosis, and emphasized the importance of early diagnosis leading to appropriate treatment. Early diagnosis of SCID is crucial to improve the quality of life and survival of patients, and it allows the use of therapeutic interventions that prevent the onset of infections and subsequent clinical complications...


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Marrow Transplantation , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/diagnosis , Leukopenia/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Therapeutics , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Methods , Patients , Quality of Life
14.
Braz. j. allergy immunol ; 1(1): 23-38, jan.-fev. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-708121

ABSTRACT

Buscamos aqui revisar os mecanismos imunopatológicos relacionados à neutropenia congênita.O termo neutropenia congênita é utilizado para designar uma série de distúrbios neutropênicos,de caráter permanente, intermitente, grave (< 500 neutrófilos/mm3 de sangue), ou moderado(entre 500-1.500 neutrófilos/mm3 de sangue), que podem acometer pele e mucosa do tratorespiratório e gastrintestinal. Quando a neutropenia é diagnosticada, ela deve ser distinguidadas formas adquiridas, incluindo a neutropenia pós-viral e a autoimune, da forma congênita,que pode ser uma enfermidade isolada ou fazer parte de uma doença genética. Cinquenta porcento das formas congênitas de neutropenia apresentam manifestação extra-hematopoiéticacom resposta imune adaptativa normal e infecções recorrentes no início da vida. O tratamentodestes pacientes tem por objetivo o controle e a prevenção de infecções através do uso profiláticode antibióticos, e outra forma de tratamento consiste na utilização de fator estimuladorde colônia de granulócitos recombinante humano (rHUG-CSF), que aumenta o número degranulócitos, diminui o número infecções e melhora de forma significativa a sobrevida e qualidadede vida. A revisão foi realizada por levantamento bibliográfico de banco de dados obtidosatravés de pesquisa direta, LILACS, MEDLINE e capítulos de livros. A revisão literária demonstraa importância dos neutrófilos pela defesa do hospedeiro contra micro-organismos, e defeitosgenéticos que envolvem estas células acarretam maior susceptibilidade a infecções microbianasem locais como pele e mucosa do trato respiratório e gastrintestinal. Estes defeitos genéticosdos neutrófilos envolvem o seu número, função, ou ambos. Como estes defeitos envolvendofagócitos são de caráter congênito e hereditário, as crianças são os pacientes predominantes. Osneutrófilos apresentam um papel importante na imunidade inata, prevenindo o surgimento deinfecções de repetição. O tratamento com rHUG-CSF aumenta o número de granulócitos, diminuio número de novas infecções e melhora de forma significativa a sobrevida e qualidade de vida.O transplante de células-tronco hematopoiéticas é indicado em casos refratários ao tratamentocom rHUG-CSF que apresentam infecções recorrentes graves e resistência ao tratamento semdetecção de mielodisplasia/leucemia.


Here we aim to review pathogenic mechanisms related to congenital neutropenia. The termcongenital neutropenia has been used to designate a series of neutropenic disorders that canbe permanent, intermittent, severe (< 500 neutrophils/mm3) or moderate (500-1500 neutrophils/mm3), which could affect the skin and mucosa of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Whenneutropenia is diagnosed, it is necessary to distinguish between the acquired form, includingpost-viral and autoimmune neutropenia, and the congenital form, a disease that can occur eitheralone or as part of a genetic disease. Fifty percent of the congenital forms of neutropenia haveextra-hematopoietic manifestations, with normal adaptive immune response and recurrent infections in early life. Treatment of these patients focuses primarily on controlling and preventing infections through the use of prophylactic antibiotics; another treatment approach is the use of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rHUG-CSF), which increases the number of granulocytes, reduces the number of infections, and significantly improves survival rates and quality of life in these patients. Papers were directly searched on the LILACS and MEDLINE database Book chapters were also reviewed. The literature reviewed underscores theimportance of neutrophils for host defense against microorganisms and the association betweengenetic defects involving these cells and an increased susceptibility to microbial infections inthe skin and mucosa of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Genetic defects may affectneutrophil number, function, or both. Because defects involving phagocytes have a congenitaland hereditary origin, children are the most common patients. Neutrophils have an importantrole in innate immunity, preventing the emergence of recurrent infections. Treatment withrHUG-CSF increases the number of granulocytes, decreases the number of new infections, andsignificantly improves survival rates and quality of life. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantationis indicated in patients refractory to rHUG-CSF treatment with severe and recurrent infectionsand resistance to treatment with no detection of myelodysplasia/leukemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Child , Adolescent , Congenital Abnormalities , Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency , Granulocytes , Hemic and Lymphatic Diseases , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , Neutropenia , Neutrophils , Phagocytosis , Stem Cell Transplantation , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Methods , Patients
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