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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e189-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001144

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infection, antibiotics are often prescribed due to concerns about accompanying bacterial infection. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the number of patients with COVID-19 who received antibiotic prescriptions, as well as factors that influenced antibiotics prescription, using the National Health Insurance System database. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed claims data for adults aged ≥ 19 years hospitalized for COVID-19 from December 1, 2019 to December 31, 2020. According to the National Institutes of Health guidelines for severity classification, we calculated the proportion of patients who received antibiotics and the number of days of therapy per 1,000 patient-days. Factors contributing to antibiotic use were determined using linear regression analysis. In addition, antibiotic prescription data for patients with influenza hospitalized from 2018 to 2021 were compared with those for patients with COVID-19, using an integrated database from Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency-COVID19-National Health Insurance Service cohort (K-COV-N cohort), which was partially adjusted and obtained from October 2020 to December 2021. @*Results@#Of the 55,228 patients, 46.6% were males, 55.9% were aged ≥ 50 years, and most patients (88.7%) had no underlying diseases. The majority (84.3%; n = 46,576) were classified as having mild-to-moderate illness, with 11.2% (n = 6,168) and 4.5% (n = 2,484) having severe and critical illness, respectively. Antibiotics were prescribed to 27.3% (n = 15,081) of the total study population, and to 73.8%, 87.6%, and 17.9% of patients with severe, critical, and mild-to-moderate illness, respectively. Fluoroquinolones were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics (15.1%; n = 8,348), followed by third-generation cephalosporins (10.4%; n = 5,729) and beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors (6.9%; n = 3,822). Older age, COVID-19 severity, and underlying medical conditions contributed significantly to antibiotic prescription requirement. The antibiotic use rate was higher in the influenza group (57.1%) than in the total COVID-19 patient group (21.2%), and higher in severe-to-critical COVID-19 cases (66.6%) than in influenza cases. @*Conclusion@#Although most patients with COVID-19 had mild to moderate illness, more than a quarter were prescribed antibiotics. Judicious use of antibiotics is necessary for patients with COVID-19, considering the severity of disease and risk of bacterial co-infection.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e129-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976938

ABSTRACT

Background@#Alpha-toxin (AT), a major virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus, is an important immunotherapeutic target to prevent or treat invasive S. aureus infections. Previous studies have suggested that anti-AT antibodies (Abs) may have a protective role against S. aureus bacteremia (SAB), but their function remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between serum anti-AT Ab levels and clinical outcomes of SAB. @*Methods@#Patients from a prospective SAB cohort at a tertiary-care medical center (n = 51) were enrolled in the study from July 2016 to January 2019. Patients without symptoms or signs of infection were enrolled as controls (n = 100). Blood samples were collected before the onset of SAB and at 2- and 4-weeks post-bacteremia. Anti-AT immunoglobin G (IgG) levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All clinical S. aureus isolates were tested for the presence of hla using polymerase chain reaction. @*Results@#Anti-AT IgG levels in patients with SAB before the onset of bacteremia did not differ significantly from those in non-infectious controls. Pre-bacteremic anti-AT IgG levels tended to be lower in patients with worse clinical outcomes (7-day mortality, persistent bacteremia, metastatic infection, septic shock), although the differences were not statistically significant. Patients who needed intensive care unit care had significantly lower anti-AT IgG levels at 2 weeks post-bacteremia (P = 0.020). @*Conclusion@#The study findings suggest that lower anti-AT Ab responses before and during SAB, reflective of immune dysfunction, are associated with more severe clinical presentations of infection.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e101-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976925

ABSTRACT

The current guidelines for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of vancomycin suggest a target 24-hour area under the curve (AUC 0-24 ) of 400 to 600 mg*h/L for serious methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. In this study, the predictabilities of acute kidney injury (AKI) of various TDM target parameters, target levels, and sampling methods were evaluated in patients who underwent TDM from January 2020 to December 2020. The AUC 0-24 and trough values were calculated by both one- and two-point sampling methods, and were evaluated for the predictability of AKI. Among the AUC 0-24 cutoff comparisons, the threshold value of 500 mg*h/L in the two sampling methods was statistically significant (P = 0.042) when evaluated for the predictability of AKI. Analysis by an receiver operating characteristic curve estimated an AUC 0-24 cutoff value of 563.45 mg*h/L as a predictor of AKI, and was proposed as the upper limit of TDM target.

4.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 33-38, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002703

ABSTRACT

A case of persistent Ralstonia mannitolilytica bacteremia in the neonatal intensive care unit prompted source investigation due to its rarity. After an extensive investigation, a contaminated ultrasonic nebulizer was identified as the source, and the infection was controlled by removing the source. This study emphasizes the importance of further investigations, even in single cases of rare pathogens.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e252-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938022

ABSTRACT

Background@#The clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in the COVID-19 vaccination era need to be clarified because breakthrough infection after vaccination is not uncommon. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed hospitalized COVID-19 patients during a delta variantdominant period 6 months after the national COVID-19 vaccination rollout. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for severe progression were assessed and subclassified according to vaccination status. @*Results@#A total of 438 COVID-19 patients were included; the numbers of patients in the unvaccinated, partially vaccinated and fully vaccinated groups were 188 (42.9%), 117 (26.7%) and 133 (30.4%), respectively. The vaccinated group was older, less symptomatic and had a higher Charlson comorbidity index at presentation. The proportions of patients who experienced severe progression in the unvaccinated and fully vaccinated groups were 20.3% (31/153) and 10.8% (13/120), respectively. Older age, diabetes mellitus, solid cancer, elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase and chest X-ray abnormalities were associated with severe progression, and the vaccination at least once was the only protective factor for severe progression. Chest X-ray abnormalities at presentation were the only predictor for severe progression among fully vaccinated patients. @*Conclusion@#In the hospitalized setting, vaccinated and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients showed different clinical features and risk of oxygen demand despite a relatively high proportion of patients in the two groups. Vaccination needs to be assessed as an initial checkpoint, and chest X-ray may be helpful for predicting severe progression in vaccinated patients.

6.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 360-363, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937672

ABSTRACT

The STANDARD™ M10 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) assay (M10 assay) (SD Biosensor Inc., Suwon, Korea) is a rapid, fully-automated, cartridgetype molecular diagnostic assay that detects SARS-CoV-2 RNA using primers and probes for each target gene (ORF1ab gene, E gene). This study evaluated its performance by assessing its concordance with the approved SARS-CoV-2 real-time PCR assay. Tests were performed on 80 nasopharyngeal samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the M10 assay were 100%.The M10 assay effectively diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and it was comparable to the approved SARS-CoV-2 real-time PCR assay. It is a viable point-of-care test due to its short turnaround time.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e126-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925892

ABSTRACT

Background@#The relationship between changes in anxiety levels and personal protective equipment (PPE) use is yet to be evaluated. The present study assessed this relationship among healthcare workers (HCWs) involved in the care of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). @*Methods@#An online survey was conducted in a municipal hospital with 195 nationally designated negative pressure isolation units in Korea. Anxiety level was measured using the self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), and changes in anxiety levels were assessed based on the time when COVID-19 vaccine was introduced in March 2021 in Korea. Monthly PPE usage between June 2020 and May 2021 was investigated. @*Results@#The mean SAS score (33.25 ± 5.97) was within normal range and was lower than those reported in previous studies conducted before COVID-19 vaccination became available.Among the 93 HCWs who participated, 64 (68.8%) answered that their fear of contracting COVID-19 decreased after vaccination. The number of coveralls used per patient decreased from 33.6 to 0. However, a demand for more PPE than necessary was observed in situations where HCWs were exposed to body fluids and secretions (n = 38, 40.9%). Excessive demand for PPE was not related to age, working experience, or SAS score. @*Conclusion@#Anxiety in HCWs exposed to COVID-19 was lower than it was during the early period of the pandemic, and the period before vaccination was introduced. The number of coveralls used per patient also decreased although an excessive demand for PPE was observed.

8.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 517-528, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-946167

ABSTRACT

Background@#Self-sampling procedures to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is important for patients who have difficulty visiting the hospital and may decrease the burden for health care workers (HCWs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance, stability and usability of self-collected nasal and oral combo swabs and saliva specimens. @*Materials and Methods@#We conducted a case-control study with 50 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 50 healthy volunteers from March, 2021 to June, 2021. We performed real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to compare the diagnostic performance of self-collected specimens using positive percent agreements (PPAs). @*Results@#The PPAs between self-collected and HCW-collected specimens were 77.3 - 81.0% and 80.5 -86.7% for the combo swabs and saliva specimens, respectively. The PPAs increased to 88.9 - 89.2% and 81.2 - 82.1% with a cycle threshold value ≤30. @*Conclusion@#The diagnostic performance of self sampling was comparable to that of HCW sampling in patients with high viral loads and may thus assist in the early diagnosis of COVID-19.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e343-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915441

ABSTRACT

As hospitals cater to elderly and vulnerable patients, a high mortality rate is expected if a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak occurs. Consequently, policies to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in hospital settings are essential. This study was conducted to investigate how effectively national and international guidelines provide recommendations for infection control issues in hospitals. After selecting important issues in infection control, we performed a systematic review and analysis of recommendations and guidelines for preventing COVID-19 transmission within medical institutions at national and international levels. We analyzed guidelines from the World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, and Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. Recent guidelines do not provide specific solutions to infection control issues. Therefore, efforts need to be made to devise consistent advice and guidelines for COVID-19 control.

10.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 11-14, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875439

ABSTRACT

Recently, the number of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who have tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2), via the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test, after recovery has increased; this has caused a dilemma regarding the medical measures and policies. We evaluated the dynamics of viral load and anti-SARSCoV-2 antibodies in four patients with positive RT-PCR results after recovery. In all patients, the highest levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies were reached after about a month of the onset of the initial symptoms. Then, the IgG titers plateaued, and the IgM titers decreased, regardless of RT-PCR results.The IgG and IgM levels did not increase after the post-negative positive RT-PCR results in any of the patients. Our results reinforced that the post-negative positive RT-PCR results may be due to the detection of RNA particles rather than reinfection in individuals who have recovered from COVID-19.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e77-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease with high mortality in East Asia. This study aimed to develop, for primary care providers, a prediction score using initial symptoms and basic laboratory blood tests to differentiate between SFTS and other endemic zoonoses in Korea.@*METHODS@#Patients aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with endemic zoonoses during a 3-year period (between January 2015 and December 2017) were retrospectively enrolled from 4 tertiary university hospitals. A prediction score was built based on multivariate logistic regression analyses.@*RESULTS@#Of 84 patients, 35 with SFTS and 49 with other endemic zoonoses were enrolled. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of SFTS included neurologic symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 12.915; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.173–76.747), diarrhea (OR, 10.306; 95% CI, 1.588–66.895), leukopenia (< 4,000/mm3) (OR, 19.400; 95% CI, 3.290–114.408), and normal C-reactive protein (< 0.5 mg/dL) (OR, 24.739; 95% CI, 1.812–337.742). We set up a prediction score by assigning one point to each of these four predictors. A score of ≥ 2 had 82.9% sensitivity (95% CI, 71.7%–87.5%) and 95.9% specificity (95% CI, 88.0%–99.2%). The area under the curve of the clinical prediction score was 0.950 (95% CI, 0.903–0.997).@*CONCLUSION@#This study finding suggests a simple and useful scoring system to predict SFTS in patients with endemic zoonoses. We expect this strategic approach to facilitate early differentiation of SFTS from other endemic zoonoses, especially by primary care providers, and to improve the clinical outcomes.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e409-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892008

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide, there are growing concerns about patients' mental health. We investigated psychological problems in COVID-19 patients assessed with self-reported questionnaires including the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale, and Impact of Event ScaleRevised Korean version. Ten patients who recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia without complications underwent self-reported questionnaires about 1 month after discharge. Of them, 10% reported depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) while 50% had depression during the treatment. Perceived stigma and history of psychiatric treatment affected PTSD symptom severity, consistent with previous emerging infectious diseases. Survivors also reported that they were concerned about infecting others and being discriminated and that they chose to avoid others after discharge. Further support and strategy to minimize their psychosocial difficulties after discharge should be considered.

13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e142-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891989

ABSTRACT

Background@#Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected pneumonia emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019. In this retrospective multicenter study, we investigated the clinical course and outcomes of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from early cases in Republic of Korea. @*Methods@#All of the cases confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction were enrolled from the 1st to the 28th patient nationwide. Clinical data were collected and analyzed for changes in clinical severity including laboratory, radiological, and virologic dynamics during the progression of illness. @*Results@#The median age was 40 years (range, 20–73 years) and 15 (53.6%) patients were male. The most common symptoms were cough (28.6%) and sore throat (28.6%), followed by fever (25.0%). Diarrhea was not common (10.7%). Two patients had no symptoms. Initial chest X-ray (CXR) showed infiltration in 46.4% of the patients, but computed tomography scan confirmed pneumonia in 88.9% (16/18) of the patients. Six patients (21.4%) required supplemental oxygen therapy, but no one needed mechanical ventilation. Lymphopenia was more common in severe cases. Higher level of C-reactive protein and worsening of chest radiographic score was observed during the 5–7 day period after symptom onset. Viral shedding was high from day 1 of illness, especially from the upper respiratory tract (URT). @*Conclusion@#The prodromal symptoms of COVID-19 were mild and most patients did not have limitations of daily activity. Viral shedding from URT was high from the prodromal phase. Radiological pneumonia was common from the early days of illness, but it was frequently not evident in simple CXR. These findings could be plausible explanations for the easy and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the community.

14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e77-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899811

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease with high mortality in East Asia. This study aimed to develop, for primary care providers, a prediction score using initial symptoms and basic laboratory blood tests to differentiate between SFTS and other endemic zoonoses in Korea.@*METHODS@#Patients aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with endemic zoonoses during a 3-year period (between January 2015 and December 2017) were retrospectively enrolled from 4 tertiary university hospitals. A prediction score was built based on multivariate logistic regression analyses.@*RESULTS@#Of 84 patients, 35 with SFTS and 49 with other endemic zoonoses were enrolled. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of SFTS included neurologic symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 12.915; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.173–76.747), diarrhea (OR, 10.306; 95% CI, 1.588–66.895), leukopenia (< 4,000/mm3) (OR, 19.400; 95% CI, 3.290–114.408), and normal C-reactive protein (< 0.5 mg/dL) (OR, 24.739; 95% CI, 1.812–337.742). We set up a prediction score by assigning one point to each of these four predictors. A score of ≥ 2 had 82.9% sensitivity (95% CI, 71.7%–87.5%) and 95.9% specificity (95% CI, 88.0%–99.2%). The area under the curve of the clinical prediction score was 0.950 (95% CI, 0.903–0.997).@*CONCLUSION@#This study finding suggests a simple and useful scoring system to predict SFTS in patients with endemic zoonoses. We expect this strategic approach to facilitate early differentiation of SFTS from other endemic zoonoses, especially by primary care providers, and to improve the clinical outcomes.

15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e409-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899712

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide, there are growing concerns about patients' mental health. We investigated psychological problems in COVID-19 patients assessed with self-reported questionnaires including the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale, and Impact of Event ScaleRevised Korean version. Ten patients who recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia without complications underwent self-reported questionnaires about 1 month after discharge. Of them, 10% reported depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) while 50% had depression during the treatment. Perceived stigma and history of psychiatric treatment affected PTSD symptom severity, consistent with previous emerging infectious diseases. Survivors also reported that they were concerned about infecting others and being discriminated and that they chose to avoid others after discharge. Further support and strategy to minimize their psychosocial difficulties after discharge should be considered.

16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e142-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899693

ABSTRACT

Background@#Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected pneumonia emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019. In this retrospective multicenter study, we investigated the clinical course and outcomes of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from early cases in Republic of Korea. @*Methods@#All of the cases confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction were enrolled from the 1st to the 28th patient nationwide. Clinical data were collected and analyzed for changes in clinical severity including laboratory, radiological, and virologic dynamics during the progression of illness. @*Results@#The median age was 40 years (range, 20–73 years) and 15 (53.6%) patients were male. The most common symptoms were cough (28.6%) and sore throat (28.6%), followed by fever (25.0%). Diarrhea was not common (10.7%). Two patients had no symptoms. Initial chest X-ray (CXR) showed infiltration in 46.4% of the patients, but computed tomography scan confirmed pneumonia in 88.9% (16/18) of the patients. Six patients (21.4%) required supplemental oxygen therapy, but no one needed mechanical ventilation. Lymphopenia was more common in severe cases. Higher level of C-reactive protein and worsening of chest radiographic score was observed during the 5–7 day period after symptom onset. Viral shedding was high from day 1 of illness, especially from the upper respiratory tract (URT). @*Conclusion@#The prodromal symptoms of COVID-19 were mild and most patients did not have limitations of daily activity. Viral shedding from URT was high from the prodromal phase. Radiological pneumonia was common from the early days of illness, but it was frequently not evident in simple CXR. These findings could be plausible explanations for the easy and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the community.

17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 77-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease with high mortality in East Asia. This study aimed to develop, for primary care providers, a prediction score using initial symptoms and basic laboratory blood tests to differentiate between SFTS and other endemic zoonoses in Korea.METHODS: Patients aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with endemic zoonoses during a 3-year period (between January 2015 and December 2017) were retrospectively enrolled from 4 tertiary university hospitals. A prediction score was built based on multivariate logistic regression analyses.RESULTS: Of 84 patients, 35 with SFTS and 49 with other endemic zoonoses were enrolled. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of SFTS included neurologic symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 12.915; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.173–76.747), diarrhea (OR, 10.306; 95% CI, 1.588–66.895), leukopenia (< 4,000/mm3) (OR, 19.400; 95% CI, 3.290–114.408), and normal C-reactive protein (< 0.5 mg/dL) (OR, 24.739; 95% CI, 1.812–337.742). We set up a prediction score by assigning one point to each of these four predictors. A score of ≥ 2 had 82.9% sensitivity (95% CI, 71.7%–87.5%) and 95.9% specificity (95% CI, 88.0%–99.2%). The area under the curve of the clinical prediction score was 0.950 (95% CI, 0.903–0.997).CONCLUSION: This study finding suggests a simple and useful scoring system to predict SFTS in patients with endemic zoonoses. We expect this strategic approach to facilitate early differentiation of SFTS from other endemic zoonoses, especially by primary care providers, and to improve the clinical outcomes.

18.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 182-202, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836252

ABSTRACT

To develop a clinical practice guideline for vaccination in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease (AIIRD), the Korean College of Rheumatology and the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases developed a clinical practice guideline according to the clinical practice guideline development manual. Since vaccination is unlikely to cause AIIRD or worsen disease activities, required vaccinations are recommended. Once patients are diagnosed with AIIRD, treatment strategies should be established and, at the same time, monitor their vaccination history. It is recommended to administer vaccines when the disease enters the stabilized stage. Administering live attenuated vaccines in patients with AIIRD who are taking immunosuppressants should be avoided. Vaccination should be considered in patients with AIIRD, prior to initiating immunosuppressants. It is recommended to administer influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster, measles-mumps-rubella virus, human papillomavirus, and tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis vaccines in patients with AIIRD; such patients who planned to travel are generally recommended to be vaccinated at the recommended vaccine level of healthy adults. Those who live in a household with patients with AIIRD and their caregivers should also be vaccinated at levels that are generally recommended for healthy adults.

19.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 381-388, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834282

ABSTRACT

Background@#Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-induced nephrotoxicity is related to high plasma tenofovir concentrations. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a tenofovir prodrug with 90% lower plasma tenofovir concentrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in tenofovir-induced nephrotoxicity in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-positive patients who switched from TDF to TAF. @*Materials and Methods@#We identified all HIV-positive patients who switched from elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/TDF to elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/TAF at a tertiary hospital. We assessed tubulopathy and renal dysfunction before TDF administration, at the time TAF was used following at least 3 months of TDF use, and 3 months after TAF administration. Tubulopathy was defined by the presence of at least three abnormalities in fractional excretion of phosphate, fractional excretion of uric acid, urinary β2-microglobulin, urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, glucosuria or proteinuria. Renal dysfunction was defined as decreased by more than 25% in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) relative to baseline. @*Results@#In 80 patients, the mean eGFR was 96.8 mL/min/1.73 m 2 before administration of TDF, 81.2 (P <0.001) at the time of change to TAF, 90.9 (P <0.001) after TAF administration.Renal dysfunction occurred in 19 patients (23.8%) after TDF use for a median 15 months, 11 (57.9%) of these patients recovered from renal dysfunction after TAF administration.Six patients (7.5%) had tubulopathy before TDF administration, 36 (45.0%) after TDF administration (P <0.001), 12 (15.0%) after TAF administration (P = 0.002). @*Conclusion@#Tenofovir-induced nephrotoxicity in HIV-positive patients receiving TDF was mostly reversible after changing to TAF. Thus, TAF-containing regimens can be administered safely to HIV-positive patients with tenofovir-induced nephrotoxicity.

20.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 252-280, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834238

ABSTRACT

To develop a clinical practice guideline for vaccination in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease (AIIRD), the Korean College of Rheumatology and theKorean Society of Infectious Diseases developed a clinical practice guideline according to the clinical practice guideline development manual. Since vaccination is unlikely to cause AIIRD or worsen disease activities, required vaccinations are recommended. Once patients are diagnosed with AIIRD, treatment strategies should be established and, at the same time, monitor their vaccination history. It is recommended to administer vaccines when the disease enters the stabilized stage. Administering live attenuated vaccines in patients with AIIRD who are taking immunosuppressants should be avoided. Vaccination should be considered in patients with AIIRD, prior to initiating immunosuppressants. It is recommended to administer influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster, measlesmumps- rubella virus, human papillomavirus, and tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis vaccines in patients with AIIRD; such patients who planned to travel are generally recommended to be vaccinated at the recommended vaccine level of healthy adults. Those who live in a household with patients with AIIRD and their caregivers should also be vaccinated at levels that are generally recommended for healthy adults.

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