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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e21-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967446

ABSTRACT

As of September 3, 2022, 5,388,338 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and 46 deaths (3 in 2021 and 43 in 2022) were reported in children ≤ 18 years in Korea. Cumulative confirmed cases accounted for 67.3% of the population aged ≤ 18 years and case fatality rate was 0.85/100,000. Among 46 fatal cases, 58.7% were male and median age was 7 years.Underlying diseases were present in 47.8%; neurologic diseases (63.6%) and malignancy (13.6%) most common. Only four had history of COVID-19 immunization. COVID-19 associated deaths occurred at median 2 days from diagnosis (range: −1 to 21). Among COVID-19 deaths, 41.3% occurred before admission; 2 before hospital arrival and 17 in the emergency department. Among children whose cause was documented, myocarditis, respiratory and multiorgan failure were most common. COVID-19 associated death was seen early after diagnosis in children and public health policies to provide access to medical care for children with COVID-19 are essential during the pandemic.

2.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 20-32, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002704

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to identify the etiology and risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) requiring hospitalization in Korean children during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. @*Methods@#Clinical information of children admitted with CAP to Seoul National University Children’s Hospital (SNUCH) between January 1, 2021, and February 28, 2022, was retrospectively collected and analyzed. In addition, the etiologic diagnosis and demographic data of children with CAP who were discharged at the other seven hospitals between January and February 2022 were collected. Pneumonia was diagnosed using strict criteria comprising clinical symptoms, physical examination findings, and chest radiographic findings. @*Results@#Among 91 children hospitalized with CAP at SNUCH during the 14-month period, 68.4% were aged <5 years and 79.1% had underlying diseases. Among the 95 CAP cases, respiratory assistance was required in 70.5%, and the use of a ventilator was required in 20.0%.A total of five patients expired, all of whom were either immunocompromised or had underlying neurological diseases. Neurological diseases and immunosuppression were significantly correlated with respiratory assistance (P=0.003) and death (P=0.014). A total of 55% of the detected respiratory pathogens were viruses, the most common of which was rhinovirus at 35.9%. Among the 169 children hospitalized for CAP at the eight institutions, ≥1 respiratory virus was detected in 92.3%, among which respiratory syncytial virus (79.8%) was the most prevalent. @*Conclusions@#Even during the COVID-19 pandemic, Korean children were hospitalized with CAP caused by seasonal respiratory viral pathogens. Although atypical and pyogenic bacteria were not detected, continuous clinical monitoring and further prospective studies should be conducted.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e339-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001148

ABSTRACT

Background@#There have been many epidemiologic studies on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among children, most of which had substantial limitations. This study investigated the etiologic distribution and clinical characteristics of CAP in Korean children for 5 years before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. @*Methods@#A retrospective analysis of children hospitalized for CAP at 4 referral hospitals during 2015-2020 was performed. Cases in which bronchiolitis was suspected or pulmonary infiltration was not evident on chest radiography (CXR) were excluded. Viruses and atypical bacteria were defined as detected when positive in the polymerase chain reaction test performed for respiratory specimens. Serologic testing result for Mycoplasma pneumoniae was incorporated with strict interpretation. Pyogenic bacteria were included only when cultured in blood, pleural fluid, or bronchoalveolar lavage, but those cultured in endotracheal aspirate or sputum when the case was clinically evident bacterial pneumonia were also included. @*Results@#A total of 2,864 cases of suspected pneumonia were selected by diagnosis code and CXR findings. Medical chart and CXR review excluded nosocomial pneumonia and cases without evident infiltration, resulting in 517 (18.1%) CAP cases among 489 children.Regarding clinical symptoms, high fever was present in 59.4% and dyspnea in 19.9% of cases.Respiratory support was required for 29.2% of patients, including mechanical ventilation for 3.9%. Pathogens were detected in 49.9% of cases, with viruses in 32.3%, atypical bacteria in 17.8%, and pyogenic bacteria in 2.3% of cases. As single pathogens, M. pneumoniae (16.8%) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 13.7%) were the most common. Parenteral β-lactam and macrolide antibiotics were administered in 81.6% and 50.7% of cases, respectively. A total of 12 (2.3%) cases resulted in poor outcomes, including 3 deaths. @*Conclusion@#M. pneumoniae and RSV were the most commonly detected pathogens of pediatric CAP, which was selected by strict clinical and radiologic criteria. It is necessary to carefully decide whether to use parenteral antibiotics based on the epidemiology and clinical features of CAP in children.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e225-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001122

ABSTRACT

Background@#There is difference in the incidence of multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) in patients with different variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, however, little is known about the epidemiology in Asian countries. We investigated and compared the epidemiology of the MIS-C during omicron-dominant period with that of previous periods in South Korea. @*Methods@#We obtained clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data on MIS-C cases from national MIS-C surveillance in South Korea. We defined pre-delta period as January 2020–May 2021; delta period as June 2021–December 2021; and omicron period as January 2022–April 2022. We describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of MIS-C patients by period. @*Results@#A total of 91 cases were assessed to be MIS-C cases. Number of MIS-C cases have increased from six cases during pre-delta period to 66 cases during omicron period, while the incidence rate (the number of MIS-C cases per 100,000 cases of reported coronavirus disease 2019) has decreased from 38.5 cases per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.1–83.9) during pre-delta period to 1.6 cases per 100,000 (95% CI, 1.2–2.0) during omicron periods. During pre-delta period, 66.7% and 100% had hypotension and gastrointestinal involvement, respectively; while during omicron period, 12.1% and 6.1% had such clinical manifestations. Fifty percent of pre-delta MIS-C patients were taken intensive care unit (ICU) cares, while 10.6% of patients during omicron periods were in ICUs. @*Conclusion@#Omicron period were associated with less severe clinical manifestation compared to pre-delta and delta periods. Although incidence rate of MIS-C was lower for the omicron period than pre-delta and delta periods, number of patients reported with MIS-C may pose a substantial clinical burden.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e127-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976940

ABSTRACT

Background@#The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has contributed to the change in the epidemiology of many infectious diseases. This study aimed to establish the pre-pandemic epidemiology of pediatric invasive bacterial infection (IBI). @*Methods@#A retrospective multicenter-based surveillance for pediatric IBIs has been maintained from 1996 to 2020 in Korea. IBIs caused by eight bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella species) in immunocompetent children > 3 months of age were collected at 29 centers. The annual trend in the proportion of IBIs by each pathogen was analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 2,195 episodes were identified during the 25-year period between 1996 and 2020. S. pneumoniae (42.4%), S. aureus (22.1%), and Salmonella species (21.0%) were common in children 3 to 59 months of age. In children ≥ 5 years of age, S. aureus (58.1%), followed by Salmonella species (14.8%) and S. pneumoniae (12.2%) were common. Excluding the year 2020, there was a trend toward a decrease in the relative proportions of S. pneumoniae (rs = −0.430, P = 0.036), H. influenzae (rs = −0.922, P 3 months of age. These findings can be used as the baseline data to navigate the trend in the epidemiology of pediatric IBI in the post COVID-19 era.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e13-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915519

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is generally asymptomatic or mild in otherwise healthy children, however, severe cases may occur. In this study, we report the clinical characteristics of children classified as critical COVID-19 in Korea to provide further insights into risk factors and management in children. @*Methods@#This study was a retrospective case series of children 97% for infant) and one was overweight (BMI 21.3). All patients had fever, six patients had dyspnea or cough and other accompanied symptoms included sore throat, headache, lethargy and myalgia. Radiologic findings showed pneumonia within 1–8 days after symptom onset. Pneumonia progressed in these children for 2–6 days and was improved within 5–32 days after diagnosis. Among the eight critical cases, remdesivir was administered in six cases.Steroids were provided for all cases. Inotropics were administered in one case. Six cases were treated with noninvasive mechanical ventilator and three required mechanical ventilator. One case required ECMO due to acute respiratory distress syndrome. All cases were admitted to the intensive care unit and admission period ranged from 9–39 days. Among all critical COVID-19 cases < 18 years of age, there were no fatal cases. @*Conclusion@#To develop appropriate policies for children in the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to monitor and assess the clinical burden in this population.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e215-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938053

ABSTRACT

Background@#Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) B epidemics occurred in South Korea in late 2021. We investigated epidemiological changes of PIV3 and RSV B infections in Korean children before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. @*Methods@#In this multicenter retrospective study, we enrolled patients aged less than 19 years with PIV3 or RSV infection in four university hospitals from January 2018 to January 2022. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from the subject’s medical records and analyzed for each virus. @*Results@#A total of 652 children with PIV3 were identified including three epidemics: 216 in 2018, 260 in 2019, and 167 in 2021. Among 627 RSV B cases, 169 were identified in 2017/2018, 274 in 2019/2020, and 115 in 2021/2022. The peak circulation of PIV3 and RSV B epidemics were delayed by 6 and 2 months, respectively, in 2021, compared with those in the pre-COVID-19 period. The median age of PIV3 infections increased in 2021 (21.5 months in 2021 vs. 13.0–14.0 in 2018–2019; P < 0.001), whereas that of RSV B infections remained unchanged (3.6–4.0 months). During the COVID-19 pandemic, less frequent hospitalization rates were observed for both PIV3 and RSV B infections, but more children needed respiratory assistance for RSV B infection in 2021/2022 epidemic (32.5%) than before (14.7–19.4%, P = 0.014). @*Conclusion@#We observed changes in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of PIV3 and RSV B infections in Korean children during the COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e124-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925960

ABSTRACT

Background@#The epidemiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has changed continuously throughout the pandemic. @*Methods@#We analyzed changes in the incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection according to the age group in South Korea from February 2020 to December 2021. @*Results@#Since the COVID-19 pandemic, the incidence among adults aged ≥ 18 years was higher than all the other age groups in 2020; however, a shift toward younger ages occurred in June 2021. In addition, we found significant changes in epidemiology after the introduction of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in adults aged ≥ 18 and children 12–17 years. Until recently, children were not regarded as the drive for the pandemic; however, children aged 5–11 and 0–4 years had the highest incidence among all the age groups. @*Conclusion@#Therefore, policies for clinical support for an increase in COVID-19 cases among young children and age-specific preventive measures are needed.

9.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 405-420, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898647

ABSTRACT

During the 2019 domestic measles outbreak in Korea, measles occurred in healthcare workers with two doses of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine, and the strict application of the Occupational Safety and Health Act required medical institutions to identify healthcare workers' immunity to measles and vaccinate the susceptible pockets. In response to the frontline medical institutions' request to review the measles recommendations and guidelines, the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases held a roundtable discussion on the causes of measles outbreak, timing of vaccinations, antibody tests, and booster vaccinations for healthcare workers, and financial support from the government and municipality as well as response strategies against the outbreak in healthcare settings. In Korea, the seroprevalence of measles is decreasing in the vaccine-induced immunity group during the maintenance of measles elimination over several years. The susceptible group against measles is in their 20s and 30s, and this may be because of waning immunity rather than nonresponse considering Korea's vaccine policy. The risk of measles nosocomial infection from community increases as these susceptible pockets actively engage in medical institutions.Thus, data on the immunity of low seroprevalence group in Korea are needed, further discussion is needed on the booster vaccination based on the data. Especially, antibody testing and vaccination in healthcare workers may be necessary to prevent the spread of measles in medical insutitutions, and further discussion is needed regarding specific testing methods, and the timing and frequency of test and vaccination.

10.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 92-100, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903146

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Rapid detection of etiologic organisms is crucial for initiating appropriate therapy in patients with central nervous system (CNS) infection. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the BioFire® Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) panel in detecting etiologic organisms in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from febrile infants. @*Methods@#CSF samples from infants aged <90 days who were evaluated for fever were collected between January 2016 and July 2019 at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital. We performed BioFire® ME panel testing of CSF samples that had been used for CSF analysis and conventional tests (bacterial culture, Xpert® enterovirus assay, and herpes simplex virus-1 and -2 polymerase chain reaction) and stored at −70°C until further use. @*Results@#In total, 72 (24 pathogen-identified and 48 pathogen-unidentified) CSF samples were included. Using BioFire® ME panel testing, 41 (85.4%) of the 48 pathogen-unidentified CSF samples yielded negative results and 22 (91.7%) of the 24 pathogen-identified CSF samples yielded the same results (enterovirus in 19, Streptococcus agalactiae in 2, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1) as those obtained using the conventional tests, thereby resulting in an overall agreement of 87.5% (63/72). Six of the 7 pathogen-unidentified samples were positive for human parechovirus (HPeV) via BioFire® ME panel testing. @*Conclusions@#Compared with the currently available etiologic tests for CNS infection, BioFire® ME panel testing demonstrated a high agreement score for pathogen-identified samples and enabled HPeV detection in young infants. The clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of BioFire® ME panel testing in children must be evaluated for its wider application.

11.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 101-109, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903141

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Common human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are relatively understudied due to the mild nature of HCoV infection. Given the lack of local epidemiology data on common HCoVs, we aimed to describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics of common HCoVs in children. @*Methods@#Respiratory viral test results from 9,589 respiratory samples from Seoul National University Children's Hospital were analyzed from January 2015 to December 2019. Viral detection was done by the multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.Demographics and clinical diagnosis were collected for previously healthy children tested positive for HCoVs. @*Results@#Of the 9,589 samples tested, 1 or more respiratory viruses were detected from 5,017 (52.3%) samples and 463 (4.8%) samples were positive for HCoVs (OC43 2.8%, NL63 1.4%, 229E 0.7%). All 3 types co-circulated during winter months (November to February) with some variation by type. HCoV-OC43 was the most prevalent every winter season. HCoVNL63 showed alternate peaks in late winter (January to March) and early winter (November to February). HCoV-229E had smaller peaks every other winter. Forty-one percent of HCoV-positive samples were co-detected with additional viruses; human rhinovirus 13.2%, respiratory syncytial virus 13.0%, influenza virus 4.3%. Common clinical diagnosis was upper respiratory tract infection (60.0%) followed by pneumonia (14.8%), croup (8.1%), and bronchiolitis (6.7%). Croup accounted for 17.0% of HCoV-NL63-positive children. @*Conclusions@#This study described clinical and epidemiological characteristics of common HCoVs (OC43, NL63, 229E) in children. Continuing surveillance, perhaps by adding HKU1 in the diagnostic panel can further elucidate the spectrum of common HCoV infections in children.

12.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 7-20, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903135

ABSTRACT

As of March 2021, humanity has been suffering from the global severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic that began late 2019. In 2020, new vaccine platforms— including mRNA vaccines and viral vector-based DNA vaccines—have been given emergency use authorization (EUA), leading to rolling out the vaccines for global mass vaccinations.The purpose of this article is to review the currently most widely used coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines: their action mechanisms and efficacy and safety data from clinical trials that have been published to date. In addition, the current status of clinical trials in the pediatric population was summarized, and further consideration for them was discussed.

13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e222-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900065

ABSTRACT

Background@#Despite high coverage (~98%) of universal varicella vaccination (UVV) in the Republic of Korea since 2005, reduction in the incidence rate of varicella is not obvious.The study aimed to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of one-dose UVV by timeline and severity of the disease. @*Methods@#All children born in Korea in 2011 were included for this retrospective cohort study that analyzed insurance claims data from 2011–2018 and the varicella vaccination records in the immunization registry. Adjusted hazard ratios by Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the VE through propensity score matching by the month of birth, sex, healthcare utilization rate, and region. @*Results@#Of the total 421,070 newborns in the 2011 birth cohort, 13,360 were matched for age, sex, healthcare utilization rate, and region by the propensity score matching method. A total of 55,940 (13.29%) children were diagnosed with varicella, with the incidence rate 24.2 per 1000 person-year; 13.4% of vaccinated children and 10.4% of unvaccinated children. The VE of one-dose UVV against any varicella was 86.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 81.4–89.5) during the first year after vaccination and 49.9% (95% CI, 43.3–55.7) during the 6-year followup period since vaccination, resulting in a 7.2% annual decrease of VE. The overall VE for severe varicella was 66.3%. The VE of two-dose compared to one-dose was 73.4% (95% CI, 72.2–74.6). @*Conclusion@#We found lower long-term VE in one-dose vaccination and waning of effectiveness over time. Longer follow ups of the vaccinated children as well as appropriately designed studies are needed to establish the optimal strategy in preventing varicella in Korea.

14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e45-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899891

ABSTRACT

Considering the mild degree of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and the enormous stress caused by isolation in unfamiliar places, policies requiring mandatory isolation at medical facilities should be reevaluated especially given the impact of the pandemic on the availability of hospital beds. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of facility isolation and the transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by infected children to uninfected caregivers in isolation units at a hospital and a residential treatment center in Seoul during August-November 2020. Fifty-three children were included and median age was 4 years (range, 0–18). All were mildly ill or asymptomatic and isolated for a median duration of 12 days. Thirty percent stayed home longer than 2 days before entering isolation units from symptom onset. Among 15 uninfected caregivers, none became infected when they used facemasks and practiced hand hygiene. The results suggest children with mild COVID-19 may be cared safely at home by a caregiver in conditions with adherence to the preventive measures of wearing facemasks and practicing hand hygiene.

15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e232-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899874

ABSTRACT

Background@#Korean health authority plans to vaccinate adolescents against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) starting high school seniors during the summer vacation of 2021.However, the myocarditis/pericarditis following COVID-19 vaccine has been reported recently in adolescents and young adults. This study was performed to answer the urgent questions about the basic epidemiology and clinical course of myocarditis/pericarditis in hospitalized patients prior to the introduction of COVID-19 vaccines in pediatric population. @*Methods@#A retrospective medical record analysis including frequency, clinical characteristics, etiology and outcome of myocarditis/pericarditis was conducted in 17 years and younger patients who were hospitalized in two referral hospitals in Korea between 2010 and 2019. @*Results@#Total 142 patients with myocarditis (n = 119) and/or pericarditis (n = 23) were identified. Median age was 5.4 years (interquartile range, 0.6–12.9 years; range, 11 days–17.8 years), and male was 61%. In adolescents aged 12–17 years, the male to female ratio was 3.2. Myocarditis/pericarditis occurred 0.70 per 1,000 in-patients during the study period: 0.96 (< 1 year), 0.50 (1–5 years), 0.67 (6–11 years) and 1.22 (12–17 years) per 1,000 in-patients, respectively. There was an increasing tendency for the annual frequency from 0.34 in 2010 to 1.25 per 1,000 in-patients in 2019 (P = 0.021). Among the 56 (40%) proven pathogens at admission, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 11, 8%) and enterovirus (n = 10, 7%) were most common. Of the 142 patients, 99 (70%) required pediatric intensive care unit care and 10 (7%) received heart transplantation. In addition, 61 patients (61/131, 47%) without heart medication at admission needed heart medication when they were discharged. Eleven (7.7%) patients died, of which five patients were previously healthy. The median age of deceased patients was lower than the survival group (0.8 vs. 6.3 years, P = 0.014). @*Conclusion@#The frequency of myocarditis/pericarditis was highest among male adolescent in-patients; however, the outcome was favorable in this group without any mortality.

16.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 92-100, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895442

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Rapid detection of etiologic organisms is crucial for initiating appropriate therapy in patients with central nervous system (CNS) infection. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the BioFire® Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) panel in detecting etiologic organisms in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from febrile infants. @*Methods@#CSF samples from infants aged <90 days who were evaluated for fever were collected between January 2016 and July 2019 at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital. We performed BioFire® ME panel testing of CSF samples that had been used for CSF analysis and conventional tests (bacterial culture, Xpert® enterovirus assay, and herpes simplex virus-1 and -2 polymerase chain reaction) and stored at −70°C until further use. @*Results@#In total, 72 (24 pathogen-identified and 48 pathogen-unidentified) CSF samples were included. Using BioFire® ME panel testing, 41 (85.4%) of the 48 pathogen-unidentified CSF samples yielded negative results and 22 (91.7%) of the 24 pathogen-identified CSF samples yielded the same results (enterovirus in 19, Streptococcus agalactiae in 2, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1) as those obtained using the conventional tests, thereby resulting in an overall agreement of 87.5% (63/72). Six of the 7 pathogen-unidentified samples were positive for human parechovirus (HPeV) via BioFire® ME panel testing. @*Conclusions@#Compared with the currently available etiologic tests for CNS infection, BioFire® ME panel testing demonstrated a high agreement score for pathogen-identified samples and enabled HPeV detection in young infants. The clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of BioFire® ME panel testing in children must be evaluated for its wider application.

17.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 101-109, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895437

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Common human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are relatively understudied due to the mild nature of HCoV infection. Given the lack of local epidemiology data on common HCoVs, we aimed to describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics of common HCoVs in children. @*Methods@#Respiratory viral test results from 9,589 respiratory samples from Seoul National University Children's Hospital were analyzed from January 2015 to December 2019. Viral detection was done by the multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.Demographics and clinical diagnosis were collected for previously healthy children tested positive for HCoVs. @*Results@#Of the 9,589 samples tested, 1 or more respiratory viruses were detected from 5,017 (52.3%) samples and 463 (4.8%) samples were positive for HCoVs (OC43 2.8%, NL63 1.4%, 229E 0.7%). All 3 types co-circulated during winter months (November to February) with some variation by type. HCoV-OC43 was the most prevalent every winter season. HCoVNL63 showed alternate peaks in late winter (January to March) and early winter (November to February). HCoV-229E had smaller peaks every other winter. Forty-one percent of HCoV-positive samples were co-detected with additional viruses; human rhinovirus 13.2%, respiratory syncytial virus 13.0%, influenza virus 4.3%. Common clinical diagnosis was upper respiratory tract infection (60.0%) followed by pneumonia (14.8%), croup (8.1%), and bronchiolitis (6.7%). Croup accounted for 17.0% of HCoV-NL63-positive children. @*Conclusions@#This study described clinical and epidemiological characteristics of common HCoVs (OC43, NL63, 229E) in children. Continuing surveillance, perhaps by adding HKU1 in the diagnostic panel can further elucidate the spectrum of common HCoV infections in children.

18.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 7-20, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895431

ABSTRACT

As of March 2021, humanity has been suffering from the global severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic that began late 2019. In 2020, new vaccine platforms— including mRNA vaccines and viral vector-based DNA vaccines—have been given emergency use authorization (EUA), leading to rolling out the vaccines for global mass vaccinations.The purpose of this article is to review the currently most widely used coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines: their action mechanisms and efficacy and safety data from clinical trials that have been published to date. In addition, the current status of clinical trials in the pediatric population was summarized, and further consideration for them was discussed.

19.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e222-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892361

ABSTRACT

Background@#Despite high coverage (~98%) of universal varicella vaccination (UVV) in the Republic of Korea since 2005, reduction in the incidence rate of varicella is not obvious.The study aimed to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of one-dose UVV by timeline and severity of the disease. @*Methods@#All children born in Korea in 2011 were included for this retrospective cohort study that analyzed insurance claims data from 2011–2018 and the varicella vaccination records in the immunization registry. Adjusted hazard ratios by Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the VE through propensity score matching by the month of birth, sex, healthcare utilization rate, and region. @*Results@#Of the total 421,070 newborns in the 2011 birth cohort, 13,360 were matched for age, sex, healthcare utilization rate, and region by the propensity score matching method. A total of 55,940 (13.29%) children were diagnosed with varicella, with the incidence rate 24.2 per 1000 person-year; 13.4% of vaccinated children and 10.4% of unvaccinated children. The VE of one-dose UVV against any varicella was 86.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 81.4–89.5) during the first year after vaccination and 49.9% (95% CI, 43.3–55.7) during the 6-year followup period since vaccination, resulting in a 7.2% annual decrease of VE. The overall VE for severe varicella was 66.3%. The VE of two-dose compared to one-dose was 73.4% (95% CI, 72.2–74.6). @*Conclusion@#We found lower long-term VE in one-dose vaccination and waning of effectiveness over time. Longer follow ups of the vaccinated children as well as appropriately designed studies are needed to establish the optimal strategy in preventing varicella in Korea.

20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e45-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892187

ABSTRACT

Considering the mild degree of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and the enormous stress caused by isolation in unfamiliar places, policies requiring mandatory isolation at medical facilities should be reevaluated especially given the impact of the pandemic on the availability of hospital beds. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of facility isolation and the transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by infected children to uninfected caregivers in isolation units at a hospital and a residential treatment center in Seoul during August-November 2020. Fifty-three children were included and median age was 4 years (range, 0–18). All were mildly ill or asymptomatic and isolated for a median duration of 12 days. Thirty percent stayed home longer than 2 days before entering isolation units from symptom onset. Among 15 uninfected caregivers, none became infected when they used facemasks and practiced hand hygiene. The results suggest children with mild COVID-19 may be cared safely at home by a caregiver in conditions with adherence to the preventive measures of wearing facemasks and practicing hand hygiene.

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