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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917651

ABSTRACT

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a relatively rare, slow-growing dermal spindle cell tumor characterized by high local recurrence rates and a low risk of metastasis. It starts as an erythematous indurated papule or plaque where firm nodules subsequently arise, forming typical ‘protuberant’ morphology. However, atypical DFSP presentations, which are difficult to diagnose clinically, have been reported. In this study, we describe three patients diagnosed with diversely atypical DFSP, which were pigmented, hemangioma-like, and cystic DFSP variants. Among them, two patients were misdiagnosed with other diseases, resulting in delayed treatment, with much larger resections needed to achieve local control or avoid recurrence. Therefore, dermatologists should pay attention to these diverse clinical variants of DFSP.

2.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 40-45, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913468

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although particulate matter likely provokes inflammatory reactions in those with chronic skin disorders like atopic dermatitis, no study has examined the relationship between particulate matter and psoriasis exacerbation. @*Objective@#This study evaluated possible associations between particulate matter and hospital visits for psoriasis patients in 7 major cities in South Korea. @*Methods@#We investigated the relationship between psoriasis and particulate matter. To do this, we used psoriasis patient data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. In addition, PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentration data spanning a 3-year time frame were obtained from the Korea Environment Corporation. @*Results@#A pattern analysis generated by the sample cross-correlation function and time series regression showed a correlation between particulate matter concentration and the number of hospital visits by psoriasis patients. However, the prewhitening method, which minimizes the effects of other variables besides particulate matter, revealed no correlation between the two. @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that particulate matter has no impact on hospital visit frequency among psoriasis patients in South Korean urban areas.

3.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 361-364, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889080

ABSTRACT

Nevus comedonicus is a very rare skin disorder characterized by the presence of comedo-like dilated pores with keratinous plugs, rarely resulting in painful recurrent inflammatory nodules or cysts. It presents as localized or extensive form. It displays unilaterally or bilaterally segmental distribution. Histopathologically, it is characterized by keratin-filled epidermal invagination with bulbous proliferation of keratinocytes. The condition may be caused by fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 mutation. Although it may be controlled by a variety of therapeutic modalities, it is difficult to achieve complete resolution. We report a case of extensive nevus comedonicus with inflammatory nodules and cysts controlled with adalimumab.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the nutritional status and prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized children at admission and during hospitalization in South Korea. @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#This first cross-sectional nationwide “Pediatric Nutrition Day (pNday)” survey was conducted among 872 hospitalized children (504 boys, 368 girls; 686 medical, 186 surgical) from 23 hospitals in South Korea. Malnutrition risk was screened using the Pediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS) and the Screening Tool Risk on Nutritional status and Growth. Nutritional status was assessed by z-scores of weight-for-age for underweight, weight-for-height for wasting, and height-for-age for stunting as well as laboratory tests. @*RESULTS@#At admission, of the 872 hospitalized children, 17.2% were underweight, and the prevalence of wasting and stunting was 20.2% and 17.3%, respectively. During hospitalization till pNday, 10.8% and 19.6% experienced weight loss and decreased oral intake, respectively.During the aforementioned period, fasting was more prevalent in surgical patients (7.5%) than in medical patients (1.6%) (P < 0.001). According to the PYMS, 34.3% and 30% of the children at admission and on pNday, respectively, had a high-risk of malnutrition, requiring consultation with the nutritional support team (NST). However, only 4% were actually referred to the NST during hospitalization. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Malnutrition was prevalent at admission and during hospitalization in pediatric patients, with many children experiencing weight loss and poor oral intake. To improve the nutritional status of hospitalized children, it is important to screen and identify all children at risk of malnutrition and refer malnourished patients to the multidisciplinary NST for proper nutritional interventions.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901946

ABSTRACT

Background@#Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that often results in a severely reduced quality of life due to its irritating symptoms. Cooling the skin can be an effective supplement for pruritus in the case of AD, since it can modulate itch sensitivity, which has an antipruritic effect. @*Objective@#The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a soothing cooler on relieving pruritus in the case of mild AD. @*Methods@#Thirty patients with mild AD were enrolled in this study. They were advised to use the soothing cooler on their left forearms twice daily for eight weeks. Immediate responses were assessed at baseline, and follow-up was done at weeks 2, 4, and 8 to evaluate long-term responses. The effect of the soothing cooler was evaluated using the visual analogue scale for pruritus, transepidermal water loss, hydration capacitance, and the Investigator’s Global Assessment scale for AD. Safety was monitored through the report of adverse events during the study period. @*Results@#There were immediate and long-term improvements in the visual analogue scale scores of left forearm pruritus (p<0.05), which were statistically significant. No adverse event was reported during the study period. @*Conclusion@#The results of this study demonstrated the pruritus-relieving effect of the soothing cooler for patients with mild AD.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901394

ABSTRACT

Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rare but distinctive type of influenza-associated encephalopathy characterized by symmetric multiple lesions with an invariable thalamic involvement. Although the exact pathogenesis of ANE remains unclear, the most prevalent hypothesis is the “cytokine storm,” which results in blood-brain-barrier breakdown. We present the case of a 10-year-old boy with fulminant ANE confirmed with serial MRI studies, including diffusion-weighted imaging and susceptibility-weighted imaging. A comparison of these serial images demonstrated detailed and longitudinal changes in MRI findings during the clinical course corresponding to pathophysiological changes. Our case clarifies the pathogenesis of ANE brain lesions using serial imaging studies and suggests that early immunomodulatory therapy reduces brain damage.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900020

ABSTRACT

Background@#Sedative upper endoscopy is similar in pediatrics and adults, but it is characteristically more likely to lead to respiratory failure. Although recommended guidelines for pediatric procedural sedation are available within South Korea and internationally, Korean pediatric endoscopists use different drugs, either alone or in combination, in practice. Efforts are being made to minimize the risk of sedation while avoiding procedural challenges. The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze data on the sedation methods used by Korean pediatric endoscopists to help physicians perform pediatric sedative upper endoscopy (PSUE). @*Methods@#The PSUE procedures performed in 15 Korean pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopic units within a year were analyzed. Drugs used for sedation were grouped according to the method of use, and the depth of sedation was evaluated based on the Ramsay scores. The procedures and their complications were also assessed. @*Results@#In total, 734 patients who underwent PSUE were included. Sedation and monitoring were performed by an anesthesiologist at one of the institutions. The sedative procedures were performed by a pediatric endoscopist at the other 14 institutions. Regarding the number of assistants present during the procedures, 36.6% of procedures had one assistant, 38.8%had 2 assistants, and 24.5% had 3 assistants. The average age of the patients was 11.6 years old. Of the patients, 19.8% had underlying diseases, 10.0% were taking medications such as epilepsy drugs, and 1.0% had snoring or sleep apnea history. The average duration of the procedures was 5.2 minutes. The subjects were divided into 5 groups as follows: 1) midazolam + propofol + ketamine (M + P + K): n = 18, average dose of 0.03 + 2.4 + 0.5 mg/kg;2) M + P: n = 206, average dose of 0.06 + 2.1 mg/kg; 3) M + K: n = 267, average dose of 0.09 + 0.69 mg/kg; 4) continuous P infusion for 20 minutes: n = 15, average dose of 6.6 mg/kg; 5) M: n = 228, average dose of 0.11 mg/kg. The average Ramsay score for the five groups was 3.7, with significant differences between the groups (P < 0.001). Regarding the adverse effects, desaturation and increased oxygen supply were most prevalent in the M + K group. Decreases and increases in blood pressure were most prevalent in the M + P + K group, and bag-mask ventilation was most used in the M + K group. There were no reported incidents of intubation or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A decrease in oxygen saturation was observed in 37 of 734 patients, and it significantly increased in young patients (P = 0.001) and when ketamine was used (P = 0.014). Oxygen saturation was also correlated with dosage (P = 0.037). The use of ketamine (P < 0.001) and propofol (P < 0.001) were identified as factors affecting the Ramsay score in the logistic regression analysis. @*Conclusion@#Although the drug use by Korean pediatric endoscopists followed the recommended guidelines to an extent, it was apparent that they combined the drugs or reduced the doses depending on the patient characteristics to reduce the likelihood of respiratory failure. Inducing deep sedation facilitates comfort during the procedure, but it also leads to a higher risk of complications.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900019

ABSTRACT

Background@#It is uncertain whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to investigated the prevalence and related factors of SH in pediatric patients with NAFLD. We also evaluate the association between liver fibrosis and SH. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed medical records for patients aged 4 to 18 years who were diagnosed with NAFLD and tested for thyroid function from January 2015 to December 2019 at 10 hospitals in Korea. @*Results@#The study included 428 patients with NAFLD. The prevalence of SH in pediatric NAFLD patients was 13.6%. In multivariate logistic regression, higher levels of steatosis on ultrasound and higher aspartate aminotransferase to platelet count ratio index (APRI) score were associated with increased risk of SH. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, the optimal cutoff value of the APRI score for predicting SH was 0.6012 (area under the curve, 0.67; P < 0.001; sensitivity 72.4%, specificity 61.9%, positive predictive value 23%, and negative predictive value 93.5%). @*Conclusion@#SH was often observed in patients with NAFLD, more frequently in patients with more severe liver damage. Thyroid function tests should be performed on pediatric NAFLD patients, especially those with higher grades of liver steatosis and fibrosis.

9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899400

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study used an exploratory sequential approach (mixed methods) design to explore essential meaning through comparing and analyzing the experiences of nursing students in virtual simulation practice and high fidelity simulation practice education in parallel. @*Methods@#The study participants were 20 nursing students, and data were collected through focus group meetings from July 17 to August 5, 2020, and via online quantitative data from November 10 to November 15, 2020. The qualitative data were analyzed using Giorgi's phenomenological method, and the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal–Wallis H test analysis of variance and Spearman’s ρ correlation. @*Results@#The comparison between the two simulation training experiences was shown in five contextual structures, as follows: (1) reflection of the clinical field, (2) thinking theorem vs. thinking expansion, (3) individual-centered learning vs. team-centered learning, (4) attitudes toward participating in practical training, (5) metacognition of personal competency as a prospective nurse, and (6) revisiting the method of practice training. There was a positive correlation between satisfaction with the practice and the clinical judgment ability of high fidelity simulation, which was statistically significant (r=.47, p=.036). @*Conclusion@#Comparing the experiences between virtual simulation practice training and high fidelity simulation practice training, which has increased in demand due to the Coronavirus Disease-2019 pandemic, is meaningful as it provides practical data for introspection and reflection on in-campus clinical education.

10.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 361-364, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896784

ABSTRACT

Nevus comedonicus is a very rare skin disorder characterized by the presence of comedo-like dilated pores with keratinous plugs, rarely resulting in painful recurrent inflammatory nodules or cysts. It presents as localized or extensive form. It displays unilaterally or bilaterally segmental distribution. Histopathologically, it is characterized by keratin-filled epidermal invagination with bulbous proliferation of keratinocytes. The condition may be caused by fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 mutation. Although it may be controlled by a variety of therapeutic modalities, it is difficult to achieve complete resolution. We report a case of extensive nevus comedonicus with inflammatory nodules and cysts controlled with adalimumab.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the nutritional status and prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized children at admission and during hospitalization in South Korea. @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#This first cross-sectional nationwide “Pediatric Nutrition Day (pNday)” survey was conducted among 872 hospitalized children (504 boys, 368 girls; 686 medical, 186 surgical) from 23 hospitals in South Korea. Malnutrition risk was screened using the Pediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS) and the Screening Tool Risk on Nutritional status and Growth. Nutritional status was assessed by z-scores of weight-for-age for underweight, weight-for-height for wasting, and height-for-age for stunting as well as laboratory tests. @*RESULTS@#At admission, of the 872 hospitalized children, 17.2% were underweight, and the prevalence of wasting and stunting was 20.2% and 17.3%, respectively. During hospitalization till pNday, 10.8% and 19.6% experienced weight loss and decreased oral intake, respectively.During the aforementioned period, fasting was more prevalent in surgical patients (7.5%) than in medical patients (1.6%) (P < 0.001). According to the PYMS, 34.3% and 30% of the children at admission and on pNday, respectively, had a high-risk of malnutrition, requiring consultation with the nutritional support team (NST). However, only 4% were actually referred to the NST during hospitalization. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Malnutrition was prevalent at admission and during hospitalization in pediatric patients, with many children experiencing weight loss and poor oral intake. To improve the nutritional status of hospitalized children, it is important to screen and identify all children at risk of malnutrition and refer malnourished patients to the multidisciplinary NST for proper nutritional interventions.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894242

ABSTRACT

Background@#Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that often results in a severely reduced quality of life due to its irritating symptoms. Cooling the skin can be an effective supplement for pruritus in the case of AD, since it can modulate itch sensitivity, which has an antipruritic effect. @*Objective@#The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a soothing cooler on relieving pruritus in the case of mild AD. @*Methods@#Thirty patients with mild AD were enrolled in this study. They were advised to use the soothing cooler on their left forearms twice daily for eight weeks. Immediate responses were assessed at baseline, and follow-up was done at weeks 2, 4, and 8 to evaluate long-term responses. The effect of the soothing cooler was evaluated using the visual analogue scale for pruritus, transepidermal water loss, hydration capacitance, and the Investigator’s Global Assessment scale for AD. Safety was monitored through the report of adverse events during the study period. @*Results@#There were immediate and long-term improvements in the visual analogue scale scores of left forearm pruritus (p<0.05), which were statistically significant. No adverse event was reported during the study period. @*Conclusion@#The results of this study demonstrated the pruritus-relieving effect of the soothing cooler for patients with mild AD.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893690

ABSTRACT

Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rare but distinctive type of influenza-associated encephalopathy characterized by symmetric multiple lesions with an invariable thalamic involvement. Although the exact pathogenesis of ANE remains unclear, the most prevalent hypothesis is the “cytokine storm,” which results in blood-brain-barrier breakdown. We present the case of a 10-year-old boy with fulminant ANE confirmed with serial MRI studies, including diffusion-weighted imaging and susceptibility-weighted imaging. A comparison of these serial images demonstrated detailed and longitudinal changes in MRI findings during the clinical course corresponding to pathophysiological changes. Our case clarifies the pathogenesis of ANE brain lesions using serial imaging studies and suggests that early immunomodulatory therapy reduces brain damage.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892316

ABSTRACT

Background@#Sedative upper endoscopy is similar in pediatrics and adults, but it is characteristically more likely to lead to respiratory failure. Although recommended guidelines for pediatric procedural sedation are available within South Korea and internationally, Korean pediatric endoscopists use different drugs, either alone or in combination, in practice. Efforts are being made to minimize the risk of sedation while avoiding procedural challenges. The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze data on the sedation methods used by Korean pediatric endoscopists to help physicians perform pediatric sedative upper endoscopy (PSUE). @*Methods@#The PSUE procedures performed in 15 Korean pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopic units within a year were analyzed. Drugs used for sedation were grouped according to the method of use, and the depth of sedation was evaluated based on the Ramsay scores. The procedures and their complications were also assessed. @*Results@#In total, 734 patients who underwent PSUE were included. Sedation and monitoring were performed by an anesthesiologist at one of the institutions. The sedative procedures were performed by a pediatric endoscopist at the other 14 institutions. Regarding the number of assistants present during the procedures, 36.6% of procedures had one assistant, 38.8%had 2 assistants, and 24.5% had 3 assistants. The average age of the patients was 11.6 years old. Of the patients, 19.8% had underlying diseases, 10.0% were taking medications such as epilepsy drugs, and 1.0% had snoring or sleep apnea history. The average duration of the procedures was 5.2 minutes. The subjects were divided into 5 groups as follows: 1) midazolam + propofol + ketamine (M + P + K): n = 18, average dose of 0.03 + 2.4 + 0.5 mg/kg;2) M + P: n = 206, average dose of 0.06 + 2.1 mg/kg; 3) M + K: n = 267, average dose of 0.09 + 0.69 mg/kg; 4) continuous P infusion for 20 minutes: n = 15, average dose of 6.6 mg/kg; 5) M: n = 228, average dose of 0.11 mg/kg. The average Ramsay score for the five groups was 3.7, with significant differences between the groups (P < 0.001). Regarding the adverse effects, desaturation and increased oxygen supply were most prevalent in the M + K group. Decreases and increases in blood pressure were most prevalent in the M + P + K group, and bag-mask ventilation was most used in the M + K group. There were no reported incidents of intubation or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A decrease in oxygen saturation was observed in 37 of 734 patients, and it significantly increased in young patients (P = 0.001) and when ketamine was used (P = 0.014). Oxygen saturation was also correlated with dosage (P = 0.037). The use of ketamine (P < 0.001) and propofol (P < 0.001) were identified as factors affecting the Ramsay score in the logistic regression analysis. @*Conclusion@#Although the drug use by Korean pediatric endoscopists followed the recommended guidelines to an extent, it was apparent that they combined the drugs or reduced the doses depending on the patient characteristics to reduce the likelihood of respiratory failure. Inducing deep sedation facilitates comfort during the procedure, but it also leads to a higher risk of complications.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892315

ABSTRACT

Background@#It is uncertain whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to investigated the prevalence and related factors of SH in pediatric patients with NAFLD. We also evaluate the association between liver fibrosis and SH. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed medical records for patients aged 4 to 18 years who were diagnosed with NAFLD and tested for thyroid function from January 2015 to December 2019 at 10 hospitals in Korea. @*Results@#The study included 428 patients with NAFLD. The prevalence of SH in pediatric NAFLD patients was 13.6%. In multivariate logistic regression, higher levels of steatosis on ultrasound and higher aspartate aminotransferase to platelet count ratio index (APRI) score were associated with increased risk of SH. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, the optimal cutoff value of the APRI score for predicting SH was 0.6012 (area under the curve, 0.67; P < 0.001; sensitivity 72.4%, specificity 61.9%, positive predictive value 23%, and negative predictive value 93.5%). @*Conclusion@#SH was often observed in patients with NAFLD, more frequently in patients with more severe liver damage. Thyroid function tests should be performed on pediatric NAFLD patients, especially those with higher grades of liver steatosis and fibrosis.

16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891696

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study used an exploratory sequential approach (mixed methods) design to explore essential meaning through comparing and analyzing the experiences of nursing students in virtual simulation practice and high fidelity simulation practice education in parallel. @*Methods@#The study participants were 20 nursing students, and data were collected through focus group meetings from July 17 to August 5, 2020, and via online quantitative data from November 10 to November 15, 2020. The qualitative data were analyzed using Giorgi's phenomenological method, and the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal–Wallis H test analysis of variance and Spearman’s ρ correlation. @*Results@#The comparison between the two simulation training experiences was shown in five contextual structures, as follows: (1) reflection of the clinical field, (2) thinking theorem vs. thinking expansion, (3) individual-centered learning vs. team-centered learning, (4) attitudes toward participating in practical training, (5) metacognition of personal competency as a prospective nurse, and (6) revisiting the method of practice training. There was a positive correlation between satisfaction with the practice and the clinical judgment ability of high fidelity simulation, which was statistically significant (r=.47, p=.036). @*Conclusion@#Comparing the experiences between virtual simulation practice training and high fidelity simulation practice training, which has increased in demand due to the Coronavirus Disease-2019 pandemic, is meaningful as it provides practical data for introspection and reflection on in-campus clinical education.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917642

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) develops mainly in the elderly, although it is often seen in young patients and in clinical practice. However, there are few studies on the clinical features of young patients with CMM in Korea. @*Objective@#To investigate the clinical characteristics of young Korean patients with CMM. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with CMM between January 2009 and June 2019 and compared the clinical features of CMM in patients aged 10∼39 and 50∼79 years. @*Results@#Of the 341 patients with CMM, only 22 (6.5%) were between the age of 10∼39 and 250 (73.3%) were aged 50∼79. Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) was the most common clinical subtype in both groups (45.5% and 71.2%, respectively). Subungual melanoma was more common in age 10∼39 years (27.3% vs. 17.2%), whereas ALM except subungual melanoma was more common in age 50∼79 years (18.2% vs. 54.0%). Superficial spreading melanoma (31.8%) was also a significant subtype observed in age 10∼39 years (p<0.001). Frequently involved locations in age group 10∼39 were fingers (27.3%) and trunk (22.7%), but feet (40.8%) were common in age group 50∼79 (p=0.009). There were no differences in mean Breslow thickness, lymph node metastases, or staging of CMM (p>0.05). @*Conclusion@#Compared with elderly patients, CMM in patients aged 10∼39 showed differences in the location of the lesion and clinical subtype. Therefore, a misdiagnosis can be prevented when a young patient has suspected CMM on the finger or trunk.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875499

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Delayed diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are major concerns for TB control. We evaluated characteristics of patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB who received a delayed diagnosis and identified risk factors that may have contributed to this delay. @*Methods@#We reviewed medical records of patients with smear-negative culture-positive pulmonary TB treated at a tertiary care hospital in South Korea between January 2017 and December 2018. Patients who initiated anti-TB treatment after positive cultures were included in the missed TB group, and those who initiated empirical treatment before positive cultures were included in the control group. @*Results@#Of 220 patients included, 117 (53.2%) and 103 (46.8%) were in the missed TB and control groups, respectively. Patients in the missed TB group were older (p = 0.001) and had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.019). Comorbidities (66.9% vs. 46.6%, p = 0.003) and immunocompromised patients (33.1% vs. 20.4%, p = 0.035) were more common in the missed TB group than in the control group. Old age (odds ratio [OR], 1.030; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.012 to 1.048; p = 0.001), high BMI (OR, 1.114; 95% CI, 1.004 to 1.237; p = 0.042), and negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results (OR, 9.551; 95% CI, 4.925 to 18.521; p < 0.001) were associated with delayed diagnosis. @*Conclusions@#In more than half of patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB, the diagnosis was delayed. Patients with delayed TB diagnosis were older, had higher BMI, and negative PCR results.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875011

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in developing to advanced countries worldwide. The incidence rate of lung cancer in Korea has been increasing steadily since 1997. Statistics show that in 2017 alone, the incidence and mortality rates for lung cancer were 52.7 and 34.8 per 100,000 people, respectively, accounting for the highest cause of cancer death in Korea. The process of accurately diagnosing lung cancer consists of several steps, starting with the discovery of pulmonary nodule(s) via a cancer screening test or various other methods followed by the collection of cells or tissues and the identification of target molecules. Thereafter, staging and the development of a therapeutic plan lead to improved clinical outcomes. After the completion of a pilot study, a nationwide lung cancer screening program was introduced in Korea; since 2019, this program has targeted population at high risk for lung cancer: men and women aged 54 to 74 years who had a smoking history of 30 pack-years or more. The frequency of detection of pulmonary nodules is increasing in proportion to the public interest in health and economic growth.In this review, we present diagnostic techniques and biomarkers that are widely used in the medical field in the hope that such information would benefit clinical practice.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837371

ABSTRACT

Background@#Flexible bronchoscopy is one of the essential procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the occurrence of hypoxia in adults undergoing flexible bronchoscopy under sedation. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 2,520 patients who underwent flexible bronchoscopy under sedation at our tertiary care university hospital in South Korea January 1, 2013–December 31, 2014. Hypoxia was defined as more than 5%-point reduction in the baseline percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) or SpO2 1 minute during the procedure. @*Results@#The mean age was 64.7±13.5, and 565 patients developed hypoxia during the procedure. The mean sedation duration and midazolam dose for sedation were 31.1 minutes and 3.9 mg, respectively. The bivariate analysis showed that older age, a low forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), use of endobronchial ultrasound, the duration of sedation, and the midazolam dose were associated with the occurrence of hypoxia during the procedure, while the multivariate analysis found that age >60 (odds ratio [OR], 1.32), a low FEV1 (OR, 0.99), and a longer duration of sedation (>40 minutes; OR, 1.33) were significant risk factors. @*Conclusion@#The findings suggest that patients older than age 60 and those with a low FEV1 tend to develop hypoxia during the bronchoscopy under sedation. Also, longer duration of sedation (>40 minutes) was a significant risk factor for hypoxia.

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