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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924930

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to determine the optimal cut-off values of visceral fat area (VFA) and visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (VSR) for predicting incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#A total of 10,882 individuals (6,835 men; 4,047 women) free of T2DM at baseline aged between 30 and 79 years who underwent abdominal computed tomography scan between 2012 and 2013 as a part of routine health check-ups were included and followed. VFA, subcutaneous fat area, and VSR on L3 vertebral level were measured at baseline. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 730 (8.1% for men; 4.3% for women) incident cases of T2DM were identified. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the optimal cut-off values of VFA and VSR for predicting incident T2DM were 130.03 cm2 and 1.08 in men, respectively, and 85.7 cm2 and 0.48 in women, respectively. Regardless of sex, higher VFA and VSR were significantly associated with a higher risk of incident T2DM. Compared with the lowest quartiles of VFA and VSR, the highest quartiles had adjusted odds ratios of 2.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.73 to 3.97) and 1.55 (95% CI, 1.14 to 2.11) in men, respectively, and 32.49 (95% CI, 7.42 to 142.02) and 11.07 (95% CI, 3.89 to 31.50) in women, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Higher VFA and VSR at baseline were independent risk factors for the development of T2DM. Sex-specific reference values for visceral fat obesity (VFA ≥130 cm2 or VSR ≥1.0 in men; VFA ≥85 cm2 or VSR ≥0.5 in women) are proposed for the prediction of incident T2DM.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888999

ABSTRACT

Ultrasonography facilitates arterial catheterization compared to traditional palpation techniques, especially in small arteries. For successful catheterization without complications, practitioners should be familiar with the anatomic characteristics of the artery and ultrasound-guided techniques. There are two approaches for ultrasound-guided arterial catheterization: the short-axis view out-of-plane approach and the long-axis view in-plane approach. There are several modified techniques and tips to facilitate ultrasound-guided arterial catheterization. This review deals with the anatomy relevant to arterial catheterization, several methods to improve success rates, and decrease complications associated with arterial catheterization.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899044

ABSTRACT

Heregulin-β1, a ligand of ErbB-2 and ErbB-3/4 receptors, has been reported to potentiate oncogenicity and metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. In the present work, treatment of human mammary cancer (MCF-7) cells with heregulin-β1 resulted in enhanced cell migration and expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and its mRNA transcript. Silencing of MnSOD abrogated clonogenicity and migrative ability of MCF-7 cells. Heregulin-β1 treatment also increased nuclear translocation, antioxidant response element binding and transcriptional activity of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). A dominant-negative mutant of Nrf2 abrogated heregulin-β1-induced MnSOD expression. Treatment with heregulin-β1 caused activation of protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK). The pharmacological inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2, which are upstream of Akt and ERK, respectively, attenuated heregulin-β1-induced MnSOD expression and nuclear localization of Nrf2. In conclusion, heregulin-1 induces upregulation of MnSOD and activation of Nrf2 via the Akt and ERK signaling in MCF-7 cells, which may confer metastatic potential and invasiveness of these cells.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899036

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer is a malignancy with high incidence and mortality worldwide. In gastric cancer, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis further increase the mortality rate. Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) has been reported as a protective factor in the gastric mucosa. In this study, TFF1 inhibited the migration and invasive capability of gastric cancer cells. Elevated TFF1 levels induced the expression of E-cadherin, the epithelial marker, and reduced the expression of N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail, Twist, Zinc finger E-box binding homeobox (ZEB) 1 and ZEB2, well-known repressors of E-cadherin expression. In addition, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-7 and MMP-9, which are major markers of cancer metastasis, was suppressed by TFF1. Upregulation of TFF1 inhibited TGF-β, a major signaling for EMT induction, and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 activated by TGF-β in AGS cells. In conclusion, TFF1 inhibits EMT through suppression of TGF-β signaling in AGS cells, which might be used in therapeutic strategies for reducing metastatic potential and invasiveness of these cells.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896703

ABSTRACT

Ultrasonography facilitates arterial catheterization compared to traditional palpation techniques, especially in small arteries. For successful catheterization without complications, practitioners should be familiar with the anatomic characteristics of the artery and ultrasound-guided techniques. There are two approaches for ultrasound-guided arterial catheterization: the short-axis view out-of-plane approach and the long-axis view in-plane approach. There are several modified techniques and tips to facilitate ultrasound-guided arterial catheterization. This review deals with the anatomy relevant to arterial catheterization, several methods to improve success rates, and decrease complications associated with arterial catheterization.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891340

ABSTRACT

Heregulin-β1, a ligand of ErbB-2 and ErbB-3/4 receptors, has been reported to potentiate oncogenicity and metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. In the present work, treatment of human mammary cancer (MCF-7) cells with heregulin-β1 resulted in enhanced cell migration and expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and its mRNA transcript. Silencing of MnSOD abrogated clonogenicity and migrative ability of MCF-7 cells. Heregulin-β1 treatment also increased nuclear translocation, antioxidant response element binding and transcriptional activity of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). A dominant-negative mutant of Nrf2 abrogated heregulin-β1-induced MnSOD expression. Treatment with heregulin-β1 caused activation of protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK). The pharmacological inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2, which are upstream of Akt and ERK, respectively, attenuated heregulin-β1-induced MnSOD expression and nuclear localization of Nrf2. In conclusion, heregulin-1 induces upregulation of MnSOD and activation of Nrf2 via the Akt and ERK signaling in MCF-7 cells, which may confer metastatic potential and invasiveness of these cells.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891332

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer is a malignancy with high incidence and mortality worldwide. In gastric cancer, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis further increase the mortality rate. Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) has been reported as a protective factor in the gastric mucosa. In this study, TFF1 inhibited the migration and invasive capability of gastric cancer cells. Elevated TFF1 levels induced the expression of E-cadherin, the epithelial marker, and reduced the expression of N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail, Twist, Zinc finger E-box binding homeobox (ZEB) 1 and ZEB2, well-known repressors of E-cadherin expression. In addition, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-7 and MMP-9, which are major markers of cancer metastasis, was suppressed by TFF1. Upregulation of TFF1 inhibited TGF-β, a major signaling for EMT induction, and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 activated by TGF-β in AGS cells. In conclusion, TFF1 inhibits EMT through suppression of TGF-β signaling in AGS cells, which might be used in therapeutic strategies for reducing metastatic potential and invasiveness of these cells.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914839

ABSTRACT

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has traditionally been used as a treatment for inflammatory diseases in the Asian region. Recently, anti-inflammatory effects of steamed ginger extract (GGE03) have been reported, but its association with Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori)-induced gastritis has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of GGE03 in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. Our studies revealed that the GGE03 suppressed the growth of H. pylori. GGE03 markedly reduced the expression of the H. pylori-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-8, TNF-α, IL-6, inducible NOS (iNOS) and IFN-γ. We also demonstrated that GGE03 treatment inhibited the H. pylori-activated NF-κB signaling pathway. In addition, the treatment with GGE03 significantly attenuated nitric oxide production and myeloperoxidase activity in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. These anti-inflammatory effects of GGE03 were more effective than ginger extract. Finally, we investigated the minimum effective concentration of GGE03 to inhibit H. pylori-induced inflammation. Our findings suggest that GGE03 not only inhibits the growth of H. pylori, but also attenuates H. pylori-induced inflammation.

9.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1042-1054, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914261

ABSTRACT

Background@#Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype is metabolically heterogeneous in terms of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Previously, the triglyceride and glucose (TyG) index has been considered for identifying metabolic health and future risk of T2D. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of incident T2D according to obesity status and metabolic health, categorized by four different criteria and the TyG index. @*Methods@#The study included 39,418 Koreans without T2D at baseline. The risk of T2D was evaluated based on four different definitions of metabolic health and obesity status and according to the baseline TyG index within each metabolic health and obesity group. @*Results@#During the median follow-up at 38.1 months, 726 individuals developed T2D. Compared with the metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO) group with low TyG index, the MHO group with high TyG index showed increased risk of T2D in all four definitions of metabolic health with multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of 2.57 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76 to 3.75), 3.72 (95% CI, 2.15 to 6.43), 4.13 (95% CI, 2.67 to 6.38), and 3.05 (95% CI, 2.24 to 4.15), when defined by Adult Treatment Panel III, Wildman, Karelis, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) criteria, respectively. @*Conclusion@#MHO subjects with high TyG index were at an increased risk of developing T2D compared with MHNO subjects, regardless of the definition of metabolic health. TyG index may serve as an additional factor for predicting the individual risk of incident T2D in MHO subjects.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913913

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. In this study, we review our institutional experience with pediatric laryngomalacia (LM) and report our experiences of patients undergoing supraglottoplasty using the spontaneous respiration using intravenous anesthesia and high-flow nasal oxygen (STRIVE Hi) technique. @*Methods@#. The medical records of 29 children with LM who visited Seoul National University Hospital between January 2017 and March 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Surgical management was performed using the STRIVE Hi technique. Intraoperative findings and postoperative surgical outcomes, including complications and changes in symptoms and weight, were analyzed. @*Results@#. Of the total study population of 29 subjects, 20 (68.9%) were female. The patients were divided according to the Onley classification as follows: type I (n=13, 44.8%), II (n=10, 34.5%), and III (n=6, 20.7%). Twenty-five patients (86.2%) had comorbidities. Seventeen patients (58.6%) underwent microlaryngobronchoscopy under STRIVE Hi anesthesia. Four patients with several desaturation events required rescue oxygenation by intermittent intubation and mask bagging during the STRIVE Hi technique. However, the procedure was completed in all patients without any severe adverse effects. Overall, 15 children (51.7%) underwent supraglottoplasty, of whom 14 (93.3%) showed symptom improvement, and their postoperative weight percentile significantly increased (P=0.026). One patient required tracheostomy immediately after supraglottoplasty due to associated neurological disease. @*Conclusion@#. The STRIVE Hi technique is feasible for supraglottoplasty in LM patients, while type III LM patients with micrognathia or glossoptosis may have a higher risk of requiring rescue oxygenation during the STRIVE Hi technique.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913361

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pediatric patients with moyamoya disease are vulnerable to ischemic attacks following physical or emotional stress, such as those experienced during blood sampling. A central venous catheter might be beneficial for blood sampling, and a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) is a considerable option for central venous access. However, PICC insertion during anesthetic management is relatively rare.Case: Thirty cases of ultrasound-guided PICC insertion were performed in children undergoing surgery for moyamoya disease after anesthetic induction. Positioning was successful in 22 cases, and 5 were malpositioned. In three cases, the peripheral insertion failed. Adjustment of the insertion depth was performed in nine cases. No complications related to catheterization were observed during the procedure or the catheter indwelling period. @*Conclusions@#We report the successful use of PICC in children undergoing surgery for moyamoya disease with a considerable success rate and low incidence of malpositioning or complications.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811062

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Th17-associated inflammation is increased in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp (CRSwNP), and is associated with disease severity and steroid resistance. Overexpressed interleukin (IL)-17A affects CRSwNP by tissue remodeling, eosinophilic accumulation, and neutrophilic infiltration. We aimed to identify the role of IL-17A in CRSwNP and to evaluate the effects of anti-IL-17A blocking antibody on nasal polyp (NP) formation using a murine NP model. Moreover, we sought to investigate whether the inhibition of mechanistic target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signal pathway could suppress IL-17A expression and NP formation.METHODS: Human sinonasal tissues from control subjects and patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) were analyzed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence staining. The effects of IL-17A neutralizing antibody and rapamycin were evaluated in a murine NP model. Mouse samples were analyzed using IHC, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS: IL-17A+ inflammatory cells were significantly increased in number in NP from patients with CRSwNP compared to that in uncinate process tissues from control subjects and patients with CRS without NP or CRSwNP. CD68+ M1 macrophages dominantly expressed IL-17A, followed by neutrophils and T helper cells, in NP tissues. Neutralization of IL-17A effectively reduced the number of NPs, inflammatory cytokines, and IL-17A-producing cells, including M1 macrophages. Inhibition of IL-17A via the mTOR pathway using rapamycin also attenuated NP formation and inflammation in the murine NP model.CONCLUSIONS: IL-17A possibly plays a role in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP, the major cellular source being M1 macrophage in NP tissues. Targeting IL-17A directly or indirectly may be an effective therapeutic strategy for CRSwNP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophils , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Interleukin-17 , Interleukins , Macrophages , Mice , Nasal Polyps , Neutrophils , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction , Sinusitis , Sirolimus , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previously, a linked pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model (the Kim model) of propofol with concurrent infusion of remifentanil was developed for children aged 2–12 years. There are few options for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of propofol for children under two years old. We performed an external validation of the Kim model for children under two years old to evaluate whether the model is applicable to this age group.METHODS: Twenty-four children were enrolled. After routine anesthetic induction, a continuous infusion of 2% propofol and remifentanil was commenced using the Kim model. The target effect-site concentration of propofol was set as 2, 3, 4, and 5 μg/mL, followed by arterial blood sampling after 10 min of each equilibrium. Population estimates of four parameters—pooled bias, inaccuracy, divergence, and wobble—were used to evaluate the performance of the Kim model.RESULTS: A total of 95 plasma concentrations were used for evaluation of the Kim model. The population estimate (95% confidence interval) of bias was −0.96% (−8.45%, 6.54%) and that of inaccuracy was 21.0% (15.0%–27.0%) for the plasma concentration of propofol.CONCLUSION: The pooled bias and inaccuracy of the pharmacokinetic predictions are clinically acceptable. Therefore, our external validation of the Kim model indicated that the model can be applicable to target-controlled infusion of propofol in children younger than 2 years, with the recommended use of actual bispectral index monitoring in clinical settings that remifentanil is present. Trial Registration Clinical Research Information Service Identifier:TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0001752

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837341

ABSTRACT

This study compared the pharmacokinetics of a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of candesartan (16 mg) and amlodipine (10 mg) versus coadministration of individual formulations to clarify the bioequivalence of the FDC. In this randomized, open-label, single-dose, 2-treatment, 2-way crossover study, healthy Korean volunteers received a single dose of candesartan (16 mg) with amlodipine (10 mg) as either an FDC or single agents concomitantly administered, with a 2-week washout period. Serial blood samples were collected up to 72 hours after dosing for each treatment period, and plasma concentrations of candesartan and amlodipine were measured using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. A total of 39 subjects completed the study. The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last measurement (AUC0-t) and the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) for candesartan were 1.0182 (0.9562–1.0841) and 0.9492 (0.8726–1.0324), respectively. The GMR and 90% CI for the AUC0-t and Cmax for amlodipine were 1.0552 (1.0255–1.0857) and 1.0668 (1.0259–1.1094), respectively. In conclusion, the new FDC formulation of candesartan (16 mg) and amlodipine (10 mg) was bioequivalent to the concomitant administration of single agents. A single dose of candesartan/amlodipine as the FDC or as single agents was well tolerated.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836799

ABSTRACT

Natural killer (NK) cells play have a crucial role in the early phase of immune responses against various pathogens. We compared characteristics of canine NK cells against two canine mammary carcinoma cell lines, REM134 and CF41.Mg. REM134 showed higher expression of progesterone receptor, proliferative cell nuclear antigen, Ki67, multiple drug resistance, Bmi-1, c-myc, E-cadherin, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 than that of CF41.Mg. For specific expansion and activation of NK cells, we isolated CD5 negative cells from canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and co-cultured K562 cells in the presence of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-15, and IL-21 for 21 days. As a result, we found that expression markers of activated NK cells such as NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, NKG2D, CD244, perforin, granzyme B, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were highly upregulated. In addition, we found there was upregulated production of interferon gamma of activated NK cells against target cells such as REM134 and CF41.Mg.Specifically, we observed that cytotoxicity of NK cells against target cells was more sensitively reacted to CF41.Mg than REM134. Based on the results of this study, we recommend the development of an experimental application of CF41Mg, which has not been reported in canine mammary carcinoma research.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835871

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to review workplace interventions for mental health among workers. @*Methods@#A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases to identify randomized controlled trials reported in English. Data were extracted through three steps, and 16 of 2,493 relevant studies were selected. Selected studies were rated for quality assessment using the Risk of Bias tool of Cochrane’s collaboration. @*Results@#Targets of workplace interventions were classified into general mental health (n=6), work-related stress (n=4), depressive symptoms (n=3), post-traumatic stress disorder (n=2), and self-stigma (n=1). The effects of workplace interventions were mixed regarding the aspects of mental health and work-related outcomes. Additionally, included studies had a high risk of performance bias. @*Conclusion@#Insufficient studies exist to confirm the efficacy of workplace intervention of mental health among workers. Further research is needed to generate evidence for workplace-based mental health interventions in a variety of settings.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Previously, a linked pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model (the Kim model) of propofol with concurrent infusion of remifentanil was developed for children aged 2–12 years. There are few options for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of propofol for children under two years old. We performed an external validation of the Kim model for children under two years old to evaluate whether the model is applicable to this age group.@*METHODS@#Twenty-four children were enrolled. After routine anesthetic induction, a continuous infusion of 2% propofol and remifentanil was commenced using the Kim model. The target effect-site concentration of propofol was set as 2, 3, 4, and 5 μg/mL, followed by arterial blood sampling after 10 min of each equilibrium. Population estimates of four parameters—pooled bias, inaccuracy, divergence, and wobble—were used to evaluate the performance of the Kim model.@*RESULTS@#A total of 95 plasma concentrations were used for evaluation of the Kim model. The population estimate (95% confidence interval) of bias was −0.96% (−8.45%, 6.54%) and that of inaccuracy was 21.0% (15.0%–27.0%) for the plasma concentration of propofol.@*CONCLUSION@#The pooled bias and inaccuracy of the pharmacokinetic predictions are clinically acceptable. Therefore, our external validation of the Kim model indicated that the model can be applicable to target-controlled infusion of propofol in children younger than 2 years, with the recommended use of actual bispectral index monitoring in clinical settings that remifentanil is present.Trial RegistrationClinical Research Information Service Identifier:TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0001752

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Previously, a linked pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model (the Kim model) of propofol with concurrent infusion of remifentanil was developed for children aged 2–12 years. There are few options for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of propofol for children under two years old. We performed an external validation of the Kim model for children under two years old to evaluate whether the model is applicable to this age group.@*METHODS@#Twenty-four children were enrolled. After routine anesthetic induction, a continuous infusion of 2% propofol and remifentanil was commenced using the Kim model. The target effect-site concentration of propofol was set as 2, 3, 4, and 5 μg/mL, followed by arterial blood sampling after 10 min of each equilibrium. Population estimates of four parameters—pooled bias, inaccuracy, divergence, and wobble—were used to evaluate the performance of the Kim model.@*RESULTS@#A total of 95 plasma concentrations were used for evaluation of the Kim model. The population estimate (95% confidence interval) of bias was −0.96% (−8.45%, 6.54%) and that of inaccuracy was 21.0% (15.0%–27.0%) for the plasma concentration of propofol.@*CONCLUSION@#The pooled bias and inaccuracy of the pharmacokinetic predictions are clinically acceptable. Therefore, our external validation of the Kim model indicated that the model can be applicable to target-controlled infusion of propofol in children younger than 2 years, with the recommended use of actual bispectral index monitoring in clinical settings that remifentanil is present.Trial RegistrationClinical Research Information Service Identifier:TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0001752

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833674

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: Recent quantitative neuroimaging studies of childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) have identified various structural abnormalities that might be involved in the onset of absence seizure and associated cognitive and behavioral functions. However, the neuroanatomical alterations specific to CAE remain unclear, and so this study investigated the regional alterations of brain structures associated with newly diagnosed CAE. @*Methods@#Surface and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging data of patients with newly diagnosed CAE (n=18) and age-matched healthy controls (n=18) were analyzed using FreeSurfer software. A group comparison using analysis of covariance was performed with significance criteria of p<0.05 andp<0.01 in global and regional analyses, respectively. @*Results@#Compared with control subjects, the patients with CAE had smaller total and regional volumes of cortical gray-matter (GM) in the right rostral middle frontal, right lateral orbitofrontal, and left rostral middle frontal regions, as well as in the right precentral, right superior, middle, left middle, and inferior temporal gyri. The cortex in the right posterior cingulate gyrus and left medial occipital region was significantly thicker in patients with CAE than in controls. @*Conclusions@#Patients with CAE showed a reduced bilateral frontotemporal cortical GM volume and an increased posterior medial cortical thickness, which are associated with the default mode network. These structural changes can be suggested as the neural basis of the absence seizures and neuropsychiatric comorbidities in CAE.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831342

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. Limited information is available regarding strain-related differences in mouse models of allergic rhinitis induced by Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f1). In this study, we compared differences between two mouse strains and determined the optimal dose of Der f1 for allergic rhinitis mouse models. @*Methods@#. Forty-eight mice were assigned to the following six groups (n=8 per group): group A (control, BALB/c), group B (Der f1-sensitized BALB/c, 25 µg), group C (Der f1-sensitized BALB/c, 100 µg), group D (control, C57BL/6), group E (Der f1-sensitized C57BL/6, 25 µg), and group F (Der f1-sensitized C57BL/6, 100 µg). Allergic inflammation was induced with Der f1 and alum sensitization, followed by an intranasal challenge with Der f1. Rubbing and sneezing scores, eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration, and immunoglobulin, cytokine, and chemokine levels in the nasal mucosa and from splenocyte cultures were assessed. @*Results@#. Rubbing and sneezing scores were higher in groups B, C, E, and F than in groups A and D, with a similar pattern in both strains (i.e., group B vs. E and group C vs. F). Serum immunoglobulin levels were significantly elevated compared to the control in groups B and C, but not in groups E and F. Eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration increased (all P0.05). BALB/c mice (group B) showed a greater elevation of splenic interleukin (IL)-4 (P<0.01), IL-5 (P<0.01), and IL-6 levels (P<0.05) and nasal IL-4 mRNA levels (P<0.001) than the C57BL/6 mice (group E). Interestingly, mice treated with 100 µg Der f1 showed a weaker allergic response than those treated with 25 µg. @*Conclusion@#. We found 25 µg to be a more appropriate dose for Der f1 sensitization. BALB/c mice are more biased toward a Th2 response and are a more suitable model for allergic rhinitis than C57BL/6 mice. This study provides information on the appropriate choice of a mouse model for allergic rhinitis.

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