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1.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1131-1141, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914257

ABSTRACT

Background@#Conventional diagnostic approaches for adrenal tumors require multi-step processes, including imaging studies and dynamic hormone tests. Therefore, this study aimed to discriminate adrenal tumors from a single blood sample based on the combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and machine learning algorithms in serum profiling of adrenal steroids. @*Methods@#The LC-MS-based steroid profiling was applied to serum samples obtained from patients with nonfunctioning adenoma (NFA, n=73), Cushing’s syndrome (CS, n=30), and primary aldosteronism (PA, n=40) in a prospective multicenter study of adrenal disease. The decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boost (XGBoost) were performed to categorize the subtypes of adrenal tumors. @*Results@#The CS group showed higher serum levels of 11-deoxycortisol than the NFA group, and increased levels of tetrahydrocortisone (THE), 20α-dihydrocortisol, and 6β-hydroxycortisol were found in the PA group. However, the CS group showed lower levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEA-S) than both the NFA and PA groups. Patients with PA expressed higher serum 18-hydroxycortisol and DHEA but lower THE than NFA patients. The balanced accuracies of DT, RF, and XGBoost for classifying each type were 78%, 96%, and 97%, respectively. In receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis for CS, XGBoost, and RF showed a significantly greater diagnostic power than the DT. However, in ROC analysis for PA, only RF exhibited better diagnostic performance than DT. @*Conclusion@#The combination of LC-MS-based steroid profiling with machine learning algorithms could be a promising one-step diagnostic approach for the classification of adrenal tumor subtypes.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898233

ABSTRACT

Background@#Postoperative thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression therapy is recommended for patients with intermediate- and high-risk differentiated thyroid cancer to prevent the recurrence of thyroid cancer. With the recent increase in small thyroid cancer cases, the extent of resection during surgery has generally decreased. Therefore, questions have been raised about the efficacy and long-term side effects of TSH suppression therapy in patients who have undergone a lobectomy. @*Methods@#This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial in which 2,986 patients with papillary thyroid cancer are randomized into a high-TSH group (intervention) and a low-TSH group (control) after having undergone a lobectomy. The principle of treatment includes a TSH-lowering regimen aimed at TSH levels between 0.3 and 1.99 μIU/mL in the low-TSH group. The high-TSH group targets TSH levels between 2.0 and 7.99 μIU/mL. The dose of levothyroxine will be adjusted at each visit to maintain the target TSH level. The primary outcome is recurrence-free survival, as assessed by neck ultrasound every 6 to 12 months. Secondary endpoints include disease-free survival, overall survival, success rate in reaching the TSH target range, the proportion of patients with major cardiovascular diseases or bone metabolic disease, the quality of life, and medical costs. The follow-up period is 5 years. @*Conclusion@#The results of this trial will contribute to establishing the optimal indication for TSH suppression therapy in low-risk papillary thyroid cancer patients by evaluating the benefit and harm of lowering TSH levels in terms of recurrence, metabolic complications, costs, and quality of life.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898174

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874411

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. Although unilateral hearing loss (UHL) has been proven to be associated with educational and behavioral problems, few studies have investigated psychopathological abnormalities in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychopathological influence of UHL among Korean 19-year-old males. @*Methods@#. The authors retrospectively compared the objective personality test profiles of 602 subjects with UHL with those of 23,790 peers with normal hearing. All participants in the current study were 19-year-old males who underwent a physical examination and completed the Korean Military Multiphasic Personality Inventory for conscription at the Military Manpower Administration from February 2015 to December 2016. @*Results@#. Significantly higher scores were found on neurosis scales in the UHL group than in the normal-hearing group (50.9± 10.8 vs. 44.9±6.0 for anxiety; 51.0±10.5 vs. 44.9±5.2 for depression; 51.1±10.4 vs. 45.1±6.81 for somatization, all P<0.001). The psychopathy scales were also significantly higher in the UHL group than in the normal-hearing group (49.3±9.4 vs. 46.3±5.7 for schizophrenia; 51.1±11.2 vs. 44.3±5.8 for personality disorders; 51.1±10.5 vs. 45.7±3.7 for paranoia, all P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#. Nineteen-year-old males with UHL tended to have more abnormal results on personality tests than controls with normal hearing, suggesting that UHL may be related with a higher risk of psychopathology.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890529

ABSTRACT

Background@#Postoperative thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression therapy is recommended for patients with intermediate- and high-risk differentiated thyroid cancer to prevent the recurrence of thyroid cancer. With the recent increase in small thyroid cancer cases, the extent of resection during surgery has generally decreased. Therefore, questions have been raised about the efficacy and long-term side effects of TSH suppression therapy in patients who have undergone a lobectomy. @*Methods@#This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial in which 2,986 patients with papillary thyroid cancer are randomized into a high-TSH group (intervention) and a low-TSH group (control) after having undergone a lobectomy. The principle of treatment includes a TSH-lowering regimen aimed at TSH levels between 0.3 and 1.99 μIU/mL in the low-TSH group. The high-TSH group targets TSH levels between 2.0 and 7.99 μIU/mL. The dose of levothyroxine will be adjusted at each visit to maintain the target TSH level. The primary outcome is recurrence-free survival, as assessed by neck ultrasound every 6 to 12 months. Secondary endpoints include disease-free survival, overall survival, success rate in reaching the TSH target range, the proportion of patients with major cardiovascular diseases or bone metabolic disease, the quality of life, and medical costs. The follow-up period is 5 years. @*Conclusion@#The results of this trial will contribute to establishing the optimal indication for TSH suppression therapy in low-risk papillary thyroid cancer patients by evaluating the benefit and harm of lowering TSH levels in terms of recurrence, metabolic complications, costs, and quality of life.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890470

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and is one of the leading causes of end stage renal failure. In previous studies, the contribution of genetic susceptibility to DN showed inconsistent results. In this study, we investigated the association between the solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose transporter member 1 (SLC2A1) HaeIII polymorphism and DN in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) according to disease duration. METHODS: A total of 846 patients with T2DM (mean age, 61.3 ± 12.3 years; mean duration of T2DM, 10.3 ± 7.9 years; 55.3% men) who visited the Chungbuk National University Hospital were investigated. The HaeIII polymorphism of the SLC2A1 gene was determined by the real time polymerase chain reaction method. Genotyping results were presented as GG, AG, or AA. A subgroup analysis was performed according to duration of T2DM (≤ 10 years, < 10 years). RESULTS: The AG + AA genotype showed a significantly higher risk of DN compared with the GG genotype in patients with a type 2 DM duration less than 10 years (12.4% vs. 4.2%; P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in terms of other diabetic complications, including retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease or peripheral artery disease, according to the genotypes of the SLC2A1 HaeIII polymorphism. CONCLUSION: The SLC2A1 HaeIII polymorphism was associated with DN in Korean patients with T2DM, particularly in the group with a relatively short disease duration.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Humans , Methods , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Renal Insufficiency
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is an adipokine that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism and has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects. It also plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: This study evaluated the association between adiponectin 45T/G polymorphism and cardiovascular complication in type 2 diabetes in Koreans. RESULTS: The present study included 758 patients with type 2 diabetes. The distribution of the adiponectin 45T/G polymorphism was 3.56% (n = 27) for GG, 42.35% (n = 321) for TG, and 54.09% (n = 410) for TT in patients with type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of CVD was significantly higher in subjects with the GG + TG genotype compared to those with the TT genotype (17.5% vs. 9.8%, P = 0.002). The G allele was associated with a higher risk of CVD (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the adiponectin 45T/G polymorphism is associated with diabetic cardiovascular complication in type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Adipokines , Adiponectin , Alleles , Cardiovascular Diseases , Genotype , Glucose , Humans , Metabolism , Prevalence
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor add-on therapy is a new option for patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes who are taking combined metformin and sulfonylurea (SU). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of this triple therapy and the characteristics of rapid responders and hypoglycemia-prone patients. METHODS: We included 807 patients with type 2 diabetes who were prescribed a newly added DPP-4 inhibitor to ongoing metformin and SU in 2009 to 2011. Glycemia and other metabolic parameters at baseline, 12, 24, and 52 weeks, as well as episodes of hypoglycemia were analyzed. Rapid responders were defined as patients with > or =25% reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) within 12 weeks. RESULTS: At baseline, while on the submaximal metformin and SU combination, the mean HbA1c level was 8.4%. Twelve weeks after initiation of DPP-4 inhibitor add-on, 269 patients (34.4%) achieved an HbA1c level < or =7%. Sixty-six patients (8.2%, 47 men) were rapid responders. The duration of diabetes was shorter in rapid responders, and their baseline fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, C-peptide, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were significantly higher. Patients who experienced hypoglycemia after taking DPP-4 inhibitor add-on were more likely to be female, to have a lower body weight and lower triglyceride and FPG levels, and to have higher homeostasis model assessment of beta-cells. CONCLUSION: An oral hypoglycemic triple agent combination including a DPP-4 inhibitor was effective in patients with uncontrolled diabetes. Proactive dose reduction of SU should be considered when a DPP-4 inhibitor is added for rapid responders and hypoglycemia-prone patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Body Weight , C-Peptide , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Fasting , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Insulin Resistance , Metformin , Sulfonylurea Compounds , Triglycerides
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146601

ABSTRACT

We report here the cases of two females with Graves' disease who developed insulin autoimmune syndrome after treatment with methimazole. The patients exhibited a sudden altered mental state after treatment with methimazole for approximately 4 weeks. Patients had hypoglycemia with serum glucose below 70 mg/dL, and laboratory findings showed both high levels of serum insulin and high titers of insulin autoantibodies. The two women had never been exposed to insulin or oral antidiabetic agents, and there was no evidence of insulinoma in imaging studies. After glucose loading, serum glucose, and total insulin levels increased abnormally. One of the patient was found to have HLA-DRB1*0406, which is known to be strongly associated with methimazole-induced insulin autoimmune syndrome. After discontinuation of methimazole, hypoglycemic events disappeared within 1 month. Insulin autoantibody titer and insulin levels decreased within 5 months and there was no further development of hypoglycemic events. We present these cases with a review of the relevant literature.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , Female , Glucose , Graves Disease , HLA-DRB1 Chains , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Insulinoma , Methimazole
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119440

ABSTRACT

A 48-year-old woman was incidentally found to have bilateral adrenal masses, 2.8 cm in diameter on the right, and 2.3 cm and 1.7 cm in diameter on the left, by abdominal computed tomography. The patient had a medical history of hypertension, which was not being controlled by carvedilol, at a dose of 25 mg daily. She presented with signs and symptoms that suggested Cushing Syndrome. We diagnosed adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent Cushing Syndrome based on the results of basal and dynamic hormone tests. Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) was performed to localize a functioning adrenal cortical mass. AVS results were consistent with hypersecretion of cortisol from both adrenal glands, with a cortisol lateralization ratio of 1.1. Upon bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy, bilateral ACTH-independent adrenal adenomas were found. The patient's signs and symptoms of Cushing Syndrome improved after surgery just as the blood pressure was normalized. After surgery, the patient was started on glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Adrenal Glands , Adrenalectomy , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Blood Pressure , Carbazoles , Cushing Syndrome , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Hypertension , Propanolamines , Veins
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In approach to an adrenal incidentaloma, early exclusion of pheochromocytoma is clinically important, due to the risk of catecholamine crisis. The aims of this study are to investigate the characteristics of incidentally detected pheochromocytomas, compared with that of the other adrenal incidentalomas, and to compare these characteristics with those of symptomatic pheochromocytomas. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records of 198 patients with adrenal incidentaloma from 2001 to 2010. We analyzed the clinical, laboratory and radiological data of pheochromocytomas, in comparison with those of the other adrenal incidentalomas. We also compared the characteristics of these incidentally detected pheochromocytomas with the medical records of 28 pathologically proven pheochromocytomas, diagnosed based on typical symptoms. RESULTS: Among the 198 patients with adrenal incidentaloma, nineteen patients were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytomas showed larger size and higher Hounsfield unit at precontrast computed tomography (CT) than did non-pheochromocytomas. All pheochromocytomas were larger than 2.0 cm, and the Hounsfield units were 19 or higher in precontrast CT. When both criteria of size > 2.0 cm and Hounsfield unit > 19 were met, the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma were 100% and 79.3%, respectively. Compared with patients with pheochromocytoma, diagnosed based on typical symptoms, patients with incidentally detected pheochromocytoma were older, presented less often with hypertension, and showed lower levels of 24-hour urine metanephrine. CONCLUSION: Adrenal incidentaloma with < 2.0 cm in size or < or = 19 Hounsfield units in precontrast CT imaging was less likely to be a pheochromocytoma. Patients with incidentally discovered pheochromocytoma showed lower catecholamine metabolites, compared with those patients with symptomatic pheochromocytoma.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms , Adrenocortical Adenoma , Humans , Hypertension , Medical Records , Pheochromocytoma , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
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