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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918236

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Our study aimed to evaluate the quality of radiomics studies on brain metastases based on the radiomics quality score (RQS), Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) checklist, and the Image Biomarker Standardization Initiative (IBSI) guidelines. @*Materials and Methods@#PubMed MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched for articles on radiomics for evaluating brain metastases, published until February 2021. Of the 572 articles, 29 relevant original research articles were included and evaluated according to the RQS, TRIPOD checklist, and IBSI guidelines. @*Results@#External validation was performed in only three studies (10.3%). The median RQS was 3.0 (range, -6 to 12), with a low basic adherence rate of 50.0%. The adherence rate was low in comparison to the “gold standard” (10.3%), stating the potential clinical utility (10.3%), performing the cut-off analysis (3.4%), reporting calibration statistics (6.9%), and providing open science and data (3.4%). None of the studies involved test-retest or phantom studies, prospective studies, or cost-effectiveness analyses. The overall rate of adherence to the TRIPOD checklist was 60.3% and low for reporting title (3.4%), blind assessment of outcome (0%), description of the handling of missing data (0%), and presentation of the full prediction model (0%). The majority of studies lacked pre-processing steps, with bias-field correction, isovoxel resampling, skull stripping, and gray-level discretization performed in only six (20.7%), nine (31.0%), four (3.8%), and four (13.8%) studies, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The overall scientific and reporting quality of radiomics studies on brain metastases published during the study period was insufficient. Radiomics studies should adhere to the RQS, TRIPOD, and IBSI guidelines to facilitate the translation of radiomics into the clinical field.

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 936-942, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904285

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#A critical indicator of the overall survival of patients with high-grade glioma is the successful isolation of tumor mesenchymal stem-like cells (tMSLCs), which play important roles in glioma progression. However, attempts to isolate tMSLCs from surgical specimens have not always been successful, and the reasons for this remain unclear. Considering that the amount of surgical high-grade glioma specimens varies, we hypothesized that larger surgical specimens would be better for tMSLC isolation. @*Materials and Methods@#We assessed 51 fresh, high-grade glioma specimens and divided them into two groups according to the success or failure of tMSLC isolation. The success of tMSLC isolation was confirmed by plastic adherence, presenting antigens, tri-lineage differentiation, and non-tumorigenicity. Differences in characteristics between the two groups were tested using independent two sample t-tests, chi-square tests, or Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. @*Results@#The mean specimen weights of the groups differed from each other (tMSLC-negative group: 469.9±341.9 mg, tMSLC positive group: 546.7±618.9 mg), but the difference was not statistically significant. The optimal cut-off value of specimen weight was 180 mg, and the area under the curve value was 0.599. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggested a minimum criterion for specimen collection, and found that the specimen amount was not deeply related to tMSLC detection. Collectively, our findings imply that the ability to isolate tMSLCs is determined by factors other than the specimen amount.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898184

ABSTRACT

Background@#The guanine nucleotide-binding protein, alpha stimulating (GNAS) gene has been associated with growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. We investigated the prevalence of GNAS mutations in Korean patients with acromegaly and assessed whether mutation status correlated with biochemical or clinical characteristics. @*Methods@#We studied 126 patients with acromegaly who underwent surgery between 2005 and 2014 at Severance Hospital. We performed GNAS gene analysis and evaluated age, sex, hormone levels, postoperative biochemical remission, and immunohistochemical staining results of the tumor. @*Results@#GNAS mutations were present in 75 patients (59.5%). Patients with and without GNAS mutations showed similar age distribution and Knosp classification. The proportion of female patients was 76.5% and 48.0% in the GNAS-negative and GNAS-mutation groups, respectively (P=0.006). In immunohistochemical staining, the GNAS-mutation group showed higher GH expression in pituitary tumor tissues than the mutation-negative group (98.7% vs. 92.2%, P=0.015). Patients with GNAS mutations had higher preoperative insulin-like growth factor-1 levels (791.3 ng/mL vs. 697.0 ng/mL, P=0.045) and lower immediate postoperative basal (0.9 ng/mL vs. 1.0 ng/mL, P=0.191) and nadir GH levels (0.3 ng/mL vs. 0.6 ng/mL, P=0.012) in oral glucose tolerance tests. Finally, the GNAS-mutation group showed significantly higher surgical remission rates than the mutation-negative group, both at 1 week and 6 months after surgical resection (70.7% vs. 54.9%, P=0.011; 85.3% vs. 82.4%, P=0.007, respectively). @*Conclusion@#GNAS mutations in GH-secreting pituitary tumors are associated with higher preoperative insulin-like growth factor-1 levels and surgical remission rates and lower immediate postoperative nadir GH levels. Thus, GNAS mutation status can predict surgical responsiveness in patients with acromegaly.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897411

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hyponatremia is a common complication after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for pituitary adenomas. This study retrospectively reviewed various clinical factors of pituitary adenoma patients who underwent TSS and aimed to identify possible risk factors of postoperative hyponatremia. @*Methods@#Total 1,343 patients who underwent TSS for their pituitary adenomas in a single institution were enrolled to this study. We identified and analyzed 93 patients (6.9%) with postoperative hyponatremia and compared them with other 1,250 patients in a control group. Patients’ age, sex, tumor extent based on the modified Hardy classification, tumor size and hormonal type of the tumors were analyzed in comparison between two groups. The results of pre- and post-operative combined pituitary function test and their comparison were analyzed to elucidate a possible association between postoperative hyponatremia and hypopituitarism. @*Results@#The onset of postoperative hyponatremia was 7.8 days after surgery (range: postoperative day 3-13). The initial level of serum sodium (Na) level at the start of treatment was 123.5 mmol/L (range: 114-131 mmol/L) and the duration of treatment was 2.7 days (range: 1-9 days). Female predominance was evident in the hyponatremia group (77.4% vs. 61.4%, p=0.02). Preoperative hypopituitarism (58.5% vs. 71.5%, p=0.007) and postoperative hypocortisolism (33.7% vs. 23.4%, p=0.029) were related to postoperative hyponatremia. Other pre- and post-operative clinical factors were not associated with postoperative hyponatremia. @*Conclusion@#Postoperative hyponatremia is a common complication after TSS and is potentially fatal. Female patients were more likely to develop delayed hyponatremia. We demonstrated possible associations of delayed postoperative hyponatremia with preoperative and postoperative pituitary functions, but the mechanism behind it should be further investigated.

5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 936-942, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896581

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#A critical indicator of the overall survival of patients with high-grade glioma is the successful isolation of tumor mesenchymal stem-like cells (tMSLCs), which play important roles in glioma progression. However, attempts to isolate tMSLCs from surgical specimens have not always been successful, and the reasons for this remain unclear. Considering that the amount of surgical high-grade glioma specimens varies, we hypothesized that larger surgical specimens would be better for tMSLC isolation. @*Materials and Methods@#We assessed 51 fresh, high-grade glioma specimens and divided them into two groups according to the success or failure of tMSLC isolation. The success of tMSLC isolation was confirmed by plastic adherence, presenting antigens, tri-lineage differentiation, and non-tumorigenicity. Differences in characteristics between the two groups were tested using independent two sample t-tests, chi-square tests, or Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. @*Results@#The mean specimen weights of the groups differed from each other (tMSLC-negative group: 469.9±341.9 mg, tMSLC positive group: 546.7±618.9 mg), but the difference was not statistically significant. The optimal cut-off value of specimen weight was 180 mg, and the area under the curve value was 0.599. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggested a minimum criterion for specimen collection, and found that the specimen amount was not deeply related to tMSLC detection. Collectively, our findings imply that the ability to isolate tMSLCs is determined by factors other than the specimen amount.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890480

ABSTRACT

Background@#The guanine nucleotide-binding protein, alpha stimulating (GNAS) gene has been associated with growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. We investigated the prevalence of GNAS mutations in Korean patients with acromegaly and assessed whether mutation status correlated with biochemical or clinical characteristics. @*Methods@#We studied 126 patients with acromegaly who underwent surgery between 2005 and 2014 at Severance Hospital. We performed GNAS gene analysis and evaluated age, sex, hormone levels, postoperative biochemical remission, and immunohistochemical staining results of the tumor. @*Results@#GNAS mutations were present in 75 patients (59.5%). Patients with and without GNAS mutations showed similar age distribution and Knosp classification. The proportion of female patients was 76.5% and 48.0% in the GNAS-negative and GNAS-mutation groups, respectively (P=0.006). In immunohistochemical staining, the GNAS-mutation group showed higher GH expression in pituitary tumor tissues than the mutation-negative group (98.7% vs. 92.2%, P=0.015). Patients with GNAS mutations had higher preoperative insulin-like growth factor-1 levels (791.3 ng/mL vs. 697.0 ng/mL, P=0.045) and lower immediate postoperative basal (0.9 ng/mL vs. 1.0 ng/mL, P=0.191) and nadir GH levels (0.3 ng/mL vs. 0.6 ng/mL, P=0.012) in oral glucose tolerance tests. Finally, the GNAS-mutation group showed significantly higher surgical remission rates than the mutation-negative group, both at 1 week and 6 months after surgical resection (70.7% vs. 54.9%, P=0.011; 85.3% vs. 82.4%, P=0.007, respectively). @*Conclusion@#GNAS mutations in GH-secreting pituitary tumors are associated with higher preoperative insulin-like growth factor-1 levels and surgical remission rates and lower immediate postoperative nadir GH levels. Thus, GNAS mutation status can predict surgical responsiveness in patients with acromegaly.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889707

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hyponatremia is a common complication after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for pituitary adenomas. This study retrospectively reviewed various clinical factors of pituitary adenoma patients who underwent TSS and aimed to identify possible risk factors of postoperative hyponatremia. @*Methods@#Total 1,343 patients who underwent TSS for their pituitary adenomas in a single institution were enrolled to this study. We identified and analyzed 93 patients (6.9%) with postoperative hyponatremia and compared them with other 1,250 patients in a control group. Patients’ age, sex, tumor extent based on the modified Hardy classification, tumor size and hormonal type of the tumors were analyzed in comparison between two groups. The results of pre- and post-operative combined pituitary function test and their comparison were analyzed to elucidate a possible association between postoperative hyponatremia and hypopituitarism. @*Results@#The onset of postoperative hyponatremia was 7.8 days after surgery (range: postoperative day 3-13). The initial level of serum sodium (Na) level at the start of treatment was 123.5 mmol/L (range: 114-131 mmol/L) and the duration of treatment was 2.7 days (range: 1-9 days). Female predominance was evident in the hyponatremia group (77.4% vs. 61.4%, p=0.02). Preoperative hypopituitarism (58.5% vs. 71.5%, p=0.007) and postoperative hypocortisolism (33.7% vs. 23.4%, p=0.029) were related to postoperative hyponatremia. Other pre- and post-operative clinical factors were not associated with postoperative hyponatremia. @*Conclusion@#Postoperative hyponatremia is a common complication after TSS and is potentially fatal. Female patients were more likely to develop delayed hyponatremia. We demonstrated possible associations of delayed postoperative hyponatremia with preoperative and postoperative pituitary functions, but the mechanism behind it should be further investigated.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913770

ABSTRACT

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated inflammatory condition which is characterized by dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrations with a predominance of IgG4 plasma cells in the affected tissue. Although pachymeninx and pituitary gland are the most common sites where IgG4-RD infiltrates, the associations with IgG4-RD and a true intracranial tumor have not been yet reported in literature. Herein, we report two cases with intracranial tumors associated with IgG4-RD; a 36-year-old male patient with a huge meningioma and another 54-year old woman with a pituitary macroadenoma. Pathological examination revealed their tumors were substantially infiltrated by IgG4 plasma cells indicating its possible relation with IgG4-RD.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874815

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Electrooculography (EOG) records eyeball movements as changes in the potential difference between the negatively charged retina and the positively charged cornea. We aimed to investigate whether reliable EOG waveforms can be evoked by electrical stimulation of the oculomotor and abducens nerves during skull base surgery. @*Methods@#: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 18 patients who had undergone a skull base tumor surgery using EOG (11 craniotomies and seven endonasal endoscopic surgeries). Stimulation was performed at 5 Hz with a stimulus duration of 200 μs and an intensity of 0.1–5 mA using a concentric bipolar probe. Recording electrodes were placed on the upper (active) and lower (reference) eyelids, and on the outer corners of both eyes; the active electrode was placed on the contralateral side. @*Results@#: Reproducibly triggered EOG waveforms were observed in all cases. Electrical stimulation of cranial nerves (CNs) III and VI elicited positive waveforms and negative waveforms, respectively, in the horizontal recording. The median latencies were 3.1 and 0.5 ms for craniotomies and endonasal endoscopic surgeries, respectively (p=0.007). Additionally, the median amplitudes were 33.7 and 46.4 μV for craniotomies and endonasal endoscopic surgeries, respectively (p=0.40). @*Conclusion@#: This study showed reliably triggered EOG waveforms with stimulation of CNs III and VI during skull base surgery. The latency was different according to the point of stimulation and thus predictable. As EOG is noninvasive and relatively easy to perform, it can be used to identify the ocular motor nerves during surgeries as an alternative of electromyography.

10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 257-261, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811469

ABSTRACT

Esthesioneuroblastoma as a source of ectopic Cushing's syndrome is rare, and to the best of our knowledge, only 20 cases have been reported worldwide. A 46-year-old healthy man visited a local clinic for general weakness and hyposmia, and underwent examination with serial endocrinological workup and brain imaging. ⁶⁸Gallium-DOTA-TOC positron emission tomography scan was helpful where diagnosis of sellar MRI and inferior petrosal sinus sampling were discordant. Combined transcranial and endoscopic endonasal approach surgery was performed, and a diagnosis of esthesioneuroblastoma was given.


Subject(s)
Cushing Syndrome , Diagnosis , Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging , Petrosal Sinus Sampling , Positron-Emission Tomography
11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833417

ABSTRACT

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a disease without any definite cure. Numerous approaches have been tested in efforts to conquer this brain disease, but patients invariably experience recurrence or develop resistance to treatment. New surgical tools, carefully chosen samples, and experimental methods are enabling discoveries at single-cell resolution. The present article reviews the cell-of-origin of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype GBM, beginning with the historical background for focusing on cellular origin and introducing the cancer genesis patterned on firework. The authors also review mutations associated with the senescence process in cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ), and biological validation of somatic mutations in a mouse SVZ model. Understanding GBM would facilitate research on the origin of other cancers and may catalyze the development of new management approaches or treatments against IDH-wildtype GBM.

12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1041-1049, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831152

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study is to evaluate the survival rate and prognostic factors of anaplastic gliomas according to the 2016 World Health Organization classification, including extent of resection (EOR) as measured by contrast-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the T2-weighted MRI. @*Materials and Methods@#The records of 113 patients with anaplastic glioma who were newly diagnosed at our institute between 2000 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. There were 62 cases (54.9%) of anaplastic astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild-type (AAw), 18 cases (16.0%) of anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-mutant, and 33 cases (29.2%) of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted. @*Results@#The median overall survival (OS) was 48.4 months in the whole anaplastic glioma group and 21.5 months in AAw group. In multivariate analysis, age, preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale score, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status, postoperative tumor volume, and EOR measured from the T2 MRI sequence were significant prognostic factors. The EOR cut-off point for OS measured in contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI and T2-weighted MRI were 99.96% and 85.64%, respectively. @*Conclusions@#We found that complete resection of the contrast-enhanced portion (99.96%) and more than 85.64% resection of the non-enhanced portion of the tumor have prognostic impacts on patient survival from anaplastic glioma.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830655

ABSTRACT

Reconstructions of extensive composite scalp and cranial defects are challenging due to high incidence of postoperative infection and reconstruction failure. In such cases, cranial reconstruction and vascularized soft tissue coverage are required. However, optimal reconstruction timing and material for cranioplasty are not yet determined. Herein, we present a large skull defect with a chronically infected wound that was not improved by repeated debridement and antibiotic treatment for 3 months. It was successfully treated with anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap transfer for wound salvage and delayed cranioplasty with a patient-specific polyetheretherketone implant. To reduce infection risk, we performed the cranioplasty 1 year after the infection had resolved. In the meantime, depression of ALT flap at the skull defect site was observed, and the midline shift to the contralateral side was reported in a brain computed tomography (CT) scan, but no evidence of neurologic deterioration was found. After the surgery, sufficient cerebral expansion without noticeable dead-space was confirmed in a follow-up CT scan, and there was no complication over the 1-year follow-up period.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765313

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Silent corticotroph adenomas (SCA) are endocrine-inactive pituitary adenomas with positive immunohistochemistry staining for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We investigated whether SCA-associated clinical profiles were more aggressive than hormonally negative adenomas (HNA). METHODS: Among 627 patients with pathologically proven endocrine-inactive pituitary adenomas between 2004 and 2013, positive immunohistochemistry revealed 55 SCAs and 411 HNAs. Surgical outcomes and radiological and endocrinological characteristics were compared. RESULTS: Strong female predominance was observed in the SCA group (p<0.001). Cavernous sinus invasion was identified in 22 (40%) SCA patients and 72 (17.6%) HNA patients (p<0.001). There were no differences in ACTH or cortisol levels between the two groups. The incidence of preoperative hypopituitarism and postoperative hormonal outcome did not differ between two groups. Total resection was achieved in 35 patients (63.7%) with SCA and 332 patients (80.8%) with HNA (p=0.007). When tumors were completely removed, recurrence rates were not statistically different between two groups (p=0.60). When complete resection was not achieved, tumors regrew from these remnants in seven patients (35.0%) with SCA and 12 patients (15.2%) with HNA (p=0.05). CONCLUSION: Total surgical resection for SCA is often challenging as these tumors frequently invade a cavernous sinus. Early remnant tumor intervention is justified, because untreated residual pituitary tumors regrow when patients were followed up for a long time. Prophylactic radiotherapy is not warranted for completely resected SCAs as tumor recurrence is uncommon.


Subject(s)
ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Adenoma , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Cavernous Sinus , Corticotrophs , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Hypopituitarism , Immunohistochemistry , Incidence , Pituitary Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Recurrence
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea in the past. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, developed the guideline for glioblastoma successfully and published it in Brain Tumor Research and Treatment, the official journal of KSNO, in April 2019. Recently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade III cerebral glioma in adults has been established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searches in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. Scope of the disease was confined to cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests high grade glioma, maximal safe resection if feasible is globally recommended. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy whereas those with anaplastic astrocytoma, NOS, and anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p19q-codeletion, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma, NOS should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and neoadjuvant or adjuvant PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) combination chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade III cerebral glioma of adults should be treated by maximal safe resection if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Lomustine , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, has developed the guideline for glioblastoma. Subsequently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade II cerebral glioma in adults is established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords regarding diffuse astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma of brain in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests lower grade glioma, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended globally. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with diffuse astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype without molecular feature of glioblastoma should be primarily treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Level III) while those with molecular feature of glioblastoma should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of patients with diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant and oligodendroglioma (IDH-mutant and 1p19q codeletion), standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant PCV (procarbazine+lomustine+vincristine) combination chemotherapy should be considered primarily for the high-risk group while observation with regular follow up should be considered for the low-risk group. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade II gliomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors and clinical characteristics of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763099

ABSTRACT

A 56-year woman presented eyeball pain and blurred vision. MRI revealed a small well-delineated solid tumor in the apex of right orbit with optic nerve compression. Intraoperatively, the tumor was found very fibrous, hypervascular and adhesive to surrounding structures. The tumor was completely removed with the combination of endoscopic and microscopic technique. Patient experienced transient oculomotor nerve palsy, which completely recovered 3 months after surgery. Herein we report a rare case of angioleiomyoma in the orbital apex.


Subject(s)
Adhesives , Angiomyoma , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases , Optic Nerve , Orbit , Orbital Neoplasms
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been no practical guidelines for the management of patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, started to prepare guidelines for CNS tumors from February 2018. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. RESULTS: First, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended. After the diagnosis of a glioblastoma with neurosurgical intervention, patients aged ≤70 years with good performance should be treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Stupp's protocol) or standard brain radiotherapy alone. However, those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy (preferred)±concurrent or adjuvant temozolomide, temozolomide alone (Level III), or supportive treatment. Alternatively, patients aged >70 years with good performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy+concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide or Stupp's protocol or hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone, while those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone or temozolomide chemotherapy if the patient has methylated MGMT gene promoter (Level III), or supportive treatment. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that glioblastomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to the individual comprehensive condition of the patient.


Subject(s)
Brain , Central Nervous System , Chemoradiotherapy , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Glioblastoma , Humans , Korea , Radiotherapy
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788742

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Silent corticotroph adenomas (SCA) are endocrine-inactive pituitary adenomas with positive immunohistochemistry staining for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We investigated whether SCA-associated clinical profiles were more aggressive than hormonally negative adenomas (HNA).METHODS: Among 627 patients with pathologically proven endocrine-inactive pituitary adenomas between 2004 and 2013, positive immunohistochemistry revealed 55 SCAs and 411 HNAs. Surgical outcomes and radiological and endocrinological characteristics were compared.RESULTS: Strong female predominance was observed in the SCA group (p<0.001). Cavernous sinus invasion was identified in 22 (40%) SCA patients and 72 (17.6%) HNA patients (p<0.001). There were no differences in ACTH or cortisol levels between the two groups. The incidence of preoperative hypopituitarism and postoperative hormonal outcome did not differ between two groups. Total resection was achieved in 35 patients (63.7%) with SCA and 332 patients (80.8%) with HNA (p=0.007). When tumors were completely removed, recurrence rates were not statistically different between two groups (p=0.60). When complete resection was not achieved, tumors regrew from these remnants in seven patients (35.0%) with SCA and 12 patients (15.2%) with HNA (p=0.05).CONCLUSION: Total surgical resection for SCA is often challenging as these tumors frequently invade a cavernous sinus. Early remnant tumor intervention is justified, because untreated residual pituitary tumors regrow when patients were followed up for a long time. Prophylactic radiotherapy is not warranted for completely resected SCAs as tumor recurrence is uncommon.


Subject(s)
ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Adenoma , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Cavernous Sinus , Corticotrophs , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Hypopituitarism , Immunohistochemistry , Incidence , Pituitary Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Recurrence
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203605

ABSTRACT

We report the first case of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and a spontaneous acute subdural hematoma (SDH) in Korea. A 79-year-old male presented with fever and thrombocytopenia. On the third day of hospitalization, his mental changed from drowsy to semi-coma. Brain computed tomography indicated an acute subdural hemorrhage on the right convexity. He was given early decompressive craniectomy, but did not survive. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of a blood sample indicated the presence of SFTS virus (SFTSV). This is the first reported case with intracranial hemorrhage and SFTS. This case report describes our treatment of a patient with acute SDH and an infection from a tick-borne species of Bunyaviridae.


Subject(s)
Aged , Brain , Bunyaviridae , Decompressive Craniectomy , Fever , Hematoma, Subdural , Hematoma, Subdural, Acute , Hospitalization , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Korea , Male , Orthobunyavirus , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , Thrombocytopenia , Ticks
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