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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918234

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Familial intracranial aneurysms (FIAs) are found in approximately 6%–20% of patients with intracranial aneurysms (IAs), suggesting that genetic predisposition likely plays a role in its pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to identify possible IA-associated variants using whole exome sequencing (WES) in selected Korean families with FIA. @*Materials and Methods@#Among the 26 families in our institutional database with two or more IA-affected first-degree relatives, three families that were genetically enriched (multiple, early onset, or common site involvement within the families) for IA were selected for WES. Filtering strategies, including a family-based approach and knowledge-based prioritization, were applied to derive possible IA-associated variants from the families. A chromosomal microarray was performed to detect relatively large chromosomal abnormalities. @*Results@#Thirteen individuals from the three families were sequenced, of whom seven had IAs. We noted three rare, potentially deleterious variants (PLOD3 c.1315G>A, NTM c.968C>T, and CHST14 c.58C>T), which are the most promising candidates among the 11 potential IA-associated variants considering gene-phenotype relationships, gene function, co-segregation, and variant pathogenicity. Microarray analysis did not reveal any significant copy number variants in the families. @*Conclusion@#Using WES, we found that rare, potentially deleterious variants in PLOD3, NTM, and CHST14 genes are likely responsible for the subsets of FIAs in a cohort of Korean families.

2.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1379-1396, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902416

ABSTRACT

Rare neurovascular diseases (RNVDs) have not been well-recognized in Korea. They involve the central nervous system and greatly affect the patients’ lives. However, these diseases are difficult to diagnose and treat due to their rarity and incurability. We established a list of RNVDs by referring to the previous literature and databases worldwide to better understand the diseases and their current management status. We categorized 68 RNVDs based on their pathophysiology and clinical manifestations and estimated the prevalence of each disease in Korea. Recent advances in genetic, molecular, and developmental research have enabled further understanding of these RNVDs. Herein, we review each disease, while considering its classification based on updated pathologic mechanisms, and discuss the management status of RNVD in Korea.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1379-1396, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894712

ABSTRACT

Rare neurovascular diseases (RNVDs) have not been well-recognized in Korea. They involve the central nervous system and greatly affect the patients’ lives. However, these diseases are difficult to diagnose and treat due to their rarity and incurability. We established a list of RNVDs by referring to the previous literature and databases worldwide to better understand the diseases and their current management status. We categorized 68 RNVDs based on their pathophysiology and clinical manifestations and estimated the prevalence of each disease in Korea. Recent advances in genetic, molecular, and developmental research have enabled further understanding of these RNVDs. Herein, we review each disease, while considering its classification based on updated pathologic mechanisms, and discuss the management status of RNVD in Korea.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874191

ABSTRACT

Background@#Plasma cell myeloma (PCM) is caused by immune dysregulation. We evaluated the expression of immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) on T cell subsets in PCM patients according to disease course and cytogenetic abnormalities.This study aimed to find a target group suitable for therapeutic use of PD-1 blockade in PCM. @*Methods@#A total of 188 bone marrow (BM) samples from 166 PCM patients and 32 controls were prospectively collected between May 2016 and May 2017. PD-1 expression on BM T cell subsets was measured using flow cytometry. @*Results@#At diagnosis, the median PD-1 expression on CD4+ T cells was 24.6%, which did not significantly differ from that in controls. After stem cell transplantation, PD-1 expression on CD4+ T cells was higher than that at diagnosis (P < 0.001), regardless of residual disease. PD-1 expression on CD4+ T cells in patients with residual disease after chemotherapy was significantly higher than that at diagnosis (P = 0.001) and after complete remission following chemotherapy (P = 0.044). PD-1 expression on CD8+ T cells was higher in PCM patients with cytogenetic abnormalities, including monosomy 13, 1q gain, complex karyotype, and hypodiploidy. @*Conclusions@#PD-1 blockade might have therapeutic potential in refractory PCM patients after chemotherapy, especially in those with high- or intermediate-risk cytogenetic abnormalities.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762462

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: JL1, a CD43 epitope and mucin family cell surface glycoprotein, is expressed on leukemic cells. An anti-JL1 antibody combined with a toxic substance can have targeted therapeutic effects against JL1-positive leukemia; however, JL1 expression on bone marrow (BM) lymphoma cells has not been assessed using flow cytometry. We investigated JL1 expression on BM lymphoma cells from patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to assess the potential of JL1 as a therapeutic target. METHODS: Patients with BM involvement of mature B-cell (N=44) or T- and natural killer (NK)-cell (N=4) lymphomas were enrolled from May 2015 to September 2016. JL1 expression on BM lymphoma cells was investigated using flow cytometry. Clinical, pathological, and cytogenetic characteristics, and treatment responses were compared according to JL1 expression status. RESULTS: Of the patients with NHL and BM involvement, 37.5% (18/48) were JL1-positive. Among mature B-cell lymphomas, 100%, 38.9%, 33.3%, 100%, and 25.0% of Burkitt lymphomas, diffuse large B-cell leukemias, mantle cell leukemias, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, and other B-cell lymphomas, respectively, were JL1-positive. Three mature T- and NK-cell NHLs were JL1-positive. JL1 expression was associated with age (P=0.045), complete response (P=0.004), and BM involvement at follow-up (P=0.017), but not with sex, performance status, the B symptoms, packed marrow pattern, cytogenetic abnormalities, or survival. CONCLUSIONS: JL1 positivity was associated with superior complete response and less BM involvement in NHL following chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Bone Marrow , Burkitt Lymphoma , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetics , Drug Therapy , Flow Cytometry , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Leukemia , Leukemia, B-Cell , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Membrane Glycoproteins , Mucins , Therapeutic Uses , Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
7.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 255-261, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836915

ABSTRACT

We report a case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and Jacobsen syndrome (JBS) due to 11pter trisomy and 11qter monosomy caused by paternal inv(11)(p15.1q24.2). The patient was born premature and had a variety of clinical features including characteristic facial dysmorphism, cardiac abnormalities, and thrombocytopenia. The karyotype was described as 46,XX,rec(11)dup(11p)inv(11)(p15.1q24.2)pat and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis showed duplication of the 11p15.5 region and hypermethylation of imprinting center 1. Chromosomal microarray analysis demonstrated 23.8 Mb duplication on 11pter-p14.3 and 13.8 Mb deletion on 11q23.3-qter. These results were consistent with BWS and JBS, respectively. Because uniparental disomy inherited from paternal pericentric inversion results in simultaneous 11p15.5 duplication and 11q23.3 deletion, appropriate genetic tests are necessary for accurate genetic diagnosis of patients.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785401

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a subset of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) with bone marrow (BM) involvement and an IgM monoclonal gammopathy of any level. We aimed to identify the clinical, laboratory, and BM findings of patients with WM and to evaluate the usefulness of CD154 for the diagnosis and prognosis of WM.METHODS: We reviewed the medical records and BM studies and/or flow cytometric immunotyping of 31 patients with untreated WM. Semiquantitative immunohistochemistry (CD20, CD138, tryptase, and CD154) of BM was performed.RESULTS: Only six patients presented with symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome. Eleven patients had solid cancer and/or another hematologic malignancy. Mast cells (MC) increased in all samples, with some in close contact with tumor cells. Tryptase-positive MC (17.1/ high-power fields [HPF], 1.2–72.0/HPF) and CD154-positive MC (8.6/HPF, 0.1–31.1/HPF) were observed. The high CD154-positive MC (≥8.6/HPF) group showed a lower overall five-year survival rate than the low CD154-positive MC (<8.6/HPF) group (71.9% vs. 100.0%; P=0.012). Flow cytometric immunophenotyping of BM aspirates showed increased B lymphocytes and plasma cells with a normal phenotype (CD138⁺/CD38⁺/CD19⁺/CD45⁺/CD56⁻).CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one third of WM patients showed other malignancies and all patients had increased MC. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometric immunophenotyping are useful for diagnosing WM, and increased CD154-positive MC can indicate poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Bone Marrow , Diagnosis , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Immunohistochemistry , Immunophenotyping , Lymphoma , Mast Cells , Medical Records , Paraproteinemias , Phenotype , Plasma Cells , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Tryptases , Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762438

ABSTRACT

POEMS syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome, which includes polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes due to plasma cell (PC) neoplasm. Diagnosis of this disease is challenging because of its rarity and complex clinical manifestations. We attempted to identify the key clinical features and characteristic bone marrow (BM) findings of POEMS syndrome, by reviewing the medical records and BM analyses of 24 Korean patients. Frequent clinical manifestations included polyneuropathy (100%), monoclonal gammopathy (100%), organomegaly (92%), extravascular volume overload (79%), and endocrinopathy (63%). The BM analyses revealed mild PC hyperplasia (median PCs: 5.5%) and frequent megakaryocytic hyperplasia (88%), megakaryocyte clusters (88%), and hyperlobation (100%). Flow cytometry of BM aspirates using CD138/CD38/CD45/CD19/CD56 showed normal (67%, 4/6) or neoplastic PC immunophenotypes (33%, 2/6). A diagnosis of POEMS syndrome must be considered when a patient suspected of having PC dyscrasia shows the above clinical presentation and BM findings.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Diagnosis , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Hyperplasia , Medical Records , Megakaryocytes , Paraneoplastic Syndromes , Paraproteinemias , Plasma Cells , POEMS Syndrome , Polyneuropathies , Skin
10.
Neurointervention ; : 91-98, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760598

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), a rare genetic vascular disorder, has been rarely reported in South Korea. We investigated the current prevalence and presenting patterns of genetically confirmed HHT in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We defined HHT patients as those with proven mutations on known HHT-related genes (ENG, ACVRL1, SMAD4, and GDF2) or those fulfilling 3 or 4 of the Curaçao criteria. A computerized systematic search was performed in PubMed and KoreaMed using the following search term: (“hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia” AND “Korea”) OR (“Osler-Weber-Rendu” AND “Korea”). We also collected government health insurance data. HHT genetic testing results were collected from three tertiary hospitals in which the genetic tests were performed. We integrated patient data by analyzing each case to obtain the prevalence and presenting pattern of HHT in South Korea. RESULTS: We extracted 90 cases from 52 relevant articles from PubMed and KoreaMed. An additional 22 cases were identified from the three Korean tertiary hospitals after excluding seven cases that overlapped with those in the published articles. Finally, 112 HHT patients were identified (41 males and 71 females, aged 4–82 years [mean±standard deviation, 45.3±20.6 years]). The prevalence of HHT in South Korea is about 1 in 500,000, with an almost equal prevalence among men and women. Forty-nine patients underwent genetic testing, of whom 28 had HHT1 (ENG mutation) and 19 had HHT2 (ACVRL1 mutation); the other two patients were negative for ENG, ACVRL1, and SMAD4 mutations. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HHT is underestimated in Korea. The rate of phenotypic presentation seems to be similar to that found worldwide. Korean health insurance coverage is limited to representative genetic analysis to detect ENG and ACVRL1 mutations. Further genetic analyses to detect HHT3, HHT4, and other forms of HHT should be implemented.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Fistula , Arteriovenous Malformations , Diagnosis , Epistaxis , Female , Genetic Testing , Hemorrhage , Humans , Insurance, Health , Korea , Male , Prevalence , Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760475

ABSTRACT

Langer-Giedion syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder that is caused by the deletion on chromosome 8q24.1, encompassing the TRPS1 and EXT1 genes. We describe a 5-month-old female patient who was admitted to our hospital with clinodactyly and weakness in both thumbs. The patient's karyotype was 46,XX,der(4)t(4;19)(q27;q11),der(8)t(4;8)(q27;q22.3),der(19)t(8;19)(q22.3;q11)del(8)(q23q24.1). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis showed that the patient had a heterozygous deletion, rsa 8q24(P064)x1 and rsa 8q24(P245)x1. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis further revealed three interstitial deletions spanning a total of 13.7 Mb at 8q23.1–q24.13. Based on clinical findings and confirmation by cytogenetic, MLPA, and array CGH analyses, the patient was diagnosed with sporadic Langer-Giedion syndrome with three-way translocations. This is the first case of Langer-Giedion syndrome with complex chromosomal rearrangements in Korea.


Subject(s)
Comparative Genomic Hybridization , Cytogenetics , Female , Humans , Infant , Karyotype , Korea , Langer-Giedion Syndrome , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Thumb
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. Alveolar RMS (ARMS) is characterized by FOXO1-related chromosomal translocations that result in a poorer clinical outcome compared with embryonal RMS (ERMS). Because the chromosomal features of RMS have not been comprehensively defined, we analyzed the clinical and laboratory data of childhood RMS patients and determined the clinical significance of chromosomal abnormalities in the bone marrow. METHODS: Fifty-one Korean patients with RMS < 18 years of age treated between 2001 and 2015 were enrolled in this study. Clinical factors, bone marrow and cytogenetic results, and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 36 patients (70.6%) had ERMS and 15 (29.4%) had ARMS; 80% of the ARMS patients had stage IV disease. The incidences of bone and bone marrow metastases were 21.6% and 19.6%, respectively, and these results were higher than previously reported results. Of the 40 patients who underwent bone marrow cytogenetic investigation, five patients had chromosomal abnormalities associated with the 13q14 rearrangement. Patients with a chromosomal abnormality (15 vs 61 months, P=0.037) and bone marrow involvement (17 vs 61 months, P=0.033) had a significantly shorter median OS than those without such characteristics. Two novel rearrangements associated with the 13q14 locus were detected. One patient with concomitant MYCN amplification and PAX3/FOXO1 fusion showed an aggressive clinical course. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive approach involving conventional cytogenetics and FOXO1 FISH of the bone marrow is needed to assess high-risk ARMS patients and identify novel cytogenetic findings.


Subject(s)
Arm , Bone Marrow , Child , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetics , Humans , Incidence , Neoplasm Metastasis , Rhabdomyosarcoma , Sarcoma , Translocation, Genetic
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715201

ABSTRACT

WAGR (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation) syndrome is a rare contiguous gene deletion syndrome caused by deleting genes including WT1 and PAX6 genes in 11p13 region, which is characterized by Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities, and intellectual disability. We report the clinical and cytogenetic characteristics of one Korean patient with WAGR syndrome. The patient shows bilateral sporadic aniridia and genital anomalies at 2 months of age. A heterozygous 14.5 Mb interstitial deletion of 11p14.3p12 region was detected by array comparative genomic hybridization. At 2 years and 10 months of age, Wilms tumor is found through regularly abdominal ultrasonography and treated by chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery.


Subject(s)
Aniridia , Comparative Genomic Hybridization , Cytogenetics , Drug Therapy , Gene Deletion , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Ultrasonography , Urogenital Abnormalities , WAGR Syndrome , Wilms Tumor
16.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 103-110, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and characteristics of HLA-DR⁻/CD34⁻ acute myeloid leukemia (AML) also known as acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)-like AML. METHODS: This study included 683 newly diagnosed patients with AML. After exclusion of 211 patients with recurrent genetic abnormalities, one with acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis, two with myeloid leukemia associated with Down syndrome, and two devoid of metaphase cells, we classified the remaining 467 patients as follows: group 1, HLA-DR⁺/CD34⁺ (typical AML); group 2, HLA-DR⁺/CD34⁻ or HLA-DR⁻/CD34⁺; group 3, APL-like AML. RESULTS: Group 1 comprised 294 patients, group 2 comprised 133, and group 3 comprised 40. Therefore, the frequency of APL-like AML among 683 unselected patients with AML was 5.9%. Group 3 patients had significantly higher leukocyte counts and bone marrow (BM) blast percentages, higher frequencies of normal karyotypes and NPM1 mutation, higher fractions of CD33-positive cells, higher concentrations of fibrin degradation products and D-dimers, lower frequencies of complex karyotypes, monosomal karyotypes and poor cytogenetic risk, lower fractions of CD13-positive cells, and lower fibrinogen concentrations, compared with group 1 patients. The values of the BM blast percentage, number of CD33-positive cells, and DIC score of the patients with APL-like AML were intermediate between those of the patients with typical AML and APL. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that APL-like AML is not uncommon, and it has characteristics distinguishable from those of typical AML. APL-like AML may have some pathophysiological relationships with APL, which need further investigation.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Cytogenetics , Dacarbazine , Down Syndrome , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Fibrinogen , HLA-DR Antigens , Humans , Karyotype , Leukemia, Myeloid , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Leukocyte Count , Metaphase , Primary Myelofibrosis
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179820

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is characterized by multiple tumors, including vestibular schwannoma (VS) and others affecting cranial and peripheral nerves. NF2 is caused by mutation of the NF2 gene. The mutation spectrum of NF2 has not been characterized in Korean patients. In the current study, the clinical and genetic characteristics of Korean NF2 patients were analyzed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five unrelated Korean families were enrolled according to the Manchester criteria. Genetic analysis was performed by direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification methods using genomic DNA from peripheral lymphocytes or tumor tissues. RESULTS: All patients had bilateral/unilateral VS and/or other cranial and peripheral nerve tumors. Two patients were familial cases and the other 24 patients were sporadic. Germline NF2 mutations were detected in peripheral lymphocytes from both familial cases, but only in 26.1% of the 23 sporadic families. Somatic mutations were also found in tumor tissues from two of the sporadic families. These somatic mutations were not found in peripheral lymphocytes. A total of 10 different mutations including 2 novel mutations were found in 40.0% of studied families. Five mutations (50.0%) were located in exon 6 of NF2, the FERM domain coding region. CONCLUSION: Family history was an important factor in identifying germline NF2 mutations. Further study is required to investigate whether exon 6 is a mutation hotspot in Korean NF2 patients and its correlation to phenotypic severity.


Subject(s)
Clinical Coding , DNA , Exons , Genes, Neurofibromatosis 2 , Humans , Korea , Lymphocytes , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Neurofibromatoses , Neurofibromatosis 2 , Neuroma, Acoustic , Peripheral Nerves , Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-125198

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is a rare paroxysmal movement disorder characterized by recurrent and brief dyskinesia attacks triggered by sudden voluntary movement. The diagnosis of PKD is based on clinical findings, and mutations in the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) gene have been identified as the cause of PKD. Two Korean cohorts have been reported on PRRT2 mutation analysis in PKD patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the mutation spectrum of the PRRT2 gene and to examine the clinical characteristics associated with PRRT2 mutations. METHODS: We studied 23 members of four families with familial PKD and two families with sporadic PKD which included 9 patients and 2 patients, respectively. Mutation analysis of the PRRT2 gene was performed using Sanger sequencing. Clinical features of PKD were compared between patients with a PRRT2 mutation and those with no detectable PRRT2 mutation. RESULTS: PRRT2 mutations were detected in three of four PKD families (75%), and in none of the two sporadic cases (0%). All detected PRRT2 mutations were c.649dupC (p.Arg217Profs*8). Subjects with detected PRRT2 mutations had earlier age at onset and longer duration of attacks. CONCLUSION: As previously reported in Korean PKD patients, our results confirmed that PRRT2 is a major causative gene for familial PKD, and the c.649dupC is the most frequent mutation. PRRT2 mutation analysis is required for the molecular diagnosis of familial PKD and for evaluating the clinical manifestations of PKD.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Dyskinesias , Dystonia , Humans , Movement Disorders
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788605

ABSTRACT

Precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is the most common subtype of pediatric acute leukemia, generally has a good prognosis. However, the prognosis also depends on the genetic abnormalities of the leukemic blast. Concurrent MYC and IGH/BCL2 translocations have recently been reported as a “double hit” in adult patients, but non-immunoglobulin (non-IG)/MYC translocation has rarely been reported. In this paper, we report a case of pediatric precursor B-cell ALL associated with translocations (14;18)(q32;q21) and (8;9)(q24;p13). The patient was a previously healthy 13-year-old boy. Complete remission was not achieved after first-line four-drug induction chemotherapy; thus, intensive salvage regimen, including high-dose cytarabine and L-asparaginase, were administered, which resulted in morphologic remission. However, his disease relapsed during the second cycle of salvage regimen, and he died of sepsis-induced multiorgan failure.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Cytarabine , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy , Leukemia , Male , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid , Prognosis
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