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1.
Gut and Liver ; : 456-465, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000388

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We explored whether high sodium intake, assessed by urinary excretion, determines the risk of sarcopenia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). @*Methods@#We analyzed 10,036 adult participants with normal kidney function from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011). NAFLD was identified using the fatty liver index, and the muscle mass was evaluated using dual X-ray absorptiometry. The dietary sodium intake was estimated using Tanaka’s equation. @*Results@#The mean 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was 144.2±36.1 mmol/day (corresponding to 3.3 g/day Na) in the total population. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion showed moderate accuracy in predicting NAFLD (area under the receiver operating characteristic, 0.702; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.692 to 0.712). A cutoff value of 99.96 mmol/day (corresponding to 2.30 g/day Na) for urinary sodium excretion in predicting NAFLD showed 76.1% sensitivity and 56.1% specificity. The results of multiple adjusted models indicated that the participants with the highest urinary sodium excretion had a significantly higher risk of NAFLD (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.27 to 1.66; p<0.001) and sarcopenia (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.73; p<0.001) than those with the lowest urinary sodium excretion. The association between a higher 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD was independent of sarcopenia. @*Conclusions@#Participants with a high sodium intake, as assessed by sodium excretion, had a substantial risk of NAFLD and sarcopenia

2.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 575-594, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000276

ABSTRACT

In May 2023, the Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association published the revised clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes. We incorporated the latest clinical research findings through a comprehensive systematic literature review and applied them in a manner suitable for the Korean population. These guidelines are designed for all healthcare providers nationwide, including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators who manage patients with diabetes or individuals at risk of developing diabetes. Based on recent changes in international guidelines and the results of a Korean epidemiological study, the recommended age for diabetes screening has been lowered. In collaboration with the relevant Korean medical societies, recently revised guidelines for managing hypertension and dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes have been incorporated into this guideline. An abridgment containing practical information on patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

3.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 347-355, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000244

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study investigated the changes of fatty liver disease prevalence in general Korean population. @*Methods@#This study analyzed data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2009 to 2017 that included individuals aged 20 years or older who had undergone a medical health examination. Fatty liver disease was assessed using the fatty liver index (FLI). The disease severity was defined by FLI cutoff, ≥30 as moderate, and ≥60 as severe fatty liver disease. @*Results@#The prevalence of Korean adults aged 20 years or over with fatty liver disease (FLI ≥60) increased from 13.3% in 2009 to 15.5% in 2017 (P for trend <0.001). The increase in fatty liver disease prevalence was prominent in men (from 20.5% to 24.2%) and the young age (20 to 39 years) group (from 12.8% to 16.4%) (P for interaction <0.001). The prevalence of fatty liver disease was the highest in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, 29.6%) population compared to that of prediabetes or normoglycemia (10.0% and 21.8%) in 2017. The prevalence of fatty liver disease had statistically increased in individuals with T2DM and prediabetes (P for trend <0.001). Its prevalence increased more steeply in the young-aged population with T2DM, from 42.2% in 2009 to 60.1% in 2017. When applying a lower FLI cutoff (≥30) similar results were observed. @*Conclusion@#The prevalence of fatty liver disease in the Korean population has increased. Individuals who are young, male, and have T2DM are vulnerable to fatty liver disease.

4.
Gut and Liver ; : 290-299, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925008

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity are independently associated with an increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), the leading cause of mortality in patients with NAFLD. Many NAFLD patients are lean, but their ASCVD risk compared to obese subjects with NAFLD is unclear. @*Methods@#Data from the 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveysdatabase were analyzed (n=4,786). NAFLD was defined as a comprehensive NAFLD score ≥40 or a liver fat score ≥–0.640. ASCVD risk was evaluated using the American College of Cardiol-ogy/American Heart Association guidelines. @*Results@#The frequency of subjects without NAFLD, with obese NAFLD, and with lean NAFLD was 62.4% (n=2,987), 26.6% (n=1,274), and 11.0% (n=525), respectively. Subjects with lean NAFLD had a significantly higher ASCVD score and prevalence of a high ASCVD risk (mean 15.6±14.0, 51.6%) than those with obese NAFLD and without NAFLD (mean 11.2±11.4, 39.8%; mean 7.9±10.9, 25.5%; all p<0.001). Subjects with lean NAFLD and significant liver fibrosis showed a significantly higher odds ratio for a high risk for ASCVD than those with obese NAFLD with or without significant liver fibrosis (odds ratio, 2.60 vs 1.93; p=0.023). @*Conclusions@#Subjects with lean NAFLD had a significantly higher ASCVD score and prevalence of high risk for ASCVD than those with obese NAFLD. Similarly, lean subjects with significant liver fibrosis had a higher probability of ASCVD than obese subjects in the subpopulation with NAFLD.

5.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 466-474, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937426

ABSTRACT

Background@#Diabetes is a leading cause of death that is responsible for 1.6 million annual deaths worldwide. However, the life expectancy and age at death of people with diabetes have been a matter of debate. @*Methods@#The National Health Insurance Service claims database, merged with death records from the National Statistical Information Service in Korea from 2006 to 2018, was analyzed. @*Results@#In total, 1,432,567 deaths were collected. The overall age at death increased by 0.44 and 0.26 year/year in the diabetes and control populations, respectively. The disparity in the mean age at death between the diabetes and control populations narrowed from 5.2 years in 2006 to 3.0 years in 2018 (p<0.001). In a subgroup analysis according to the presence of comorbid diseases, the number and proportion of deaths remained steady in the group with diabetes only, but steadily increased in the groups with diabetes combined with dyslipidemia and/or hypertension. Compared to the control population, the increase in the mean death age was higher in the population with diabetes. This trend was more prominent in the groups with dyslipidemia and/or hypertension than in the diabetes only group. Deaths from vascular disease and diabetes decreased, whereas deaths from cancer and pneumonia increased. The decline in the proportion of deaths from vascular disease was greater in the diabetes groups with hypertension and/or dyslipidemia than in the control population. @*Conclusion@#The age at death in the population with diabetes increased more steeply and reached a comparable level to those without diabetes.

6.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 698-707, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890413

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the association between hepatic steatosis burden and albuminuria in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). @*Methods@#We recruited 100 patients with both T2DM and NAFLD, but without chronic kidney disease. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥30 mg/g. Transient elastography was performed, and the steatosis burden was quantified by controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) with significant steatosis defined as CAP >302 dB/m. @*Results@#The prevalence of significant steatosis and albuminuria was 56.0% and 21.0%, respectively. Subjects with significant steatosis were significantly younger and had a significantly shorter duration of T2DM, greater waist circumference, and higher body mass index, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, than subjects without severe NAFLD (all P<0.05). Albuminuria was higher in patients with significant steatosis than in patients without significant steatosis (32.1% vs. 6.8%, P=0.002). Urinary ACR showed a correlation with CAP (r=0.331, P=0.001), and multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant association between a high degree of albuminuria and high CAP value (r=0.321, P=0.001). Additionally, multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated the independent association between urinary ACR and significant steatosis after adjustment for confounding factors including age, body mass index, duration of T2DM, low density lipoprotein level, and renin-angiotensin system blocker use (odds ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 2.71; P=0.001). @*Conclusion@#T2DM patients with NAFLD had a higher prevalence of albuminuria, which correlated with their steatosis burden.

7.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 698-707, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898117

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the association between hepatic steatosis burden and albuminuria in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). @*Methods@#We recruited 100 patients with both T2DM and NAFLD, but without chronic kidney disease. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥30 mg/g. Transient elastography was performed, and the steatosis burden was quantified by controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) with significant steatosis defined as CAP >302 dB/m. @*Results@#The prevalence of significant steatosis and albuminuria was 56.0% and 21.0%, respectively. Subjects with significant steatosis were significantly younger and had a significantly shorter duration of T2DM, greater waist circumference, and higher body mass index, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, than subjects without severe NAFLD (all P<0.05). Albuminuria was higher in patients with significant steatosis than in patients without significant steatosis (32.1% vs. 6.8%, P=0.002). Urinary ACR showed a correlation with CAP (r=0.331, P=0.001), and multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant association between a high degree of albuminuria and high CAP value (r=0.321, P=0.001). Additionally, multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated the independent association between urinary ACR and significant steatosis after adjustment for confounding factors including age, body mass index, duration of T2DM, low density lipoprotein level, and renin-angiotensin system blocker use (odds ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 2.71; P=0.001). @*Conclusion@#T2DM patients with NAFLD had a higher prevalence of albuminuria, which correlated with their steatosis burden.

8.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 480-483, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832385

ABSTRACT

We investigated proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) concentrations in individuals with normoglycemia, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). This was a pilot, cross-sectional study including 92 individuals who had not been diagnosed with or treated for diabetes. We measured PCSK9 levels in three groups of subjects; namely, normoglycemia (n=57), IFG (n=21), and IGT (n=14). Individuals with IFG and IGT showed higher PCSK9 concentrations than those in the normoglycemic group, with the highest serum PCSK9 concentrations found in individuals with IGT (55.25±15.29 ng/mL for normoglycemia, 63.47±17.78 ng/mL for IFG, 72.22±15.46 ng/mL for IGT, analysis of variance P=0.001). There were no significant differences in high- or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol among groups. Serum PCSK9 levels are increased in patients with prediabetes compared to subjects with normoglycemia.

9.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 602-613, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832330

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that had affected more than eight million people worldwide by June 2020. Given the importance of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) for host immunity, we retrospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. @*Methods@#We conducted a multi-center observational study of 1,082 adult inpatients (aged ≥18 years) who were admitted to one of five university hospitals in Daegu because of the severity of their COVID-19-related disease. The demographic, laboratory, and radiologic findings, and the mortality, prevalence of severe disease, and duration of quarantine were compared between patients with and without DM. In addition, 1:1 propensity score (PS)-matching was conducted with the DM group. @*Results@#Compared with the non-DM group (n=847), patients with DM (n=235) were older, exhibited higher mortality, and required more intensive care. Even after PS-matching, patients with DM exhibited more severe disease, and DM remained a prognostic factor for higher mortality (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 4.15). Subgroup analysis revealed that the presence of DM was associated with higher mortality, especially in older people (≥70 years old). Prior use of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor or a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor did not affect mortality or the clinical severity of the disease. @*Conclusion@#DM is a significant risk factor for COVID-19 severity and mortality. Our findings imply that COVID-19 patients with DM, especially if elderly, require special attention and prompt intensive care.

10.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 461-473, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the involvement of obesity in metabolic disorders is well known, leg fat depot influences on albuminuria have not been determined. METHODS: This population-based, cross-sectional study used a nationally representative sample of 2,076 subjects aged ≥20 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2008 to 2011. The ratio of leg fat to total fat (LF/TF ratio) was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry, and albuminuria was defined as more than one positive dipstick test or an albumin-to-creatinine ratio of ≥30 mg/g. RESULTS: Individuals whose LF/TF ratio was in the lowest tertile showed a higher proportion of albuminuria than those in the highest tertile (odds ratio [OR], 2.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01 to 3.96; P<0.001). This association was observed in both sexes, all age groups, and all subgroups stratified by body mass index, waist circumference, homeostasis model assessments of insulin resistance, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (all, P<0.05). Multiple logistic regression analyses also demonstrated that the lowest LF/TF ratio was independently associated with albuminuria risk (OR, 1.55 to 2.16; all, P<0.05). In addition, the risk of albuminuria was higher in sarcopenic individuals with lower LF/TF ratios than in the highest LF/TF ratio subjects without sarcopenia (OR, 3.73; 95% CI, 2.26 to 6.13). CONCLUSION: A lower LF/TF ratio was associated with an increased risk of albuminuria independent of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome, and when combined with sarcopenia, the albuminuria risk synergistically increased. Hence, our findings may have implications to improve risk stratification and recommendations on body fat distribution in the general population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Absorptiometry, Photon , Albuminuria , Body Fat Distribution , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Homeostasis , Insulin Resistance , Insulin , Korea , Leg , Logistic Models , Obesity , Sarcopenia , Waist Circumference
11.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 43-52, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is an important complication in the treatment of patients with diabetes. We surveyed the insight by patients with diabetes into hypoglycemia, their hypoglycemia avoidance behavior, and their level of worry regarding hypoglycemia. METHODS: A survey of patients with diabetes, who had visited seven tertiary referral centers in Daegu or Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea, between June 2014 and June 2015, was conducted. The survey contained questions about personal history, symptoms, educational experience, self-management, and attitudes about hypoglycemia. RESULTS: Of 758 participants, 471 (62.1%) had experienced hypoglycemia, and 250 (32.9%) had experienced hypoglycemia at least once in the month immediately preceding the study. Two hundred and forty-two (31.8%) of the participants had received hypoglycemia education at least once, but only 148 (19.4%) knew the exact definition of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemic symptoms identified by the participants were dizziness (55.0%), sweating (53.8%), and tremor (40.8%). They mostly chose candy (62.1%), chocolate (37.7%), or juice (36.8%) as food for recovering hypoglycemia. Participants who had experienced hypoglycemia had longer duration of diabetes and a higher proportion of insulin usage. The mean scores for hypoglycemia avoidance behavior and worry about hypoglycemia were 21.2±10.71 and 23.38±13.19, respectively. These scores tended to be higher for participants with higher than 8% of glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin use, and experience of emergency room visits. CONCLUSION: Many patients had experienced hypoglycemia and worried about it. We recommend identifying patients that are anxious about hypoglycemia and educating them about what to do when they develop hypoglycemic symptoms, especially those who have a high risk of hypoglycemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Avoidance Learning , Cacao , Candy , Dizziness , Education , Emergency Service, Hospital , Glycated Hemoglobin , Hypoglycemia , Insulin , Korea , Self Care , Sweat , Sweating , Tertiary Care Centers , Tremor
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 312-318, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174331

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Metformin can reduce diabetes-related complications and mortality. However, its use is limited because of potential lactic acidosis-associated adverse effects, particularly in renal impairment patients. We aimed to investigate the association of metformin use with lactic acidosis and hyperlactatemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study from a tertiary university-affiliated medical center. A total of 1954 type 2 diabetes patients were recruited in 2007–2011, and stratified according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate of 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Lactic acidosis was defined as plasma lactate levels >5 mmol/L and arterial pH <7.35. RESULTS: Metformin was used in 61.4% of the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Plasma lactate levels were not different in the patients with and without metformin use. There was no difference in prevalence of hyperlactatemia and lactic acidosis between the patients with and without metformin use (18.9% vs. 18.7%, p=0.905 for hyperlactatemia and 2.8% vs. 3.3%, p=0.544 for lactic acidosis). Similar results were observed in the patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m². Most patients with lactic acidosis had at least one condition related to hypoxia or poor tissue perfusion. Multiple regression analysis indicated no association between metformin use and lactic acidosis, whereas tissue hypoxia was an independent risk factor for lactic acidosis [odds ratio 4.603 (95% confidence interval, 1.327–15.965)]. CONCLUSION: Metformin use was not associated with hyperlactatemia or lactic acidosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acidosis, Lactic , Hypoxia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hyperlactatemia , Lactic Acid , Metformin , Mortality , Perfusion , Plasma , Prevalence , Risk Factors
13.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 274-280, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161468

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the beneficial effects of statin treatment in dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis have been well studied, there is limited information regarding the renal effects of statins in diabetic nephropathy. We aimed to investigate whether, and which, statins affected renal function in Asian patients with diabetes. METHODS: We enrolled 484 patients with diabetes who received statin treatment for more than 12 months. We included patients treated with moderate-intensity dose statin treatment (atorvastatin 10 to 20 mg/day or rosuvastatin 5 to 10 mg/day). The primary outcome was a change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during the 12-month statin treatment, and rapid renal decline was defined as a >3% reduction in eGFR in a 1-year period. RESULTS: In both statin treatment groups, patients showed improved serum lipid levels and significantly reduced eGFRs (from 80.3 to 78.8 mL/min/1.73 m² for atorvastatin [P=0.012], from 79.1 to 76.1 mL/min/1.73 m² for rosuvastatin [P=0.001]). A more rapid eGFR decline was observed in the rosuvastatin group than in the atorvastatin group (48.7% vs. 38.6%, P=0.029). Multiple logistic regression analyses demonstrated more rapid renal function loss in the rosuvastatin group than in the atorvastatin group after adjustment for other confounding factors (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 2.42). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a moderate-intensity dose of atorvastatin has fewer detrimental effects on renal function than that of rosuvastatin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People , Atherosclerosis , Atorvastatin , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies , Dyslipidemias , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Logistic Models , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Rosuvastatin Calcium
14.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 430-437, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149584

ABSTRACT

As the number of individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased, the influence of NAFLD on other metabolic diseases has been highlighted. Accumulating epidemiologic evidence indicates that NAFLD not only affects the liver but also increases the risk of extra-hepatic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases, and chronic kidney disease. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, an advanced type of NAFLD, can aggravate these inter-organ relationships and lead to poorer outcomes. NAFLD induces insulin resistance and exacerbates systemic chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, which leads to organ dysfunction in extra-hepatic tissues. Although more research is needed to identify the pathophysiological mechanisms and causal relationship between NAFLD and cardiometabolic and renal diseases, screening for heart, brain, and kidney diseases, risk assessment for diabetes, and a multidisciplinary approach for managing these patients should be highly encouraged.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Atherosclerosis , Brain , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dyslipidemias , Fatty Liver , Heart , Hypertension , Inflammation , Insulin Resistance , Kidney Diseases , Liver , Mass Screening , Metabolic Diseases , Metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Obesity , Oxidative Stress , Renal Insufficiency , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Risk Assessment , Stroke
15.
16.
Journal of Korean Thyroid Association ; : 180-184, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53721

ABSTRACT

Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) is characterized by fasting hypoglycemia, endogenous hyperinsulinemia, and the presence of autoantibodies to insulin or insulin receptor in patients that have never been exposed to exogenous insulin. This syndrome is occasionally accompanied by several autoimmune disorders. There is no reported case of concurrent IAS with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A 52-year-old female was diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and was treated with 25 microg/d levothyroxine for 3 years. Recently, she experienced recurrent fasting hypoglycemic symptoms that disappeared rapidly with a carbohydrate-rich diet, although she had no history of diabetes or insulin use. Blood analysis showed hypoglycemia and elevated serum levels of insulin and C-peptide. Imaging studies did not reveal a mass lesion in the pancreas, and selective calcium-stimulated venous sampling also gave a negative result. However, anti-insulin antibody titer was high and assay for anti-insulin receptor antibody was positive. Here, we report a case of IAS concomitant with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Autoantibodies , C-Peptide , Diet , Fasting , Hyperinsulinism , Hypoglycemia , Insulin , Pancreas , Receptor, Insulin , Thyroid Gland , Thyroiditis , Thyroxine
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