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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875523

ABSTRACT

Life cycle stages, including daughter sporocysts, cercariae, and metacercariae, of Parvatrema duboisi (Dollfus, 1923) Bartoli, 1974 (Digenea: Gymnophallidae) have been found in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum from Aphaedo (Island), Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea. The daughter sporocysts were elongated sac-like and 307-570 (av. 395) μm long and 101-213 (av. 157) μm wide. Most of the daughter sporocysts contained 15-20 furcocercous cercariae each. The cercariae measured 112-146 (av. 134) μm in total length and 35-46 (av. 40) μm in width, with 69-92 (av. 85) μm long body and 39-54 (av. 49) μm long tail. The metacercariae were 210-250 (av. 231) μm in length and 170-195 (av. 185) μm in width, and characterized by having a large oral sucker, genital pore some distance anterior to the ventral sucker, no ventral pit, and 1 compact or slightly lobed vitellarium, strongly suggesting P. duboisi. The metacercariae were experimentally infected to ICR mice, and adults were recovered at day 7 post-infection. The adult flukes were morphologically similar to the metacercariae except in the presence of up to 20 eggs in the uterus. The daughter sporocysts and metacercariae were molecularly (ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2) analyzed to confirm the species, and the results showed 99.8-99.9% identity with P. duboisi reported from Kyushu, Japan and Gochang, Korea. These results confirmed the presence of various life cycle stages of P. duboisi in the Manila clam, R. philippinarum, playing the role of the first as well as the second intermediate host, on Aphae-do (Island), Shinan-gun, Korea.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919313

ABSTRACT

Since 1993, vivax malaria has been recognized as a public health burden in Korea. Despite of pan-governmental malaria-control efforts and the dramatic reduction in the burden of this disease over the last 10 years, vivax malaria has not been well controlled and has remained continuously endemic. We focused interviewed and examined the charts of 28 confirmed vivax malaria patients given malarial therapy for whom daily records were kept from Gimpo-si, Gyeonggido of Korea. Various epidemiological characteristics of vivax malaria, including the incubation period, medication used, and recurrence, and an evaluation of the parasitic characteristics from the focused interviews of patients from this region are described here. Most of the participants indicated the 3 most common symptoms of malaria (headache, chills and fever). Of the 28 cases, 2 experienced a second attack and there were 17 and 11 cases with short- and long-term incubation periods, respectively, yielding a short-term to long-term ratio of 1.5. Based on the parasitemia stages, most of the participants were tested at 5 to 7 days (11 cases) and 7 to 15 days (11 cases) after initial wave of asexual parasites. In conclusion, public health authorities should consider developing management measures to decrease the time lag for diagnosis and drafting unified and robust guidelines for drug use for malaria and drawing up unified and robust guidelines on the use of medication for malaria. It also suggests that routine monitoring, surveillance, and precise medical surveys in high-risk vivax malaria endemic areas are pivotal to controlling this persistent public disease and finally eliminating it from Korea.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742284

ABSTRACT

Korea is successfully controlled intestinal parasitic infections owing to economic development and high health consciousness. The Division of Vectors and Parasitic Diseases (formerly the Division of Malaria and Parasitology) is in the Center for Laboratory Control of Infectious Diseases of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It has been the governmental agency responsible for controlling and leading scientific research on parasitic diseases. The Division of Vectors and Parasitic Diseases has conducted and funded basic research and disseminated the research results to various medical fields, ultimately promoting public health in Korea. Among the noteworthy achievements of this division are the national surveillance of healthcare-associated parasitic infections, prevention and control for parasitic infections, and the elimination of lymphatic filariasis from Korea. On a broader scale, the division's research programs and academic supports were influential in preventing and treating infectious parasitic diseases through public policies and laws. In this review, we summarize the past and present role of the Division of Vectors and Parasitic Diseases in preventing and treating infectious parasitic diseases in Korea.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Communicable Diseases , Consciousness , Economic Development , Elephantiasis, Filarial , Financial Management , Jurisprudence , Korea , Malaria , Parasitic Diseases , Public Health , Public Policy
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742282

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to develop a new multiplex real-time PCR detection method for 3 species of waterborne protozoan parasites (Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Cyclospora cayetanensis) identified as major causes of traveler's diarrhea. Three target genes were specifically and simultaneously detected by the TaqMan probe method for multiple parasitic infection cases, including Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein for C. parvum, glutamate dehydrogenase for G. lamblia, and internal transcribed spacer 1 for C. cayetanensis. Gene product 21 for bacteriophage T4 was used as an internal control DNA target for monitoring human stool DNA amplification. TaqMan probes were prepared using 4 fluorescent dyes, FAM™, HEX™, Cy5™, and CAL Fluor Red® 610 on C. parvum, G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis, and bacteriophage T4, respectively. We developed a novel primer-probe set for each parasite, a primer-probe cocktail (a mixture of primers and probes for the parasites and the internal control) for multiplex real-time PCR analysis, and a protocol for this detection method. Multiplex real-time PCR with the primer-probe cocktail successfully and specifically detected the target genes of C. parvum, G. lamblia, and C. cayetanensis in the mixed spiked human stool sample. The limit of detection for our assay was 2×10 copies for C. parvum and for C. cayetanensis, while it was 2×10³ copies for G. lamblia. We propose that the multiplex real-time PCR detection method developed here is a useful method for simultaneously diagnosing the most common causative protozoa in traveler's diarrhea.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophage T4 , Cryptosporidium parvum , Cryptosporidium , Cyclospora , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , DNA , Fluorescent Dyes , Giardia lamblia , Giardia , Glutamate Dehydrogenase , Humans , Limit of Detection , Methods , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Oocysts , Parasites , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50081

ABSTRACT

The seroprevalence of human toxoplasmosis has been increasing in Korea, and it is controversial whether cats are an important infection source or not. This study was performed to evaluate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in a high risk group (cat sitters) and to determine the possible importance of cats as an infection source in Korea. Risk factors, including the age, sex, and diet of cat sitters, their contact experience and contact frequency with stray cats, and origin, number, and outdoor activity of their pet cats, were analyzed using structured questionnaires. A total of 673 serum samples from people who have frequent contact with cats (high risk group) and 1,114 samples from general people (low risk group) were examined for specific IgG antibodies against T. gondii by ELISA. The results revealed that the overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 7.4% (n=1,787). The seroprevalence among low risk group was 8.0% (89/1,114), whereas that among high risk group was rather lower 6.4% (43/673), though this difference was statistically not significant (P=0.211). Among the risk factors, only the outdoor activity of pet cats was important; people having cats with outdoor activities revealed 2 times higher seroprevalence than people having cats with only indoor activities (P=0.027). In conclusion, the seroprevalence of T. gondii was not significantly different between the high risk group and low risk group, and the importance of cats as a source of infection in Korea is questionable.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Cats , Diet , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Korea , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57429

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that can modulate the environment of the infected host. An unfavorable environment modulated by T. gondii in the brain includes tumor microenvironment. Literature has suggested that T. gondii infection is associated with development of brain tumors. However, in Korea, epidemiological data regarding this correlation have been scarce. In this study, in order to investigate the relationship between T. gondii infection and brain tumor development, we investigated the seroprevalence of T. gondii among 93 confirmed brain tumor patients (various histological types, including meningioma and astrocytoma) in Korea using ELISA. The results revealed that T. gondii seropositivity among brain tumor patients (18.3%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher compared with that of healthy controls (8.6%). The seropositivity of brain tumor patients showed a significant age-tendency, i.e., higher in younger age group, compared with age-matched healthy controls (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study supports the close relationship between T. gondii infection and incidence of brain tumors.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Meningioma , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasma , Tumor Microenvironment
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207490

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to develop a multiplex-touchdown PCR method to simultaneously detect 3 species of protozoan parasites, i.e., Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Cyclospora cayetanensis, the major causes of traveler’s diarrhea and are resistant to standard antimicrobial treatments. The target genes included the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein for C. parvum, Glutamate dehydrogenase for G. lamblia, and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) for C. cayetanensis. The sizes of the amplified fragments were 555, 188, and 400 bps, respectively. The multiplex-touchdown PCR protocol using a primer mixture simultaneously detected protozoa in human stools, and the amplified gene was detected in >1×10³ oocysts for C. parvum, >1×10⁴ cysts for G. lamblia, and >1 copy of the 18S rRNA gene for C. cayetanensis. Taken together, our protocol convincingly demonstrated the ability to simultaneously detect C. parvum, G. lamblia, and C. cayetanenesis in stool samples.


Subject(s)
Cryptosporidium parvum , Cryptosporidium , Cyclospora , Diarrhea , Genes, rRNA , Giardia lamblia , Giardia , Glutamate Dehydrogenase , Humans , Methods , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Oocysts , Parasites , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83624

ABSTRACT

The increasing prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the human population in the Republic of Korea (= Korea) is due to various reasons such as an increase in meat consumption. However, the importance of cats in transmitting T. gondii infection through oocysts to humans has seldom been assessed. A total of 300 fecal samples of stray cats captured around Seoul from June to August 2013 were examined for T. gondii B1 gene (indicating the presence of oocysts) using nested-PCR. Fourteen (4.7%) of 300 cats examined were positive for B1 gene. Female cats (7.5%) showed a higher prevalence than male cats (1.4%). Cats younger than 3 months (5.5%) showed a higher prevalence than cats (1.5%) older than 3 months. For laboratory passage of the positive samples, the fecal suspension (0.2 ml) of B1 gene positive cats was orally inoculated into experimental mice. Brain tissues of the mice were obtained after 40 days and examined for the presence of tissue cysts. Two isolates were successfully passaged (designated KNIH-1 and KNIH-2) and were molecularly analyzed using the SAG5D and SAG5E gene sequences. The SAG5D and SAG5E gene sequences showed high homologies with the ME49 strain (less virulent strain). The results indicated the importance of stray cats in transmitting T. gondii to humans in Korea, as revealed by detection of B1 gene in fecal samples. T. gondii isolates from cats were successfully passaged in the laboratory for the first time in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cats , Feces/parasitology , Female , Genotype , Humans , Male , Mice , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Seoul/epidemiology , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130542

ABSTRACT

A total of 1,708 small mammals (1,617 rodents and 91 soricomorphs), including Apodemus agrarius (n = 1,400), Microtus fortis (167), Crocidura lasiura (91), Mus musculus (32), Myodes (= Eothenomys) regulus (9), Micromys minutus (6), and Tscherskia (= Cricetulus) triton (3), were live-trapped at US/Republic of Korea (ROK) military training sites near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) of Paju, Pocheon, and Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province from December 2004 to December 2009. Small mammals were examined for their intestinal nematodes by necropsy. A total of 1,617 rodents (100%) and 91 (100%) soricomorphs were infected with at least 1 nematode species, including Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia obvelata, Heterakis spumosa, Protospirura muris, Capillaria spp., Trichuris muris, Rictularia affinis, and an unidentified species. N. brasiliensis was the most common species infecting small mammals (1,060; 62.1%) followed by H. polygyrus (617; 36.1%), S. obvelata (370; 21.7%), H. spumosa (314; 18.4%), P. muris (123; 7.2%), and Capillaria spp. (59; 3.5%). Low infection rates (0.1-0.8%) were observed for T. muris, R. affinis, and an unidentified species. The number of recovered worms was highest for N. brasiliensis (21,623 worms; mean 20.4 worms/infected specimen) followed by S. obvelata (9,235; 25.0 worms), H. polygyrus (4,122; 6.7 worms), and H. spumosa (1,160; 3.7 worms). A. agrarius demonstrated the highest prevalence for N. brasiliensis (70.9%), followed by M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (33.3%), M. fortis (28.1%), M. musculus (15.6%), C. lasiura (13.2%), and M. regulus (0%). This is the first report of nematode infections in small mammals captured near the DMZ in ROK.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Eulipotyphla/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Intestines/parasitology , Male , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Rodentia/parasitology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130538

ABSTRACT

A total of 1,708 small mammals (1,617 rodents and 91 soricomorphs), including Apodemus agrarius (n = 1,400), Microtus fortis (167), Crocidura lasiura (91), Mus musculus (32), Myodes (= Eothenomys) regulus (9), Micromys minutus (6), and Tscherskia (= Cricetulus) triton (3), were live-trapped at US/Republic of Korea (ROK) military training sites near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) of Paju, Pocheon, and Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province from December 2004 to December 2009. Small mammals were examined for their intestinal nematodes by necropsy. A total of 1,617 rodents (100%) and 91 (100%) soricomorphs were infected with at least 1 nematode species, including Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia obvelata, Heterakis spumosa, Protospirura muris, Capillaria spp., Trichuris muris, Rictularia affinis, and an unidentified species. N. brasiliensis was the most common species infecting small mammals (1,060; 62.1%) followed by H. polygyrus (617; 36.1%), S. obvelata (370; 21.7%), H. spumosa (314; 18.4%), P. muris (123; 7.2%), and Capillaria spp. (59; 3.5%). Low infection rates (0.1-0.8%) were observed for T. muris, R. affinis, and an unidentified species. The number of recovered worms was highest for N. brasiliensis (21,623 worms; mean 20.4 worms/infected specimen) followed by S. obvelata (9,235; 25.0 worms), H. polygyrus (4,122; 6.7 worms), and H. spumosa (1,160; 3.7 worms). A. agrarius demonstrated the highest prevalence for N. brasiliensis (70.9%), followed by M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (33.3%), M. fortis (28.1%), M. musculus (15.6%), C. lasiura (13.2%), and M. regulus (0%). This is the first report of nematode infections in small mammals captured near the DMZ in ROK.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Eulipotyphla/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Intestines/parasitology , Male , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Rodentia/parasitology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19164

ABSTRACT

Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.), Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis berlandi (=A. simplex sp. C), and Anisakis typica are the 4 major species of Anisakis type I larvae. In the Republic of Korea (Korea), A. pegreffii, A. berlandi, and A. typica larvae in fish hosts has seldom been documented. In this study, molecular analysis was performed on Anisakis larvae from the sea eels (Astroconger myriaster), the major source of human anisakiasis in Korea, collected from Tongyeong City, a southern coastal area of Korea. All 20 sea eels examined were infected with Anisakis type I larvae (160 larvae; 8 per fish). Their species were analyzed using PCR-RFLP patterns and nucleotide sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, 5.8 subunit gene, and ITS2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 2 (cox2). Most (86.8%; 112/129) of the Anisakis type I larvae were A. pegreffii, and 7.8% (10/129) were A. typica. The remaining 5.4% (7/129) was not identified. Thus, A. pegreffii is the major species of anisakid larvae in sea eels of the southern coast of Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anisakiasis/parasitology , Anisakis/classification , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Eels/growth & development , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Larva/classification , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Republic of Korea
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-652994

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to analyze the factors affecting the stages of exercise behaviors changes of low back pain patients. METHODS: The participants in this study were 220 low back pain patients who have been treated by therapeutic exercise or had the exercise treatment under the doctor's advice. The tools used for this study were the stages of exercise behavior change, intrinsic motivation questionnaires, and physical activity social support scale (PASS). RESULTS: The group that did exercise (preparation stage, maintenance stage, action stage) was 75.9% but the group that did not exercise (precontemplation stage, contemplation stage) was 24.1%. Social supports from family members and friends and motivation affected the exercise behaviors changes. And 34.6% of the exercise behavior change can be explained by the social support (family, friend) and motivation. CONCLUSION: There were two recommendations for maintaining the exercise behaviors of low back pain patients based on theoretical background. First, we recommended more exercise programs which reinforce social supports from family and friend for constant exercise behaviors of low back pain patients. Second, more exercise programs for the low back pain patients who have similar health goals or problems were needed for motivating them to join the exercise programs.


Subject(s)
Friends , Humans , Low Back Pain , Motivation , Motor Activity , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229077

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes a Th1 cellular immunity. Our previous study showed that T. gondii lysate antigen (TLA) treatment in S180 tumor-bearing mice resulted in tumor reduction by suppressing CD31 expression, a marker of angiogenesis. In the present study, to investigate tumor suppressive effect of TLA under the absence of T lymphocytes, athymic nude mice were compared with euthymic mice in the anti-tumorigenic effect triggered by TLA in CT26 tumors. According to the results, intratumorally injected TLA reduced tumor growth and TIMP-1 level, a metastatic marker, in both euthymic and athymic mice. TLA treatment led to a sharp increase in IL-12 expression in serum cytokine profiling of athymic mice, and increased MyD88 signals in macrophages derived from the bone marrow, implying the activation of innate immunity. The selective induction of IL-12 by TLA treatment had an anti-tumorigenic effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Immunity, Innate , Immunotherapy/methods , Interleukin-12/blood , Macrophages/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/analysis , Neoplasms/pathology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Treatment Outcome
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210970

ABSTRACT

Mucosal immune responses against Pygidiopsis summa (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) infection were studied in ICR mice. Experimental groups consisted of group 1 (uninfected controls), group 2 (infection with 200 metacercariae), and group 3 (immunosuppression with Depo-Medrol and infection with 200 metacercariae). Worms were recovered in the small intestine at days 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-infection (PI). Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), mast cells, and goblet cells were counted in intestinal tissue sections stained with Giemsa, astra-blue, and periodic acid-Schiff, respectively. Mucosal IgA levels were measured by ELISA. Expulsion of P. summa from the mouse intestine began to occur from days 3-5 PI which sustained until day 7 PI. The worm expulsion was positively correlated with proliferation of IEL, mast cells, goblet cells, and increase of IgA, although in the case of mast cells significant increase was seen only at day 7 PI. Immunosuppression suppressed all these immune effectors and inhibited worm reduction in the intestine until day 7 PI. The results suggested that various immune effectors which include IEL, goblet cells, mast cells, and IgA play roles in regulating the intestinal mucosal immunity of ICR mice against P. summa infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Goblet Cells/immunology , Heterophyidae/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Intestine, Small/parasitology , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Male , Mast Cells/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Parasite Load , Time Factors , Trematode Infections/immunology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210961

ABSTRACT

Human taeniases had been not uncommon in the Republic of Korea (=Korea) until the 1980s. The prevalence decreased and a national survey in 2004 revealed no Taenia egg positive cases. However, a subsequent national survey in 2012 showed 0.04% (10 cases) prevalence of Taenia spp. eggs suggesting its resurgence in Korea. We recently encountered 4 cases of Taenia saginata infection who had symptoms of taeniasis that included discharge of proglottids. We obtained several proglottids from each case. Because the morphological features of T. saginata are almost indistinguishable from those of Taenia asiatica, molecular analyses using the PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) were performed to identify the species. The PCR-RFLP patterns of all of the 4 specimens were consistent with T. saginata, and the cox1 gene sequence showed 99.8-100% identity with that of T. saginata reported previously from Korea, Japan, China, and Cambodia. All of the 4 patients had the history of travel abroad but its relation with contracting taeniasis was unclear. Our findings may suggest resurgence of T. saginata infection among people in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Cluster Analysis , DNA Fingerprinting , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology , Taenia saginata/classification , Taeniasis/diagnosis , Travel
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207958

ABSTRACT

The changing patterns of goblet cell hyperplasia, intestinal epithelial cell turnover, and intestinal motility were studied in ICR and C57BL/6 mice infected with Gymnophalloides seoi (Digenea: Gymnophallidae). Whereas ICR mice retained G. seoi worms until day 7 post-infection (PI), C57BL/6 mice showed a rapid worm expulsion within day 3 PI. Immunosuppression with Depo-Medrol significantly delayed the worm expulsion in C57BL/6 mice. Goblet cell counts were increased in both strains of mice, peaking at day 1 PI in C57BL/6 mice and slowly increasing until day 7 PI in ICR mice. In C57BL/6 mice infected with G. seoi, newly proliferating intestinal epithelial cells were remarkably increased in the crypt, and the increase was the highest at day 1 PI. However, in ICR mice, newly proliferating intestinal epithelial cells increased slowly from day 1 to day 7 PI. Intestinal motility was increased in G. seoi-infected mice, and its chronological pattern was highly correlated with the worm load in both strains of mice. Meanwhile, immunosuppression of C57BL/6 mice abrogated the goblet cell proliferation, reduced the epithelial cell proliferation, and suppressed the intestinal motility. Goblet cell hyperplasia, increased intestinal epithelial cell turnover, and increased intestinal motility should be important mucosal defense mechanisms in G. seoi-infected C57BL/6 mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Proliferation , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/physiology , Gastrointestinal Motility , Helminthiasis/physiopathology , Hyperplasia , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/physiopathology , Intestinal Mucosa/physiopathology , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Inbred ICR , Trematode Infections/physiopathology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190458

ABSTRACT

The phylogenetic relationships of the 3 Neodiplostomum spp. (Digenea: Neodiplostomidae) occurring in Korea (N. seoulense, N. leei, and N. boryongense) were analyzed using the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene. The adult flukes were recovered from Sprague-Dawley rats (N. seoulense) and newborn chicks (N. leei and N. boryongense) experimentally infected with the neodiplostomula from the grass snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus. The genomic DNA was amplified using specific primers, and the sequence of CO1 was obtained. According to the results, the pairwise similarity was 96.1% between N. boryongense and N. seoulense, but was 95.0% between N. boryongense and N. leei and 94.2% between N. leei and N. seoulense. The results demonstrated a closer phylogenetic relationship between N. seoulense and N. boryongense. This high relationship of N. seoulense and N. boryongense may be related to their similar morphologic features including the limited distribution of vitellaria and the presence of a genital cone. N. leei is distinct on the other hand with an extensive distribution of vitellaria and the absence of a genital cone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Base Sequence , Chickens , Cluster Analysis , Colubridae/parasitology , DNA, Helminth/chemistry , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Female , Korea , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , Trematoda/classification
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79738

ABSTRACT

Autochthonous human gnathostomiasis had never been reported in the Republic of Korea. We report here a case of Gnathostoma spinigerum infection in a 32-year-old Korean woman, presumed to have been infected via an indigenous route. The patient had experienced a painful migratory swelling near the left nasolabial fold area of the face for a year, with movement of the swelling to the mucosal area of the upper lip 2 weeks before surgical removal of the lesion. Histopathological examinations of the extracted tissue revealed inflammation with heavy eosinophilic infiltrations and sections of a nematode suggestive of a Gnathostoma sp. larva. The larva characteristically revealed about 25 intestinal cells with multiple (3-6) nuclei in each intestinal cell consistent with the 3rd-stage larva of G. spinigerum. The patient did not have any special history of travel abroad except a recent trip, 4 months before surgery, to China where she ate only cooked food. The patient is the first recorded autochthonous case of G. spinigerum infection in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Female , Gnathostoma/classification , Gnathostomiasis/epidemiology , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155350

ABSTRACT

In intestinal helminth infections, Th2 immune respones are generally associated with mucin secretion for worm expulsion from the host intestine. In particular, IL-4 and IL-13 are the important cytokines related with intestinal mucus production via STAT6 signalling in nematode infections. However, this perspective has never been studied in Gymnophalloides seoi infection. The present study aimed to observe the STAT6 signalling and cytokine responses in C57BL/6 mice, a mouse strain resistant to infection with this trematode. The results showed that worm expulsion occurred actively during days 1-2 post-infection (PI), when goblet cells began to proliferate in the small intestine. The STAT6 gene expression in the mouse spleen became remarkable from day 2 PI. Moreover, G. seoi infection induced a significant increase of IL-13 from day 4 PI in the spleen of infected mice. Our results suggested that goblet cell hyperplasia and worm expulsion in G. seoi-infected mice should be induced by STAT6 signalling, in which IL-13 may be involved as a dominant triggering cytokine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Crassostrea , Female , Goblet Cells/pathology , Hyperplasia/pathology , Interleukin-13/metabolism , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Intestine, Small/immunology , Metacercariae , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , STAT6 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Spleen/immunology , Trematoda/immunology , Trichinellosis/immunology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45629

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of the prevalence of human Toxoplasma gondii infection is required in the Republic of Korea. In this study, we surveyed the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and analyzed the risk factors associated with seropositivity among residents in 2 administrative districts; Seoul and the island of Jeju-do, which have contrasting epidemiologic characteristics. Sera and blood collected from 2,150 residents (1,114 in Seoul and 1,036 in Jeju-do) were checked for IgG antibody titers using ELISA and for the T. gondii B1 gene using PCR. In addition, participants completed a questionnaire that solicited information on gender, age, occupation, eating habits, history of contact with animals, and travel abroad. The T. gondii B1 gene was not detected in all residents examined. However, ELISA showed 8.0% (89 of 1,114 sera) positive for IgG antibodies against T. gondii in Seoul and 11.3% (117 of 1,036 sera) in Jeju-do. In both districts, the positive rates were higher in males than in females, and those 40-79 years of age showed higher rates than other ages. In Seoul, residents older than 70 years of age showed the highest positive rate, 14.9%, whereas in Jeju-do the highest prevalence, 15.6%, was in those in their sixties. The higher seropositive rate in Jeju-do than in Seoul may be related to eating habits and occupations. The present results and a review of related literature are indicative of an increased seroprevalence of T. gondii in Korea in recent years.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Child , DNA, Protozoan/blood , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sex Factors , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Young Adult
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