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1.
Healthcare Informatics Research ; : 209-217, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000444

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#In the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, where an ecosystem is being developed to enhance the quality of healthcare services by applying information and communication technologies, systematic and sustainable data management is essential for medical institutions. In this study, we assessed the data management status and emerging concerns of three medical institutions, while also examining future directions for seamless data management. @*Methods@#To evaluate the data management status, we examined data types, capacities, infrastructure, backup methods, and related organizations. We also discussed challenges, such as resource and infrastructure issues, problems related to government regulations, and considerations for future data management. @*Results@#Hospitals are grappling with the increasing data storage space and a shortage of management personnel due to costs and project termination, which necessitates countermeasures and support. Data management regulations on the destruction or maintenance of medical records are needed, and institutional consideration for secondary utilization such as long-term treatment or research is required. Government-level guidelines for facilitating hospital data sharing and mobile patient services should be developed. Additionally, hospital executives at the organizational level need to make efforts to facilitate the clinical validation of artificial intelligence software. @*Conclusions@#This analysis of the current status and emerging issues of data management reveals potential solutions and sets the stage for future organizational and policy directions. If medical big data is systematically managed, accumulated over time, and strategically monetized, it has the potential to create new value.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1281-1290, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999809

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Despite numerous studies on the optimal treatments for oligometastatic disease (OMD), there is no established interdisciplinary consensus on its diagnosis or classification. This survey-based study aimed to analyze the differential opinions of colorectal surgeons and radiation oncologists regarding the definition and treatment of OMD from the colorectal primary. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 141 participants were included in this study, consisting of 63 radiation oncologists (44.7%) and 78 colorectal surgeons (55.3%). The survey consisted of 19 questions related to OMD, and the responses were analyzed using the chi-square test to determine statistical differences between the specialties. @*Results@#The radiation oncologists chose “bone” more frequently compared to the colorectal surgeons (19.2% vs. 36.5%, p=0.022), while colorectal surgeons favored “peritoneal seeding” (26.9% vs. 9.5%, p=0.009). Regarding the number of metastatic tumors, 48.3% of colorectal surgeons responded that “irrelevant, if all metastatic lesions are amendable to local therapy”, while only 21.8% of radiation oncologist chose same answer. When asked about molecular diagnosis, most surgeons (74.8%) said it was important, but only 35.8% of radiation oncologists agreed. @*Conclusion@#This study demonstrates that although radiation oncologists and colorectal surgeons agreed on a majority of aspects such as diagnostic imaging, biomarker, systemic therapy, and optimal timing of OMD, they also had quite different perspectives on several aspects of OMD. Understanding these differences is crucial to achieving multidisciplinary consensus on the definition and optimal management of OMD.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 918-926, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999784

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The optimal short-course chemotherapeutic regimen for rectal cancer has not been clearly defined until now. KROG 10-01 and KROG 11-02 prospective trials investigated the efficacy and safety of 1- and 2-week chemoradiotherapy (CRT), respectively. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients eligible for KROG 10-01 and KROG 11-02 involved those with clinical T3-4N0-2M0 rectal cancers. They received preoperative CRT and total mesorectal excision. Patients in KROG 10-01 received radiation of 25 Gy in 5 fractions during 1 week with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin. Patients in KROG 11-02 received radiation of 33 Gy in 10 fractions for 2 weeks with oral capecitabine. @*Results@#A total of 150 patients consisting of 70 patients from KROG 10-01 and 80 patients from KROG 11-02 were collectively analyzed. With a median follow-up time of 89.2 months, the 5-year overall survival rate was 86.5% in 1-week CRT and 85.3% in 2-week CRT (p=0.841). The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 83.5% in 1-week CRT and 77.1% in 2-week CRT (p=0.448). One patient (1.4%) in 1-week CRT and 11 patients (13.8%) in 2-week CRT exhibited pathologic complete regression (ypT0N0M0) after radiotherapy (p=0.006). One-week CRT had significantly higher acute hematologic (12.8% vs. 3.8%, p=0.040) and nonhematologic (38.6% vs. 16.3%, p=0.002) toxicity than 2-week CRT. @*Conclusion@#Both 1- and 2-week schedules of CRT showed favorable survival outcomes after 7 years of follow-up. But, 2-week course achieved more increased tumor response and decreased acute toxicity than 1-week course.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 707-719, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999775

ABSTRACT

Introduction of the concept for oligometastasis led to wide application of metastasis-directed local ablative therapies for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). By application of the metastasis-directed local ablative therapies including surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR), the survival outcomes of patients with metastatic CRC have improved. The liver is the most common distant metastatic site in CRC patients, and recently various metastasis-directed local therapies for hepatic oligometastasis from CRC (HOCRC) are widely used. Surgical resection is the first line of metastatic-directed local therapy for HOCRC, but its eligibility is very limited. Alternatively, RFA can be applied to patients who are ineligible for surgical resection of liver metastasis. However, there are some limitations such as inferior local control (LC) compared with surgical resection and technical feasibility based on location, size, and visibility on ultrasonography of the liver metastasis. Recent advances in radiation therapy technology have led to an increase in the use of SABR for liver tumors. SABR is considered complementary to RFA for patients with HOCRC who are ineligible for RFA. Furthermore, SABR can potentially result in better LC for liver metastases > 2-3 cm compared with RFA. In this article, the previous studies regarding curative metastasis-directed local therapies for HOCRC based on the radiation oncologist’s and surgeon’s perspective are reviewed and discussed. In addition, future perspectives regarding SABR in the treatment of HOCRC are suggested.

5.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 10-19, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913536

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The clinical significance of margin status in pancreatic head cancer is still controversial due to the nonstandardized definition of R status and pathologic reporting. This study aims to evaluate the impact of the margin status including location and the role of radiation therapy in pancreatic head cancer. @*Methods@#A total of 314 patients who underwent curative-intent surgery for pancreatic head cancer between 2010 and 2017 were analyzed. Demographics, survival, and local recurrences were compared according to 2 definitions: 0-mm R1 as direct involvement and 1-mm R1 as close resection margin less than 1 mm. The specific margins were divided into 4 groups according to the location around the pancreas: pancreas transection, anterior surface, posterior surface, and vessel (superior mesenteric artery/superior mesenteric vein) margin. @*Results@#The 0-mm R1-rate was 15.6%, and increased to 36.3% in 1-mm R1. The median overall survival rate of 0-mm R0 vs. R1 was 26 months vs. 16 months (P = 0.052) and that of 1-mm R0 vs. R1 was 27 months vs. 18 months, respectively (P = 0.016). In individual margins, posterior, anterior surface, and pancreas transection margin involvement were associated with poor outcome, and the 1 mm posterior surface involvement was an independent risk factor for disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 1.63). Adjuvant radiation therapy had oncologic benefits, especially in R1 patients (P = 0.011) compared to R0 patients (P = 0.088). @*Conclusion@#Margin status, especially 1-mm R1 status is an important predictive factor, and involved posterior surface has a clinical impact. Patients with positive margins should be considered adjuvant radiation therapy.

6.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 242-250, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968572

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The safety of online contouring and planning for adaptive radiotherapy is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the dosimetric difference of the organ-at-risk (OAR) according to the extent of contouring in stereotactic magnetic resonance image-guided adaptive RT (SMART) for pancreatic cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We reviewed the treatment plan data used for SMART in patients with pancreatic cancer. For the online contouring and planning, OARs within 2 cm from the planning target volume (PTV) in the craniocaudal direction were re-controlled daily at the attending physician's discretion. The entire OARs were re-contoured retrospectively for data analysis. We termed the two contouring methods the Rough OAR and the Full OAR, respectively. The proportion of dose constraint violation and other dosimetric parameters was analyzed. @*Results@#Nineteen patients with 94 fractions of SMART were included in the analysis. The dose constraint was violated in 10.6% and 43.6% of the fractions in Rough OAR and Full OAR methods, respectively (p = 0.075). Patients with a large tumor, a short distance from gross tumor volume (GTV) to OAR, and a tumor in the body or tail were associated with more occult dose constraint violations—large tumor (p = 0.027), short distance from GTV to OAR (p = 0.061), tumor in body or tail (p = 0.054). No dose constraint violation occurred outside 2 cm from the PTV. @*Conclusion@#More occult dose constraint violations can be found by the Full OAR method in patients with pancreatic cancer with some clinical factors in the online re-planning for SMART. Re-contouring all the OARs would be helpful to detect occult dose constraint violations in SMART planning. Since the dosimetric profile of SMART cannot be represented by a single fraction, patient selection for the Full OAR method should be weighted between the clinical usefulness and the time and workforce required.

7.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 732-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938770

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To determine the impact of dedicated subspecialized radiologists in multidisciplinary team (MDT) discussions on the management of lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract malignancies. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the data of 244 patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 61.7 ± 11.9 years) referred to MDT discussions 249 times (i.e., 249 cases, as five patients were discussed twice for different issues) for lower GI tract malignancy including colorectal cancer, small bowel cancer, GI stromal tumor, and GI neuroendocrine tumor between April 2018 and June 2021 in a prospective database. Before the MDT discussions, dedicated GI radiologists reviewed all imaging studies again besides routine clinical reading. The referring clinician’s initial diagnosis, initial treatment plan, change in radiologic interpretation compared with the initial radiology report, and the MDT’s consensus recommendations for treatment were collected and compared. Factors associated with changes in treatment plans and the implementation of MDT decisions were analyzed. @*Results@#Of the 249 cases, radiologic interpretation was changed in 73 cases (29.3%) after a review by dedicated GI radiologists, with 78.1% (57/73) resulting in changes in the treatment plan. The treatment plan was changed in 92 cases (36.9%), and the rate of change in the treatment plan was significantly higher in cases with changes in radiologic interpretation than in those without (78.1% [57/73] vs. 19.9% [35/176], p < 0.001). Follow-up records of patients showed that 91.2% (227/249) of MDT recommendations for treatment were implemented. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the nonsurgical approach (vs. surgical approach) decided through MDT discussion was a significant factor for patients being managed differently than the MDT recommendations (odds ratio, 4.48; p = 0.017). @*Conclusion@#MDT discussion involving additional review of radiology examinations by dedicated GI radiologists resulted in a change in the treatment plan in 36.9% of cases. Changes in treatment plans were significantly associated with changes in radiologic interpretation.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 383-395, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925668

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The value of the genomic profiling by targeted gene-sequencing on radiation therapy response prediction was evaluated through integrated analysis including clinical information. Radiation response prediction model was constructed based on the analyzed findings. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients who had the tumor sequenced using institutional cancer panel after informed consent and received radiotherapy for the measurable disease served as the target cohort. Patients with irradiated tumor locally controlled for more than 6 months after radiotherapy were defined as the durable local control (DLC) group, otherwise, non-durable local control (NDLC) group. Significant genomic factors and domain knowledge were used to develop the Bayesian Network model to predict radiotherapy response. @*Results@#Altogether, 88 patients were collected for analysis. Of those, 41 (43.6%) and 47 (54.4%) patients were classified as the NDLC and DLC group, respectively. Somatic mutations of NOTCH2 and BCL were enriched in the NDLC group, whereas, mutations of CHEK2, MSH2, and NOTCH1 were more frequently found in the DLC group. Altered DNA repair pathway was associated with better local failure–free survival (hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.19 to 0.86; p=0.014). Smoking somatic signature was found more frequently in the DLC group. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the Bayesian network model predicting probability of 6-month local control was 0.83. @*Conclusion@#Durable radiation response was associated with alterations of DNA repair pathway and smoking somatic signature. Bayesian network model could provide helpful insights for high precision radiotherapy. However, these findings should be verified in prospective cohort for further individualization.

9.
Gut and Liver ; : 466-475, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890752

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although many studies have reported the promising effect of neoadjuvant treatment for borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) to increase resectability, only a few studies have recommended the use of first-line chemotherapeutic agents as neoadjuvant treatment for BRPC. The current study compared clinical outcomes between gemcitabine and FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan) in patients with BRPC. @*Methods@#In this single-center retrospective study, 100 BRPC patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and resection from 2008 to 2018 were reviewed. Clinical outcomes included overall survival, resectability, and recurrence patterns after gemcitabine or FOLFIRINOX treatment. @*Results@#For neoadjuvant chemotherapy, gemcitabine was administered to 34 patients and FOLFIRINOX to 66. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy was administered to 27 patients (79.4%) treated with gemcitabine and 19 (28.8%) treated with FOLFIRINOX (p<0.001). The 2- and 5-year survival rates (YSRs) were significantly higher after FOLFIRINOX (2YSR, 72.2%; 5YSR, 46.0%) than after gemcitabine (2YSR, 58.4%; 5YSR, 19.1%; p=0.041). The margin negative rate was comparable (gemcitabine, 94.1%; FOLFIRINOX, 92.4%; p=0.753), and the tumor size change in percentage showed only a marginal difference (gemcitabine, 20.5%; FOLFIRINOX, 29.0%; p=0.069). Notably, the metastatic recurrence rate was significantly lower in the FOLFIRINOX group (n=20, 52.6%) than in the gemcitabine group (n=22, 78.6%; p=0.001). The rate of adverse events after chemotherapy was significantly higher with FOLFIRINOX than with gemcitabine (43.9%, 20.6%, respectively; p=0.037). @*Conclusions@#FOLFIRINOX provided more clinical and oncological benefit than gemcitabine, with significantly higher overall survival and lower cumulative recurrence rates in BRPC. However, since FOLFIRINOX causes more adverse effects, the regimen should be individualized based on patient’s general condition and clinical status.

10.
Gut and Liver ; : 466-475, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898456

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although many studies have reported the promising effect of neoadjuvant treatment for borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) to increase resectability, only a few studies have recommended the use of first-line chemotherapeutic agents as neoadjuvant treatment for BRPC. The current study compared clinical outcomes between gemcitabine and FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan) in patients with BRPC. @*Methods@#In this single-center retrospective study, 100 BRPC patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and resection from 2008 to 2018 were reviewed. Clinical outcomes included overall survival, resectability, and recurrence patterns after gemcitabine or FOLFIRINOX treatment. @*Results@#For neoadjuvant chemotherapy, gemcitabine was administered to 34 patients and FOLFIRINOX to 66. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy was administered to 27 patients (79.4%) treated with gemcitabine and 19 (28.8%) treated with FOLFIRINOX (p<0.001). The 2- and 5-year survival rates (YSRs) were significantly higher after FOLFIRINOX (2YSR, 72.2%; 5YSR, 46.0%) than after gemcitabine (2YSR, 58.4%; 5YSR, 19.1%; p=0.041). The margin negative rate was comparable (gemcitabine, 94.1%; FOLFIRINOX, 92.4%; p=0.753), and the tumor size change in percentage showed only a marginal difference (gemcitabine, 20.5%; FOLFIRINOX, 29.0%; p=0.069). Notably, the metastatic recurrence rate was significantly lower in the FOLFIRINOX group (n=20, 52.6%) than in the gemcitabine group (n=22, 78.6%; p=0.001). The rate of adverse events after chemotherapy was significantly higher with FOLFIRINOX than with gemcitabine (43.9%, 20.6%, respectively; p=0.037). @*Conclusions@#FOLFIRINOX provided more clinical and oncological benefit than gemcitabine, with significantly higher overall survival and lower cumulative recurrence rates in BRPC. However, since FOLFIRINOX causes more adverse effects, the regimen should be individualized based on patient’s general condition and clinical status.

11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1096-1103, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913815

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Despite curative resection, the 5-year survival for patients with resectable pancreatic cancer is less than 20%. Recurrence occurs both locally and at distant sites and effective multimodality adjuvant treatment is needed. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with curatively resected stage IB-IIB pancreatic adenocarcinoma were eligible. Treatment consisted of chemotherapy with gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 and cisplatin 60 mg/m2 on day 1 every 3 weeks for two cycles, followed by chemoradiotherapy (50.4 Gy/28 fx) with weekly gemcitabine (300 mg/m2/wk), and then gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks for four cycles. The primary endpoint was 1-year disease-free survival rate. The secondary endpoints were disease-free survival, overall survival, and safety. @*Results@#Seventy-four patients were enrolled. One-year disease-free survival rate was 57.9%. Median disease-free and overall survival were 15.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.6 to 18.4) and 33.0 months (95% CI, 21.8 to 44.2), respectively. At the median follow-up of 32 months, 57 patients (77.0%) had recurrence including 11 patients whose recurrence was during the adjuvant treatment. Most of the recurrences were systemic (52 patients). Stage at the time of diagnosis (70.0% in IIA, 51.2% in IIB, p=0.006) were significantly related with 1-year disease-free survival rate. Toxicities were generally tolerable, with 53 events of grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity and four patients with febrile neutropenia. @*Conclusion@#Adjuvant gemcitabine and cisplatin chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy with gemcitabine and maintenance gemcitabine showed efficacy and good tolerability in curatively resected pancreatic cancer.

12.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 279-290, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914817

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic factors associated with distant metastasis (DM) and post-recurrence overall survival (OS) after salvage treatments for isolated locoregional recurrence (ILRR) of breast cancer and identify long-term surviving patients for providing a more personalized therapy. @*Methods@#We analyzed 125 patients who underwent salvage local treatments for ILRR after initial curative breast surgery. @*Results@#Fifty-two (41.6%) patients experienced secondary recurrence or disease progression, of which 20 (38.5%) experienced a secondary locoregional recurrence and 40 (76.9%) experienced DM as the first site of failure. In multivariate analysis of distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) and post-recurrence OS, the initial pN2-3 stage, a disease-free interval of < 36 months, and non-curative resection for recurrent disease were independently poor prognosticators. The score for patients stratified according to the number of risk factors increased from 0 to 3; the corresponding 5-year DMFS rates were 91.4%, 53.0%, 35.9%, and 0% and the 5-year OS rates were 97.3%, 70.4%, 32.7%, and 25.0%, respectively (p < 0.001).Systemic chemotherapy reduced DM in patients with a score of 2–3, but it did not in those with a score of 0-1. @*Conclusion@#Our collective stratification can help with prognosis prediction for ILRR of breast cancer. Depending on the DM risk of patients, the potential combination of systemic therapy should be discussed further.

13.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1324-1335, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763227

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of spinal stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in treating spinal metastasis with epidural spinal cord compression (ESCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: During 2013-2016, 149 regions of spinal metastasis in 105 patients treated with singlefraction (12-24 Gy) spinal SRS were reviewed. Cord compression of Bilsky grade 2 (with visible cerebrospinal fluid [CSF]) or 3 (no visible CSF) was defined as ESCC. Local progression (LP) and vertebral compression fracture (VCF) rates after SRS were evaluated using multivariate competing-risk regression analysis. RESULTS: The 1-year cumulative incidences of LP for Bilsky grades 0 (n=80), 1 (n=39), 2 (n=21), and 3 (n=9) were 3.0%, 8.4%, 0%, and 24.9%, respectively. Bilsky grade 2 ESCC did not significantly increase the LP rate (no LP for grade 2). The 1-year cumulative incidences of VCF for Bilsky grades 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 6.6%, 5.2%, 17.1%, and 12.1%, respectively. ESCC may increase VCF risk (subhazard ratio [SHR] for grade 2, 5.368; p=0.035; SHR for grade 3, 2.215; p=0.460). Complete or partial pain response rates after SRS were 79%, 78%, 53%, and 63% for Bilsky grades 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p=0.008). No neurotoxicity of grade ≥ 3 was observed. CONCLUSION: Spinal SRS for spinal metastasis with Bilsky grade 2 ESCC did not increase the LP rate, was not associated with severe neurotoxicity, and showed moderate VCF and pain response rates. Bilsky grade 3 had a high LP rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Disease Progression , Fractures, Compression , Incidence , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiosurgery , Spinal Cord Compression , Spine
14.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 851-860, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763193

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to explore the current awareness and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as well as attitudes toward CAM, in patients with cancer and their family members in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between September 21 and October 31, 2017, a 25-item questionnaire regarding CAM experiences among cancer patients and their family members was conducted in 10 oncology clinics in South Korea after institutional review board approval at each institution. RESULTS: In total, 283/310 patients were analyzed. The median age was 60 years, and 60% were male. Most of the patients were actively receiving anticancer treatment at the time of the survey. A total of 106 patients (37%) had experienced a median of two types (interquartile range, 1 to 3) of CAM. Belief in CAM (odds ratio [OR], 3.015; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.611 to 5.640) and duration of disease (OR, 1.012; 95% CI, 1.004 to 1.020) were independent factors for using CAM in multivariable analysis. Belief in CAM was significantly associated with current use of CAM (OR, 3.633; 95% CI, 1.567 to 8.424). Lay referral was the most common reason for deciding to use CAM, and only 25% of patients (72/283) discussed CAM with their physicians. CONCLUSION: Patient attitudes toward and confidence in CAM modalities were strongly associated with their CAM experiences, and only a small number of patients had an open discussion about CAM with their physicians. A patient education program for CAM is needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Complementary Therapies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethics Committees, Research , Korea , Patient Education as Topic , Referral and Consultation
15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1188-1197, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763161

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate treatment response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with regard to mucin status in pathology and pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in locally advanced rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2003 and 2011, 306 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer received neoadjuvant CRT followed by surgery, and mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) was found in 27 (8.8%). All MAC patients had MRI before and after CRT and mucin proportion at MRI was measured. Therapeutic response was assessed by pathology after total mesorectal excision. To determine the optimal cut-off for mucin proportion in predicting good CRT response (near total or total regression) and negative circumferential resection margin (CRM), the receiver-operating characteristic analysis was performed. RESULTS: After neoadjuvant CRT, overall downstaging occurred in 44.4% of MAC and 72.4% of non-MAC (p=0.001), and positive CRM (≤1 mm) was observed more frequently in MAC (p<0.001). The optimal threshold for treatment response was 30% for mucin proportion, and there are nine with low mucin proportion (<30%) and 18 with high mucin proportion (≥30%) in pretreatment MRI. Negative CRM and tumor downstaging occurred more common in patients with mucin <30%, although statistically insignificant (p=0.071 and p=0.072, respectively). Regarding oncologic outcomes, lower mucin proportion in pretreatment MRI was associated with better disease-free and overall survival in MAC group (p=0.092 and 0.056, respectively), but the difference did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Poor treatment outcome with neoadjuvant CRT was observed in patients with MAC, especially those with high mucin proportion at pretreatment MRI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous , Chemoradiotherapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mucins , Pathology , Rectal Neoplasms , Treatment Outcome
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 696-705, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763126

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Glioblastoma, the most common brain tumor in adults, has poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of disulfiram (DSF), an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor, on in vitro radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells with different methylation status of O⁶-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter and the underlying mechanism of such effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five human glioblastoma cells (U138MG, T98G, U251MG, U87MG, and U373MG) and one normal human astrocyte (NHA) cell were cultured and treated with DSF or 6MV X-rays (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 Gy). For combined treatment, cells were treated with DSF before irradiation. Surviving fractions fit from cell survival based on colony forming ability. Apoptosis, DNA damage repair, and cell cycle distributionwere assayed bywestern blot for cleaved caspase-3, γH2AX staining, and flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: DSF induced radiosensitization in most of the glioblastoma cells, especially, in the cells with radioresistance as wildtype unmethylated promoter (MGMT-wt), but did not in normal NHA cell. DSF augmented or induced cleavage of caspase-3 in all cells after irradiation. DSF inhibited repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in MGMT-wt cells, but not in cells with methylated MGMT promoter. DSF abrogated radiation-induced G2/M arrest in T98G and U251MG cells. CONCLUSION: Radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells were preferentially enhanced by pre-irradiation DSF treatment compared to normal cell, especially radioresistant cells such as MGMT-wt cells. Induction of apoptosis or inhibition of DNA damage repair may underlie DSF-induced radiosensitization. Clinical benefit of combining DSF with radiotherapy should be investigated in the future.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase , Apoptosis , Astrocytes , Brain Neoplasms , Caspase 3 , Cell Cycle , Cell Survival , Disulfiram , DNA Damage , Flow Cytometry , Glioblastoma , In Vitro Techniques , Methylation , Prognosis , Radiation Tolerance , Radiotherapy
17.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 115-120, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765695

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigative the potential role of postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) after R1 resection of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC). METHODS: Between January 2000 and December 2012, medical records of 18 patients who underwent curative surgery with R1 resection for IHCC were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Median age was 68 years and 12 patients (66.7%) were male. Median tumor size was 5.0 cm (range, 2.2–11.0) and 12 patients (66.7%) had T3 or higher disease. Lymph nodes were involved in four patients (22.2%). Vascular invasion and perineural invasion were present in 10 (55.6%) and 12 patients (66.7%), respectively. Postoperative CCRT given with 5-fluorouracil or gemcitabine were delivered to 7 patients (38.9%). Median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 45-54). Univariate analysis showed that median loco-regional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were prolonged for patients treated with CCRT (median LRRFS; 5.6 months vs. not reached, P < 0.001, median PFS; 5.6 vs. 8.3 months, P=0.047, median OS; 15.0 vs. 26.6 months, P=0.064). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative CCRT improved the loco-regional control and PFS in IHCC patients with R1 resection. Further study is warranted to validate the role of postoperative CCRT for these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Chemoradiotherapy , Cholangiocarcinoma , Disease-Free Survival , Fluorouracil , Lymph Nodes , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1039-1050, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715623

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A pooled analysis of multi-institutional trials was performed to analyze the effect of surgical timing on tumor response by comparing short course concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with long course CCRT followed by delayed surgery in locally advanced rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred patients with cT3-4N0-2 rectal adenocarcinoma were included. Long course patients from KROG 14-12 (n=150) were matched 1:1 to 150 short course patients from KROG 10-01 (NCT01129700) and KROG 11-02 (NCT01431599) according to stage, age, and other risk factors. The primary endpoint was to determine the interval between surgery and the last day of neoadjuvant CCRT which yields the best tumor response after the short course and long course CCRT. Downstaging was defined as ypT0-2N0M0 and pathologic complete response (ypCR) was defined as ypT0N0M0, respectively. RESULTS: Both the long and short course groups achieved lowest downstaging rates at < 6 weeks (long 20% vs. short 8%) and highest downstaging rates at 6-7 weeks (long 44% vs. short 40%). The ypCR rates were lowest at < 6 weeks (both long and short 0%) and highest at 6-7 weeks (long 21% vs. short 11%) in both the short and long course arms. The downstaging and ypCR rates of long course group gradually declined after the peak at 6-7 weeks and those of the short course group trend to constantly increase afterwards. CONCLUSION: It is optimal to perform surgery at least 6 weeks after both the short course and long course CCRT to obtain maximal tumor regression in locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Arm , Chemoradiotherapy , Rectal Neoplasms , Risk Factors
19.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 506-517, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714222

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to validate the prognostic influence of treatment response among patients with positive circumferential resection margin for locally advanced rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical data of 197 patientswith positive circumferential resection margin defined as ≤ 2 mm after preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision between 2004 and 2009 were collected for this multicenter validation study. All patients underwent median 50.4 Gy radiation with concurrent fluoropyrimidine based chemotherapy. Treatment response was dichotomized to good response, including treatment response of grade 2 or 3, and poor response, including grade 0 or 1. RESULTS: After 52 months median follow-up, 5-year overall survival (OS) for good responders and poor responders was 79.1% and 48.4%, respectively (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, circumferential resection margin involvement and treatment response were a prognosticator for OS and locoregional recurrence-free survival. In subgroup analysis, good responders with close margin showed significantly better survival outcomes for survival. Good responders with involved margin and poor responders with close margin shared similar results, whereas poor responders with involved margin had worst survival (5-year OS, 81.2%, 57.0%, 50.0%, and 32.4%, respectively; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Among patients with positive circumferential resection margin after preoperative chemoradiotherapy, survival of the good responders was significantly better than poor responders. Subgroup analysis revealed that definition of positive circumferential resection margin may be individualized as involvement for good responders, whereas ≤ 2 mm for poor responders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemoradiotherapy , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Radiation Dosage , Rectal Neoplasms
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 473-483, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101935

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term outcome in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for distal cholangiocarcinoma (DCC) in a high-volume center and to identify the prognostic impact of clinicopathologic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 132 consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria were retrieved from the institutional database from January 1995 to September 2009. All patients received adjuvant treatments at a median of 45 days after the surgery. Median follow-up duration was 57 months (range, 6 to 225 months) for all patients and 105 months for survivors (range, 13 to 225 months). RESULTS: The 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were 70.7%, 55.7%, 49.4%, and 48.1%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed poorly differentiated (P/D) tumors and lymph node (LN) metastasis were significantly associated with DMFS and OS. Additionally, preoperative carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level was significantly correlated with DFS, LRRFS, and DMFS. Upon multivariate analysis for OS, P/D tumors (p=0.015) and LN metastasis (p=0.003) were significant prognosticators that predicted inferior OS. Grade 3 or higher late gastrointestinal toxicity occurred in only one patient (0.8%). CONCLUSION: Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy after PD for DCC is an effective and tolerable strategy without significant side effects. During long-term follow-up, we found that prognosis of DCC was mainly influenced by histologic differentiation and LN metastasis. For patients with these risk factors, further research should focus on improving adjuvant strategies as well as other treatment approaches.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Cholangiocarcinoma , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pancreaticoduodenectomy , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Survivors
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