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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 357-364, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927131

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the expression of multiple chemokine receptors in peripheral blood T cells from patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). @*Materials and Methods@#Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and/or aqueous humor were obtained from 24 AMD patients and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Chemokine receptor expression on T cells from peripheral blood was determined by multicolor flow cytometry. The levels of chemokines and cytokines in the aqueous humor from 12 AMD patients and six healthy controls were assessed. @*Results@#AMD patients had increased expressions of CCR4 in CD4 + T cells (p=0.007) and CRTh2 in CD8 + T cells (p=0.002), and decreased expressions of CXCR3 in CD4+T cells (p=0.029) and CXCR3, CCR5, and CX 3CR1 in CD8+T cells (p=0.005, 0.019, and 0.007, respectively). Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels were increased in the aqueous humor from AMD patients (p=0.018), while the levels of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-22 were significantly decreased compared to controls (p=0.018 and 0.041, respectively). @*Conclusion@#The chemokine receptor profiles of T cells are altered in AMD patients compared to healthy controls without noticeable associations with chemokine levels in the aqueous humor. Further evaluation is needed to clarify the role of these alterations in AMD pathogenesis.

2.
Immune Network ; : e17-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914534

ABSTRACT

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a chronic dilation of the aorta with a tendency to enlarge and eventually rupture, which constitutes a major cause of cardiovascular mortality.Although T-cell infiltrates have been observed in AAA, the cellular, phenotypic, and functional characteristics of these tissue-infiltrating T cells are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the proportional changes of T-cell subsets—including CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, and γδ T cells—and their effector functions in AAAs. We found that Vδ2 + T cells were presented at a higher frequency in aortic aneurysmal tissue compared to normal aortic tissue and PBMCs from patients with AAA. In contrast, no differences were observed in the frequencies of CD4 + , CD8 + , and Vδ1 + T cells. Moreover, we observed that the Vδ2 +T cells from AAA tissue displayed immunophenotypes indicative of CCR5 + non-exhausted effector memory cells, with a decreased proportion of CD16 + cells. Finally, we found that these Vδ2 + T cells were the main source of IL-17A in abdominal aortic aneurysmal tissue. In conclusion, our results suggest that increased Vδ2 + T cells that robustly produce IL-17A in aortic aneurysmal tissue may contribute to AAA pathogenesis and progression.

3.
Immune Network ; : e2-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874616

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an ongoing pandemic disease. In the current review, we describe SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell responses in acute and convalescent COVID-19 patients. We also discuss the relationships between COVID-19 severity and SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses and summarize recent reports regarding SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in SARS-CoV-2-unexposed individuals. These T cells may be cross-reactive cells primed by previous infection with human common-cold coronaviruses. Finally, we outline SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses in the context of vaccination. A better understanding of SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses is needed to develop effective vaccines and therapeutics.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 381-390, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896565

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Type I and III interferon (IFN) responses act as the first line of defense against viral infection and are activated by the recognition of viruses by infected cells and innate immune cells. Dysregulation of host IFN responses has been known to be associated with severe disease progression in COVID-19 patients. However, the reported results are controversial and the roles of IFN responses in COVID-19 need to be investigated further. In the absence of a highly efficacious antiviral drug, clinical studies have evaluated recombinant type I and III IFNs, as they have been successfully used for the treatment of infections caused by two other epidemic coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV. In this review, we describe the strategies by which SARS-CoV-2 evades IFN responses and the dysregulation of host IFN responses in COVID-19 patients. In addition, we discuss the therapeutic potential of type I and III IFNs in COVID-19.

5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 381-390, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904269

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Type I and III interferon (IFN) responses act as the first line of defense against viral infection and are activated by the recognition of viruses by infected cells and innate immune cells. Dysregulation of host IFN responses has been known to be associated with severe disease progression in COVID-19 patients. However, the reported results are controversial and the roles of IFN responses in COVID-19 need to be investigated further. In the absence of a highly efficacious antiviral drug, clinical studies have evaluated recombinant type I and III IFNs, as they have been successfully used for the treatment of infections caused by two other epidemic coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV. In this review, we describe the strategies by which SARS-CoV-2 evades IFN responses and the dysregulation of host IFN responses in COVID-19 patients. In addition, we discuss the therapeutic potential of type I and III IFNs in COVID-19.

7.
Immune Network ; : 1-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811181

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.

8.
Immune Network ; : 8-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811174

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint blockade targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 has resulted in unprecedented clinical benefit for cancer patients. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy has become the standard treatment for diverse cancer types as monotherapy or in combination with other anti-cancer therapies, and its indications are expanding. However, many patients do not benefit from anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy due to primary and/or acquired resistance, which is a major obstacle to broadening the clinical applicability of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. In addition, hyperprogressive disease, an acceleration of tumor growth following anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, has been proposed as a new response pattern associated with deleterious prognosis. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy can also cause a unique pattern of adverse events termed immune-related adverse events, sometimes leading to treatment discontinuation and fatal outcomes. Investigations have been carried out to predict and monitor treatment outcomes using peripheral blood as an alternative to tissue biopsy. This review summarizes recent studies utilizing peripheral blood immune cells to predict various outcomes in cancer patients treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acceleration , B7-H1 Antigen , Biomarkers , Biopsy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Fatal Outcome , Prognosis , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor
9.
Immune Network ; : e8-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890854

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint blockade targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 has resulted in unprecedented clinical benefit for cancer patients. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy has become the standard treatment for diverse cancer types as monotherapy or in combination with other anti-cancer therapies, and its indications are expanding. However, many patients do not benefit from anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy due to primary and/or acquired resistance, which is a major obstacle to broadening the clinical applicability of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. In addition, hyperprogressive disease, an acceleration of tumor growth following anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, has been proposed as a new response pattern associated with deleterious prognosis. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy can also cause a unique pattern of adverse events termed immune-related adverse events, sometimes leading to treatment discontinuation and fatal outcomes. Investigations have been carried out to predict and monitor treatment outcomes using peripheral blood as an alternative to tissue biopsy. This review summarizes recent studies utilizing peripheral blood immune cells to predict various outcomes in cancer patients treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy.

10.
Immune Network ; : e48-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890844

ABSTRACT

Hyperprogressive disease (HPD) is a distinct pattern of progression characterized by acceleration of tumor growth after treatment with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Abs. However, the immunological characteristics have not been fully elucidated in patients with HPD. We prospectively recruited patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Abs between April 2015 and April 2018, and collected peripheral blood before treatment and 7-days post-treatment. HPD was defined as ≥2-fold increase in both tumor growth kinetics and tumor growth rate between pre-treatment and post-treatment.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by multi-color flow cytometry to phenotype the immune cells. Of 115 patients, 19 (16.5%) developed HPD, 52 experienced durable clinical benefit (DCB; partial response or stable disease ≥6 months), and 44 experienced non-hyperprogressive progression (NHPD). Patients with HPD had significantly lower progression-free survival (p<0.001) and overall survival (p<0.001). When peripheral blood immune cells were examined, the pre-treatment frequency of CD39+ cells among CD8+T cells was significantly higher in patients with HPD compared to those with NHPD, although it showed borderline significance to predict HPD. Other parameters regarding regulatory T cells or myeloid derived suppressor cells did not significantly differ among patient groups. Our findings suggest high pre-treatment frequency of CD39+ CD8+ T cells might be a characteristic of HPD. Further investigations in a larger cohort are needed to confirm our results and better delineate the immune landscape of HPD.

11.
Immune Network ; : e8-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898558

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint blockade targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 has resulted in unprecedented clinical benefit for cancer patients. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy has become the standard treatment for diverse cancer types as monotherapy or in combination with other anti-cancer therapies, and its indications are expanding. However, many patients do not benefit from anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy due to primary and/or acquired resistance, which is a major obstacle to broadening the clinical applicability of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. In addition, hyperprogressive disease, an acceleration of tumor growth following anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, has been proposed as a new response pattern associated with deleterious prognosis. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy can also cause a unique pattern of adverse events termed immune-related adverse events, sometimes leading to treatment discontinuation and fatal outcomes. Investigations have been carried out to predict and monitor treatment outcomes using peripheral blood as an alternative to tissue biopsy. This review summarizes recent studies utilizing peripheral blood immune cells to predict various outcomes in cancer patients treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy.

12.
Immune Network ; : e48-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898548

ABSTRACT

Hyperprogressive disease (HPD) is a distinct pattern of progression characterized by acceleration of tumor growth after treatment with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Abs. However, the immunological characteristics have not been fully elucidated in patients with HPD. We prospectively recruited patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Abs between April 2015 and April 2018, and collected peripheral blood before treatment and 7-days post-treatment. HPD was defined as ≥2-fold increase in both tumor growth kinetics and tumor growth rate between pre-treatment and post-treatment.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by multi-color flow cytometry to phenotype the immune cells. Of 115 patients, 19 (16.5%) developed HPD, 52 experienced durable clinical benefit (DCB; partial response or stable disease ≥6 months), and 44 experienced non-hyperprogressive progression (NHPD). Patients with HPD had significantly lower progression-free survival (p<0.001) and overall survival (p<0.001). When peripheral blood immune cells were examined, the pre-treatment frequency of CD39+ cells among CD8+T cells was significantly higher in patients with HPD compared to those with NHPD, although it showed borderline significance to predict HPD. Other parameters regarding regulatory T cells or myeloid derived suppressor cells did not significantly differ among patient groups. Our findings suggest high pre-treatment frequency of CD39+ CD8+ T cells might be a characteristic of HPD. Further investigations in a larger cohort are needed to confirm our results and better delineate the immune landscape of HPD.

13.
Immune Network ; : e27-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835458

ABSTRACT

Although various studies on predictive markers in the use of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors are in progress, only PD-L1 expression levels in tumor tissues are currently used. In the present study, we investigated whether baseline serum levels of IL-6 can predict the treatment response of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. In our cohort of 125 NSCLC patients, the objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were significantly higher in those with low IL-6 (<13.1 pg/ml) than those with high IL-6 (ORR 33.9% vs. 11.1%, p=0.003; DCR 80.6% vs. 34.9%, p<0.001). The median progression-free survival was 6.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9–8.7) in the low IL-6 group, significantly longer than in the high IL-6 group (1.9 months, 95% CI, 1.6–2.2, p<0.001). The median overall survival in the low IL-6 group was significantly longer than in the high IL-6 group (not reached vs. 7.4 months, 95% CI, 4.8–10.0). Thus, baseline serum IL-6 levels could be a potential biomarker for predicting the efficacy and survival benefit of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in NSCLC.

14.
Immune Network ; : e34-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835449

ABSTRACT

Cryopreservation and thawing of PBMCs are inevitable processes in expanding the scale of experiments in human immunology. Here, we carried out a fundamental study to investigate the detailed effects of PBMC cryopreservation and thawing on transcriptomes. We sorted Tregs from fresh and cryopreserved/thawed PBMCs from an identical donor and performed single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq). We found that the cryopreservation and thawing process minimally affects the key molecular features of Tregs, including FOXP3. However, the cryopreserved and thawed sample had a specific cluster with up-regulation of genes for heat shock proteins. Caution may be warranted in interpreting the character of any cluster of cells with heat shock-related properties when cryopreserved and thawed samples are used for scRNA-seq.

15.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 310-314, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914598

ABSTRACT

The clinical benefit of adjuvant intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy is controversial in immunocompromised patients with severe varicella. A twenty-one-year-old woman who had received a kidney transplant one year earlier presented with fever and generalized rash for 5 days. Initial immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG for varicella zoster virus (VZV) were negative; however, the patient was diagnosed with varicella with fulminant hepatitis because VZV-specific PCR from skin vesicles and blood was positive. The patient received intravenous acyclovir and 5-day IVIG. The decline of plasma viral load was steeper (beta coefficient −0.446) during IVIG therapy than after the therapy (beta coefficient −0.123) (P = 0.04), while VZV glycoprotein IgG titers and VZV-specific T cell responses were not detected during the 5-day IVIG therapy. The patient improved without any complications. This case provides an experimental evidence that adjuvant IVIG can significantly reduce viral load in immunocompromised patients with severe varicella.

16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 126-131, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742527

ABSTRACT

CD4⁺CD25⁺FoxP3⁺ regulatory T (Treg) cells play major roles in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. In this review, we comprehensively describe the relationship between tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and Treg cells, focusing on the effects of TNF on Treg cells and on TNF-producing Treg cells. Contradictory results have been reported for the effect of TNF on the suppressive activity of Treg cells. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, TNF has been shown to reduce the suppressive activity of Treg cells. Meanwhile, however, TNF has also been reported to maintain the suppressive activity of Treg cells via a TNFR2-mediated mechanism. In addition, Treg cells have been found to acquire the ability to produce TNF under inflammatory conditions, such as acute viral hepatitis. These TNF-producing Treg cells exhibit T helper 17-like features and hold significance in various human diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Hepatitis , Homeostasis , Inflammation , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 804-810, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762103

ABSTRACT

Mortalities from cardiovascular disease in Korea have decreased markedly over the past three decades. The major cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, however, remain prevalent, and their burden on health is large. The Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center (CMERC) planned a cohort study in order to identify novel risk factors and to develop evidence-based prevention strategies of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The CMERC deliberately designed two prospective cohorts, a community-based general population cohort (the CMERC cohort) and its sister cohort (a hospital-based high-risk patient cohort), covering a broad spectrum of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This paper describes the CMERC cohort study of community-dwelling adults aged 30 to 64 years. A total of 8097 adults completed baseline measurement between 2013 and 2018. Baseline measurements assessed socio-demographic factors, medical history, health-related behaviors, psychological health, social network and support, anthropometry, body composition, and resting blood pressure and comprised electrocardiography, carotid artery ultrasonography, fasting blood analysis, and urinalysis. Both active follow-up through an annual telephone survey and a 5-year on-site health examination survey and passive follow-up through secondary data linkage with national databases, such as national death records, have been applied. Researchers interested in collaborative research may contact the corresponding author.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Anthropometry , Blood Pressure , Body Composition , Cardiovascular Diseases , Carotid Arteries , Cohort Studies , Death Certificates , Electrocardiography , Fasting , Follow-Up Studies , Information Storage and Retrieval , Korea , Metabolic Diseases , Mortality , Prospective Studies , Republic of Korea , Risk Factors , Siblings , Telephone , Ultrasonography , Urinalysis
18.
Immune Network ; : e45-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719135

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), such as anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 Abs, have shown efficacy for the treatment of various cancers. Although research has actively sought to develop new ICIs and immunomodulators, no efficient in vitro assay system is available to evaluate their functional activities. In the present study, we established a two-round MLR with human PBMCs for evaluation of the T cell-activating capacity of anti-PD-1 and other immunomodulators. We initially performed conventional MLR for this purpose. However, anti-PD-1 blocking Abs could not increase the proliferation of allo-reactive T cells in conventional MLR because PD-L1+ and PD-L2+ cells disappeared gradually during MLR. Therefore, we re-applied the same stimulator PBMCs to the allo-stimulated responder cells as a second-round MLR on day 6 when anti-PD-1 or immunomodulators were also added. In this two-round MLR, the proliferation of allo-reactive T cells was enhanced by anti-PD-1 in a dose-dependent manner or by immunomodulators, such as lenalidomide and galunisertib, a TGF-β receptor-1 inhibitor. Proliferation was further increased by the combination of immunomodulators with anti-PD-1. Here, we established a modified two-round MLR method with human PBMCs for evaluation of the functional activities of anti-PD-1 and immunomodulators.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunologic Factors , In Vitro Techniques , Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed , Methods , T-Lymphocytes
19.
Immune Network ; : e38-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717672

ABSTRACT

Herpes zoster (HZ), or shingles, is caused by the reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) from the sensory ganglia when VZV-specific T-cell immunity is decreased because of aging or immunosuppression. In the present study, we developed HZ DNA vaccine candidates encoding VZV proteins and cytokine adjuvants, such as IL-7 and IL-33. We immunized C57BL/6 mice with DNA plasmids encoding VZV glycoprotein E (gE), immediate early (IE) 63, or IE62 proteins and found that robust VZV protein-specific T-cell responses were elicited by HZ DNA vaccination. Co-administration of DNA plasmids encoding IL-7 or IL-33 in HZ DNA vaccination significantly enhanced the magnitude of VZV protein-specific T-cell responses. Protective immunity elicited by HZ DNA vaccination was proven by challenge experiments with a surrogate virus, vaccinia virus expressing gE (VV-gE). A single dose of HZ DNA vaccine strongly boosted gE-specific T-cell responses in mice with a history of previous infection by VV-gE. Thus, HZ DNA vaccines with IL-7 and IL-33 adjuvants strongly elicit protective immunity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Aging , DNA , Ganglia, Sensory , Glycoproteins , Herpes Zoster , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Immunosuppression Therapy , Interleukin-33 , Interleukin-7 , Plasmids , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccination , Vaccines, DNA , Vaccinia virus
20.
Immune Network ; : e31-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716248

ABSTRACT

Allogeneic natural killer (NK) cell therapy is a potential therapeutic approach for a variety of solid tumors. We established an expansion method for large-scale production of highly purified and functionally active NK cells, as well as a freezing medium for the expanded NK cells. In the present study, we assessed the effect of cryopreservation on the expanded NK cells in regards to viability, phenotype, and anti-tumor activity. NK cells were enormously expanded (about 15,000-fold expansion) with high viability and purity by stimulating CD³⁺ T cell-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with irradiated autologous PBMCs in the presence of IL-2 and OKT3 for 3 weeks. Cell viability was slightly reduced after freezing and thawing, but cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion were not significantly different. In a xenograft mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma cells, cryopreserved NK cells had slightly lower anti-tumor efficacy than freshly expanded NK cells, but this was overcome by a 2-fold increased dose of cryopreserved NK cells. In vivo antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity of cryopreserved NK cells was also demonstrated in a SCID mouse model injected with Raji cells with rituximab co-administration. Therefore, we demonstrated that expanded/frozen NK cells maintain viability, phenotype, and anti-tumor activity immediately after thawing, indicating that expanded/frozen NK cells can provide ‘ready-to-use’ cell therapy for cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cell Survival , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Cryopreservation , Freezing , Heterografts , Interleukin-2 , Killer Cells, Natural , Methods , Mice, SCID , Muromonab-CD3 , Phenotype , Rituximab
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