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1.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 29-35, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902824

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Intussusception is the most common cause of bowel obstruction in children; however, it is rarely diagnosed in newborn infants. This study aimed to describe the clinical features of intussusception in newborn infants. @*Methods@#Medical records of eight patients diagnosed with intussusception during the newborn period at Ulsan University Hospital between March 2007 and March 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#Among the eight cases, two occurred in the intrauterine period and six occurred in the postnatal period. Intrauterine intussusception presented with symptoms of bowel obstruction within 1 to 2 days after birth, and ileal atresia was diagnosed simultaneously through exploratory laparotomy. All the postnatal patients were extremely low birth weight infants (median gestational age and birth weight: 25+6 weeks and 745 g, respectively). Four cases were diagnosed preoperatively using abdominal ultrasonography. One patient was diagnosed by exploratory laparotomy because the clinical symptoms were nonspecific and difficult to differentiate from those of necrotizing enterocolitis, a more prevalent complication in preterm infants. The site of intussusception in all six patients was the small bowel. Meckel’s diverticulum (one case) and meconium obstruction (two cases) were found to be the lead point. @*Conclusion@#Neonatal intussusception tends to show different clinical features according to its period of occurrence. Intussusception, especially in preterm infants, has nonspecific clinical features; therefore, clinicians should always be cautious of this disease for its early diagnosis.

2.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 29-35, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895120

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Intussusception is the most common cause of bowel obstruction in children; however, it is rarely diagnosed in newborn infants. This study aimed to describe the clinical features of intussusception in newborn infants. @*Methods@#Medical records of eight patients diagnosed with intussusception during the newborn period at Ulsan University Hospital between March 2007 and March 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#Among the eight cases, two occurred in the intrauterine period and six occurred in the postnatal period. Intrauterine intussusception presented with symptoms of bowel obstruction within 1 to 2 days after birth, and ileal atresia was diagnosed simultaneously through exploratory laparotomy. All the postnatal patients were extremely low birth weight infants (median gestational age and birth weight: 25+6 weeks and 745 g, respectively). Four cases were diagnosed preoperatively using abdominal ultrasonography. One patient was diagnosed by exploratory laparotomy because the clinical symptoms were nonspecific and difficult to differentiate from those of necrotizing enterocolitis, a more prevalent complication in preterm infants. The site of intussusception in all six patients was the small bowel. Meckel’s diverticulum (one case) and meconium obstruction (two cases) were found to be the lead point. @*Conclusion@#Neonatal intussusception tends to show different clinical features according to its period of occurrence. Intussusception, especially in preterm infants, has nonspecific clinical features; therefore, clinicians should always be cautious of this disease for its early diagnosis.

3.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 458-473, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763781

ABSTRACT

The function of microglia/macrophages after ischemic stroke is poorly understood. This study examines the role of microglia/macrophages in the focal infarct area after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rhesus monkeys. We measured infarct volume and neurological function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and non-human primate stroke scale (NHPSS), respectively, to assess temporal changes following MCAO. Activated phagocytic microglia/macrophages were examined by immunohistochemistry in post-mortem brains (n=6 MCAO, n=2 controls) at 3 and 24 hours (acute stage), 2 and 4 weeks (subacute stage), and 4, and 20 months (chronic stage) following MCAO. We found that the infarct volume progressively decreased between 1 and 4 weeks following MCAO, in parallel with the neurological recovery. Greater presence of cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68)-expressing microglia/macrophages was detected in the infarct lesion in the subacute and chronic stage, compared to the acute stage. Surprisingly, 98~99% of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) was found colocalized with CD68-expressing cells. CD68-expressing microglia/macrophages, rather than CD206⁺ cells, may exert anti-inflammatory effects by secreting TGFβ after the subacute stage of ischemic stroke. CD68⁺ microglia/macrophages can therefore be used as a potential therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Brain , Haplorhini , Immunohistochemistry , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Inflammation , Macaca mulatta , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Microglia , Middle Cerebral Artery , Primates , Stroke , Transforming Growth Factor beta
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758919

ABSTRACT

Microorganisms play important roles in obesity; however, the role of the gut microbiomes in obesity is controversial because of the inconsistent findings. This study investigated the gut microbiome communities in obese and lean groups of captive healthy cynomolgus monkeys reared under strict identical environmental conditions, including their diet. No significant differences in the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Prevotella were observed between the obese and lean groups, but a significant difference in Spirochetes (p < 0.05) was noted. Microbial diversity and richness were similar, but highly variable results in microbial composition, diversity, and richness were observed in individuals, irrespective of their state of obesity. Distinct clustering between the groups was not observed by principal coordinate analysis using an unweighted pair group method. Higher sharedness values (95.81% ± 2.28% at the genus level, and 79.54% ± 5.88% at the species level) were identified among individual monkeys. This paper reports the association between the gut microbiome and obesity in captive non-human primate models reared under controlled environments. The relative proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as the microbial diversity known to affect obesity were similar in the obese and lean groups of monkeys reared under identical conditions. Therefore, obesity-associated microbial changes reported previously appear to be associated directly with environmental factors, particularly diet, rather than obesity.


Subject(s)
Bacteroidetes , Diet , Environment, Controlled , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Haplorhini , Macaca fascicularis , Methods , Microbiota , Obesity , Prevotella , Primates , Spirochaetales
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715714

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe our treatment experiences with patients who had acute abdomen (AA) with common bile duct (CBD) dilatation. METHODS: The treatment outcomes in children with AA and CBD dilatation were retrospectively reviewed. According to the shape of the intrahepatic bile ducts on ultrasonography (US), the origin of the pain was estimated as choledochal cyst (CC) complication or choledocholithiasis in normal CBD. Patients with complicated CC underwent surgery, and patients with choledocholithiasis in a normal appearing CBD underwent symptomatic treatment initially. RESULTS: Of the 34 patients, 30 (88.2%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 6.4±4.9 (range, 0.8–17) years. Seventeen (50.0%) patients had CBD stones and 17 (50.0%) did not. Surgical treatment was performed in 20 (58.8%) patients, 2 of whom underwent preoperative stone removal with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and an operation. Conservative treatment was applied in 12 (35.3%) patients (8 with and 4 without stones), 1 of whom developed symptom relapse and underwent an operation. Among the 8 patients with CBD stones, 4 (4/17, 23.5%) had complete resolution of the stones and recovery of the CBD diameter after conservative treatment. US findings of patients with stone showed a fusiform or cylindrical shape of the CBD in 14 (82.4%) patients. CONCLUSION: The presence of stones in the distal CBD and the US features of CBD dilatation may be helpful to diagnose and treat the causes of biliary dilatation. Conservative treatment can be considered as initial therapy in patients with uncomplicated CBD dilatation with stone.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Child , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Choledochal Cyst , Choledocholithiasis , Common Bile Duct , Dilatation , Female , Humans , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-88958

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study clarified the bacterial pathogens currently causing acute infectious enterocolitis (AIE) in children and evaluated the clinical characteristics and ultrasonographic findings according to the different pathogens. METHODS: Medical records regarding age, sex, clinical symptoms, laboratory data, identified enteropathogens, ultrasonographic findings, treatment, and outcome of 34 patients who were diagnosed with AIE via stool examination using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or culture, were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (70.6%) were male. The mean age of the patients was 8.5±6.2 (range, 1.1–17.1) years. Six bacterial pathogens were isolated: Salmonella species (spp.) (32.4%), Campylobacter spp. (20.6%), verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (14.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.8%), Clostridium difficile (8.8%), and Shigella spp. (2.9%). Abdominal pain occurred in all patients regardless of pathogen. The patients infected with Salmonella were older than those infected with verotoxin-producing E. coli (p<0.05). C-reactive protein levels were higher in patients with Salmonella and Campylobacter infections than in those with verotoxin-producing E. coli infection (p<0.05), the other clinical and laboratory data were indistinguishable between pathogens. Ultrasonography demonstrated diverse involvement of bowel segments according to pathogen. Wall thickening of both the ileum and the entire colon was the most common lesion site regardless of pathogen. CONCLUSION: Various bacterial agents cause AIE and the symptoms are diverse symptoms, however, all most children recovered spontaneously. Use of multiplex PCR on stool samples warrants improvement of its sensitivity for diagnosis of enteropathogenic bacteria. Ultrasonographic examination is useful for diagnosis of AIE; it can also detect the disease extent and severity.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Bacteria , C-Reactive Protein , Campylobacter , Campylobacter Infections , Child , Clostridioides difficile , Colon , Diagnosis , Enterocolitis , Humans , Ileum , Male , Medical Records , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Salmonella , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli , Shigella , Staphylococcus aureus , Ultrasonography
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27204

ABSTRACT

Gastric hemangioma in the neonatal period is a very rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We present a case of hemangioma limited to the gastric cavity in a 10-day-old infant. A huge, erythematous mass with bleeding was observed on the lesser curvature side of the upper part of the stomach. Surgical resection was ruled out because the location of the lesion was too close to the gastroesophageal junction. Medical treatment with intravenous H₂ blockers, octreotide, packed red blood cell infusions, local epinephrine injection at the lesion site, application of hemoclip, and gel-form embolization of the left gastric artery did not significantly alter the transfusion requirement. Hemostasis was achieved with endoscopic argon plasma coagulation (APC). After two sessions of APC, complete removal of the lesion was achieved. APC was a simple, safe and effective tool for hemostasis and the ablation of gastric hemangioma without significant complications.


Subject(s)
Argon Plasma Coagulation , Argon , Arteries , Epinephrine , Erythrocytes , Esophagogastric Junction , Hemangioma , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Octreotide , Stomach
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123219

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Undernutrition during hospitalization increases the risk of nosocomial infection and lengthens the disease courses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors of weight loss during hospitalization in children. METHODS: All the patients who were admitted in general wards between April and May 2014 were enrolled. Patients aged >18 years and discharged within 2 days were excluded. Weight loss during hospitalization was defined as a decrease in body weight of >2% in 8 hospital days or on the day of discharge. Patients who lost body weight during hospitalization were compared with patients who maintained their body weights. Significant parameters were evaluated by using the multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: We enrolled 602 patients, of whom 149 (24.8%) lost >2% of their body weight. Complaint of pain (p=0.004), admission to the surgical department (p=0.001), undergoing surgery (p=0.044), undergoing abdominal surgery (p=0.034), and nil per os (NPO) durations (p=0.003) were related to weight loss during hospitalization. The patients who had high weight-for-age tended to lose more body weight (p=0.001). Admission to the surgical department (odds ratio [OR], 1.668; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.054-2.637; p=0.029) and long NPO durations (OR, 1.496; 95% CI, 1.102-2.031; p=0.010) were independent risk factors of weight loss during hospitalization. The patients with high weight-for-age tended to lose more weight during hospitalization (OR, 1.188; 95% CI, 1.029-1.371; p=0.019). CONCLUSION: Greater care in terms of nutrition should be taken for patients who are admitted in the surgical department and have prolonged duration of nothing by mouth.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , Child , Cross Infection , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , Korea , Logistic Models , Malnutrition , Mouth , Patients' Rooms , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Weight Loss
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190327

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) of Crohn disease (CD) in Korean pediatric patients. METHODS: The medical records of 73 children diagnosed with CD were retrospectively reviewed. Data regarding baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, including CD phenotype at diagnosis based on the Montreal classification, and clinical features and course of EIMs were investigated. RESULTS: Fifty-two (71.2%) of the patients were males. The mean age of the patients was 12.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 3.4 years. The disease location was ileal in 3 (4.1%) of the patients, colonic in 13 (17.8%), ileocolonic in 56 (76.7%). The clinical behavior was inflammatory in 62 (84.9%) of the patients, stricturing in 8 (11.0%), and penetrating in 3 (4.1%). Perianal abscesses or fistulas were found in 37 (50.7%) of the patients. EIMs observed during the study period were anal skin tag in 25 patients (34.2%), hypertransaminasemia in 20 (27.4%), peripheral arthritis in 2 (2.7%), erythema nodosum in 2 (2.7%), vulvitis in 1 (1.4%), uveitis in 1 (1.4%), and pulmonary thromboembolism in 1 (1.4%). CONCLUSION: Perianal diseases and manifestations were present in more than half of Korean pediatric CD patients at diagnosis. Inspection of the anus should be mandatory in Korean children with suspicious CD, as perianal fistulas, abscesses, and anal skin tags may be the first clue to the diagnosis of CD.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Anal Canal , Arthritis , Child , Classification , Colon , Crohn Disease , Diagnosis , Erythema Nodosum , Fistula , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Medical Records , Phenotype , Pulmonary Embolism , Retrospective Studies , Skin , Uveitis , Vulvitis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219090

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous gastric perforation in a healthy child is extremely rare; however, its outcome can be life-threatening. Gastric perforation may be caused by inflammation, mechanical injury, ingestion, and vascular compromise. We report a rare case of gastric perforation with unfavorable results in a 13-year-old, previously healthy, boy. We conclude that acute gastric volvulus is a possible cause of gastric perforation in this case.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Eating , Humans , Inflammation , Intestinal Perforation , Male , Stomach Volvulus
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104090

ABSTRACT

This report details a case of post-traumatic pseudocyst in the spleen that was successfully treated with sclerotherapy using ethanol. A sixteen-year-old boy visited our hospital for a follow-up examination of a splenic cyst. He had experienced blunt trauma to the abdomen three years prior to presentation. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a large cyst of the lower pole of the spleen. The cyst was 6.8x9.5x7.0 cm and conservative management was tried. A follow-up ultrasonographic examination three years later revealed that the size of the cyst was unchanged and another treatment was needed to prevent complications. One session of sclerosis with ethanol (90 mL of 99% ethanol) percutaneously was applied to the cyst. A follow-up after four months revealed that the cyst had completely resolved.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Ethanol , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Sclerosis , Sclerotherapy , Spleen
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-9591

ABSTRACT

We present the case of a 5-year-old child with coronary complications due to Kawasaki disease; this patient unintentionally underwent both dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) coronary angiography and invasive coronary angiographic examination in 2 months. This case highlights the strong consistency of the results between DSCT coronary angiography and invasive coronary angiography. Compared to conventional invasive coronary angiography, DSCT coronary angiography offered additional advantages such as minimal invasiveness and less radiation exposure.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Catheters , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronary Aneurysm , Coronary Angiography , Electrocardiography , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Multidetector Computed Tomography
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112695

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The etiology of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) has changed since the introduction of the rotavirus vaccination. The aim of this study was to clarify which common pathogens, both bacterial and viral, are currently causing AGE in infants. METHODS: Infants with acute diarrhea were enrolled. We tested for 10 bacterial pathogens and five viral pathogens in stool specimens collected from infants with AGE. The clinical symptoms such as vomiting, mucoid or bloody diarrhea, dehydration, irritability, and poor oral intake were recorded, and laboratory data such as white blood cell count and C-reactive protein were collected. The clinical and laboratory data for the cases with bacterial pathogens and the cases with viral pathogens were compared. RESULTS: Of 41 total infants, 21 (51.2%) were positive for at least one pathogen. Seventeen cases (41.5%) were positive for bacterial pathogens and seven cases (17.1%) were positive for viral pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus (13 cases, 31.7%) and Clostridium perfringens (four cases, 9.8%) were common bacterial pathogens. Norovirus (five cases, 12.2%) was the most common viral pathogen. Fever and respiratory symptoms were common in the isolated viral infection group (p=0.023 and 0.044, respectively), whereas other clinical and laboratory data were indistinguishable between the groups. CONCLUSION: In our study, S. aureus (41.5%) and norovirus (12.2%) were the most common bacterial and viral pathogens, respectively, among infants with AGE.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein , Clostridium perfringens , Dehydration , Diarrhea , Epidemiology , Fever , Gastroenteritis , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Korea , Leukocyte Count , Norovirus , Rotavirus , Staphylococcus aureus , Vaccination , Vomiting
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192745

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The study for bronchiectasis in children is rare in Korea. The aim of this study was investigate the clinical characteristic and associated etiology in pediatric patients with bronchiectasis. METHODS: We studied 29 pediatirc patients with bronchiectasis from January 2008 to December 2012 at Pusan National University Hospital. The age, sex, clinical symptoms, signs, radiologic findings, associated etiologic factors, and clinical course were investigated retrospectively. RESULTS: The median age at the time of diagnosis of bronchiectasis was 8.7 years. Chronic coughing was the most common symptom. The associated etiologies were immunodeficiency (31.0%), respiratory infection (27.6%), bronchiolitis obliterans (13.8%), interstitial lung disease (10.3%). The median age at the time of diagnosis of bronchiectasis in immunodeficient patients was 8.3 years. Post infectious bronchiectasis and severe respiratory symptom tend to occur in younger children. CONCLUSION: The risk factors of bronchiectasis in children are immunodeficiency and respiratory infection. Physicians should evaluate bronchiectasis in children with chronic cough.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis , Bronchiolitis Obliterans , Child , Cough , Diagnosis , Humans , Korea , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181578

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes among infants and toddlers with failure to thrive (FTT). METHODS: This retrospective study was done with 123 patients who had visited Pusan National University Children's Hospital during their first two years of life and had received an FTT diagnosis. We compared the clinical characteristics of the patients based on the causes of their FTT and their ages at the time of first hospital visit. We investigated triggering factors, feeding practices, and outcomes in 25 patients with nonorganic FTT (NOFTT). RESULTS: Eighty cases (65.0%) were NOFTT. The gestational ages, birth weights, and weights at the first visits were significantly lower in patients with organic FTT (OFTT) (p<0.05). Infants who had first visited the clinic at age <6 months had the least z-score. The percentage of patients with severe weight decline was higher in OFTT than in NOFTT (60.0% vs. 17.3%). The z-scores at the follow-up visits were improved after treatment in both of the groups. Preceding infection was the most common triggering factor of NOFTT and persecutory feeding as abnormal behavior of caregiver was observed in 22 cases (88.0%). After treatment with feeding method modification, all patients with NOFTT showed normal growth. CONCLUSION: Weight decline is more severe in OFTT patients and in younger patients at the first visit. Infants with FTT can attain normal weight gain growth by treating organic diseases and supplying proper nutrition in OFTT, and by correcting abnormal dietary behavior of caregiver in NOFTT.


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , Caregivers , Diagnosis , Failure to Thrive , Feeding Methods , Follow-Up Studies , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Methods , Retrospective Studies , Weight Gain , Weights and Measures
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