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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875448

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To investigate if BK virus (BKV)-specific T cell immunity measured by an interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay can predict the outcome of BK virus infection in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). @*Methods@#We included 68 KTRs with different viremia status (no viremia [n = 17], BK viremia [n = 27], and cleared viremia [n = 24]) and 44 healthy controls (HCs). The BK viremia group was divided into controller ( 3 months) according to sustained duration of BKV infection. We compared BKV-ELISPOT results against five BKV peptides (large tumor antigen [LT], St, VP1-3). @*Results@#BKV-ELISPOT results were higher in three KTRs groups with different BKV infection status than the HCs group (p < 0.05). In KTR groups, they were higher in cleared viremia group than no viremia or BK viremia group. Within the BK viremia group, controller group had higher LT-ELISPOT results compared to noncontroller group (p = 0.032). Also, KTRs without BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVN) had higher LT, St, VP1, and VP2-ELISPOT results than those with BKVN (p < 0.05). @*Conclusions@#BKV-ELISPOT assay may be effective in predicting clinical outcomes of BKV infection in terms of clearance of BK virus and development of BKVN.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874145

ABSTRACT

Pretransplant crossmatch (XM) testing is widely used for detecting preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) against human leukocyte antigen (HLA). However, in some cases, there is a positive XM result in the absence of HLA-DSAs, the cause of which was rarely identified. We reviewed the causes of sequential positive XM results at a single center and analyzed the presence of non-HLA antibodies in patients with an unexplained positive pretransplant XM result. Among 251 patients with T-cell/B-cell complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) or flow cytometric crossmatch (FCXM) positivity, HLA-DSAs were confirmed in 88 (35.1%) by a single antigen bead (SAB) assay, 150 (59.8%) used rituximab (anti-CD20), and 13 (5.2%) had neither HLA-DSAs nor a desensitization history. Anti-angiotensin II type 1 receptor IgG and 33 non-HLA antibodies were tested in the 13 patients with an unexplained positive pretransplant XM result, and more than one non-HLA antibody were revealed in all these patients; 11 patients had non-HLA antibodies reported to be associated with graft rejection, and two patients experienced rejection episode after kidney transplantation. Our study suggests considering non-HLA antibodies testing when a CDC or FCXM test is positive without a definite cause. Assessing non-HLA antibodies might be useful for interpreting XM results and evaluating immunologic risk in transplant recipients.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762437

ABSTRACT

ELISAs and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used for diagnosing dengue virus (DENV) infection. Using 138 single blood samples, we compared the ability to detect non-structural (NS)-1 antigen and anti-DENV IgM/IgG antibodies among (1) DENV Detect NS1 ELISA, DENV Detect IgM capture ELISA and DENV Detect IgG ELISA (InBios International, Inc.); (2) Anti-Dengue virus IgM Human ELISA and Anti-Dengue virus IgG Human ELISA (Abcam); (3) Dengue virus NS1 ELISA, Anti-Dengue virus ELISA (IgM) and Anti-Dengue virus ELISA (IgG) (Euroimmun); (4) Asan Easy Test Dengue NS1 Ag 100 and Asan Easy Test Dengue IgG/IgM (Asan Pharm); (5) SD BIOLINE Dengue Duo (Standard Diagnostics); and (6) Ichroma Dengue NS1 and Ichroma Dengue IgG/IgM (Boditech Med). For NS1 antigen detection, InBios and Euroimmun showed higher sensitivities (100%) than the RDTs (42.9–64.3%). All tests demonstrated variable sensitivities for IgM (38.1–90.5%) and IgG (65.7–100.0%). InBios and Boditech Med demonstrated higher sensitivity (95.6% and 88.2%, respectively) than the other tests for combined NS1 antigen and IgM antibody. Five NS1 antigen tests had good agreement (92.8–98.6%) without showing positivity for chikungunya. However, all IgG tests demonstrated potential false-positivity with variable ranges. Clinical laboratories should note performance variations across tests and potential cross-reactivity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762436

ABSTRACT

The Luminex-based single antigen bead (SAB) assay is widely used to detect HLA antibody in transplant recipients. However, one limitation of the SAB assay is the prozone effect, which occurs mostly as a result of complement interference. We investigated the efficacy of EDTA treatment for overcoming the prozone effect and predicting C1q binding of HLA antibody. We subjected 27 non-treated (naïve) and EDTA-treated serum samples from highly sensitized patients to IgG-SAB assays, and we confirmed the prozone effect in 53% and 31% of class I and class II antibody tests, respectively, after EDTA treatment. When we conducted additional assays after dithiothreitol treatment and serum dilution, EDTA was the most efficacious in eliminating the prozone effect. Reducing the prozone effect by EDTA treatment strengthened the correlation between IgG mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) and C1q MFI values (ρ=0.825) as compared with the naïve sera (ρ=0.068). Although C1q positivity was dependent on the concentration of HLA antibody in EDTA-treated sera, the correlations varied individually. Overall, our results confirmed the efficacy of EDTA treatment for overcoming the prozone effect. EDTA treatment showed a positive effect on the correlation between IgG MFI and C1q MFI values.


Subject(s)
Complement System Proteins , Dithiothreitol , Edetic Acid , Fluorescence , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Transplant Recipients
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761495

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antibodies directly injure endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells by activating transcription factors associated with proinflammatory responses. Previous studies have shown that AT1R antibodies are associated with allograft rejection and decreased graft survival in kidney transplantation. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has facilitated semiquantitative detection of AT1R antibodies. Assessing AT1R antibodies along with donor specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies may have potential to identify patients with possible risk for allograft injury and improve overall outcomes. In this review, we summarize recent clinical studies about AT1R antibodies in kidney transplantation and provide perspectives for future research area.


Subject(s)
Activating Transcription Factors , Allografts , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Antibodies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Graft Survival , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Leukocytes , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 , Tissue Donors , Transplantation
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719474

ABSTRACT

The detection and quantification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA plays an important role in diagnosing and monitoring HBV infection as well as in assessing the therapeutic response. We compared the analytical performance of a random access, fully automated HBV assay—DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA, USA)—with that of Abbott RealTime HBV assay (Abbott Laboratories, Des Plaines, IL, USA). The between-day precision of the VERIS assay ranged from 0.92% (mean 4.68 log IU/mL) to 4.15% (mean 2.09 log IU/mL) for pooled sera from HBV patients. HBV DNA levels measured by the VERIS HBV assay correlated with the calculated HBV DNA levels (r²=0.9994; P < 0.0001). The lower limit of quantification was estimated as 8.76 IU/mL (Probit analysis, 95% confidence interval: 7.32–12.00 IU/mL). Passing-Bablok regression analysis showed good concordance between the VERIS and RealTime assays for 187 chronic HBV samples (y=−0.2397+0.9712x; r=0.981), as well as for 20 drug-resistant HBV genotype C positive samples (y=−0.5415+0.9954x; r=0.961). The VERIS assay demonstrated performance similar to the RealTime assay and is suitable for high-throughput HBV DNA monitoring in large hospital laboratories.


Subject(s)
DNA , Genotype , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis , Humans , Laboratories, Hospital , Pathology, Molecular
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accurate, rapid, and cost-effective screening tests for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may be useful in laboratories that cannot afford automated chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs). We evaluated the diagnostic performance of a novel rapid automated fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). METHODS: A fluorescent LFIA using a small bench-top fluorescence reader, Automated Fluorescent Immunoassay System (AFIAS; Boditech Med Inc., Chuncheon, Korea), was developed for qualitative detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs), and antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) within 20 minutes. We compared the diagnostic performance of AFIAS with that of automated CLIAs—Elecsys (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Penzberg, Germany) and ARCHITECT (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA)—using 20 seroconversion panels and 3,500 clinical serum samples. RESULTS: Evaluation with the seroconversion panels demonstrated that AFIAS had adequate sensitivity for HBsAg and anti-HCV detection. From the clinical samples, AFIAS sensitivity and specificity were 99.8% and 99.3% for the HBsAg test, 100.0% and 100.0% for the anti-HBs test, and 98.8% and 99.1% for the anti-HCV test, respectively. Its agreement rates with the Elecsys HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HCV detection assays were 99.4%, 100.0%, and 99.0%, respectively. AFIAS detected all samples with HBsAg genotypes A-F and H and anti-HCV genotypes 1, 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 4, and 6. Cross-reactivity with other infections was not observed. CONCLUSIONS: The AFIAS HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HCV tests demonstrated diagnostic performance equivalent to current automated CLIAs. AFIAS could be used for a large-scale HBV or HCV screening in low-resource laboratories or low-to middle-income areas.


Subject(s)
Fluorescence , Genotype , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis , Immunoassay , Mass Screening , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroconversion
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence of antibody-mediated injury in the absence of donor-specific HLA antibodies (HLA-DSA) has recently emerged, suggesting a role of antibodies in targeting non-HLA antigens expressed on renal allograft tissue. However, the clinical significance of pre-transplant non-HLA antibodies remains unclear. We compared the histological and clinical impact of pre-transplant HLA-DSA and non-HLA antibodies, especially angiotensin II type I receptor (anti-AT1R) and MHC class I-related chain A (anti-MICA), in kidney transplant patients. METHODS: Pre-transplant HLA-DSA, anti-AT1R, and anti-MICA were retrospectively examined in 359 kidney transplant patients to determine the effect of each antibody on allograft survival and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Pre-transplant HLA-DSA, anti-AT1R, and anti-MICA were detected in 37 (10.3%), 174 (48.5%), and 50 patients (13.9%), respectively. Post-transplant antibody-mediated rejection was associated with a pre-transplant HLA-DSA (+) status only. The development of microvascular inflammation (MVI) was associated with pre-transplant HLA-DSA (P=0.001) and anti-AT1R (P=0.036). Anti-AT1R (+) patients had significantly lower allograft survival compared with anti-AT1R (−) patients (P=0.042). Only pre-transplant anti-AT1R positivity was an independent risk factor for allograft failure (hazard ratio 4.824, confidence interval 1.017–24.888; P=0.038). MVI was the most common histological feature of allograft failure in patients with pre-transplant anti-AT1R. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-transplant anti-AT1R is an important risk factor for allograft failure, which may be mediated by MVI induction in the allograft tissue.


Subject(s)
Allografts , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Antibodies , Humans , Inflammation , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Major Histocompatibility Complex , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is one of the tumor markers available for evaluating disease progression status after initial therapy and monitoring subsequent treatment modalities in colorectal, gastrointestinal, lung, and breast carcinoma. We evaluated the correlations and differences between widely used, automated CEA immunoassays at four different medical laboratories. METHODS: In total, 393 serum samples with CEA ranging from 3.0 to 1,000 ng/mL were analyzed on ADVIA Centaur XP (Siemens Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA), ARCHITECT i2000sr (Abbott Diagnostics, Abbott Park, IL, USA), Elecsys E170 (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN, USA), and Unicel DxI800 (Beckman Coulter, Fullerton, CA, USA), and the results were compared. Deming regression, Passing-Bablok regression, and Bland-Altman analyses were performed to evaluate the data correlation and % differences among these assays. RESULTS: Deming regression analysis of data from Elecsys E170 and UniCel DxI800 showed good correlation (y=3.1615+0.8970x). According to Bland-Altman plot, no statistically significant bias (−1.78 ng/mL [95% confidence interval: −4.02 to 0.46]) was observed between Elecsys E170 and UniCel DxI800. However, the relative differences of CEA concentrations between assays exceeded the acceptable limit of 30%. Regarding the agreement of positivity with cut-off value 5.0 ng/mL, ARCHITECT i2000sr and Elecsys E170 showed the highest agreement (95.2%), whereas ADVIA Centaur XP and ARCHITECT i2000sr showed the lowest agreement (70.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Agreements between automated CEA immunoassays are variable, and individual CEA concentrations may differ significantly between assays. Standardization of serum CEA concentrations and further harmonization are needed.


Subject(s)
Bias , Biomarkers, Tumor , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Disease Progression , Immunoassay , Lung , Statistics as Topic
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714781

ABSTRACT

As part of the immunoserology program of the Korean Association of External Quality Assessment Service, we organized two trials on the external quality assessment of hepatitis viral markers in 2016 and 2017. The hepatitis viral antigens and antibodies program consisted of 10 test items. We delivered two and three types of pooled sera specimens to 965 and 965 institutions for the first and second trials of external proficiency testing in 2016, respectively. The number of participating laboratories was 915 (94.8%) and 913 (95.0%) in the first and second trials in 2016, respectively. We also delivered three kinds of pooled sera specimens to 936 and 1,015 institutions for the first and second trials of external proficiency testing in 2017, respectively. The number of participating laboratories was 920 (98.3%) and 996 (98.1%) in the first and second trials in 2017, respectively. The most commonly tested items were hepatitis B surface antigen, followed by the antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B envelope antigen, antibodies to hepatitis B envelope antigen, anti-hepatitis A virus and antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen. The most frequently used methods for detecting viral markers were the chemiluminescence immunoassay and the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, but they yielded a few-false positive results due to the matrix effect. The immunochromatographic assay yielded false-negative results for anti-hepatitis A virus due to low sensitivity. Continuous improvement in the quality of viral hepatitis testing through participation in the survey seems necessary.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Antigens, Viral , Biomarkers , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Core Antigens , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis , Immunoassay , Chromatography, Affinity , Korea , Laboratory Proficiency Testing , Luminescence
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many companies have developed different methods and products for allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) tests. Because there is no standardised reference method, external quality assessment (EQA) is important for allergen-specific IgE test to ensure the comparability and reliability of the results from different laboratories. We prepared specimens for EQA of allergen-specific IgE tests and evaluated their stability. METHODS: Four pooled sera with 24 selected allergen-specific IgE levels were prepared and stored at −80℃. The stability of allergen-specific IgE levels was assessed on days 1, 7, and 14 at −20℃, 2℃ to 8℃, and 20℃ to 25℃, and then after 3 months at −80℃. Mock proficiency tests were performed with the four sets of prepared external quality controls for six laboratories, using the commercial multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST) methodology. RESULTS: About 150 specimens (650 µL each) for EQA were prepared; randomly selected specimens showed similar IgE levels for the 24 allergens (±1 class). The levels of allergen-specific IgE remained stable throughout the study period (P>0.05). Although mock survey results from six laboratories using four MAST assays revealed some variability with a difference (2–3 class), no consistent differences were observed through the allergens or MAST methods. Qualitative results from the mock survey showed 85.4% (cut-off of class 1) and 81.3% (cut-off of class 2) concordance with the results from ImmunoCAP (Phadia, Sweden). CONCLUSIONS: The pooled sera prepared for allergen-specific IgE tests might be adequate and useful for EQA.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Methods , Quality Control
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The interaction between killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and HLA class I regulates natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and function. The impact of NK cell alloreactivity through KIR in liver transplantation remains unelucidated. Since the frequency of HLA-C and KIR genotypes show ethnic differences, we assessed the impact of HLA-C, KIR genotype, or KIR-ligand mismatch on the allograft outcome of Korean liver allografts. METHODS: One hundred eighty-two living donor liver transplant patients were studied. Thirty-five patients (19.2%) had biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (AR), and eighteen (9.9%) had graft failure. The HLA-C compatibility, KIR genotypes, ligand-ligand, and KIR-ligand matching was retrospectively investigated for association with allograft outcomes. RESULTS: Homozygous C1 ligands were predominant in both patients and donors, and frequency of the HLA-C2 allele in Koreans was lower than that in other ethnic groups. Despite the significantly lower frequency of the HLA-C2 genotype in Koreans, donors with at least one HLA-C2 allele showed higher rates of AR than donors with no HLA-C2 alleles (29.2% vs 15.7%, P=0.0423). Although KIR genotypes also showed ethnic differences, KIR genotypes and the number of activating KIR/inhibitory KIR were not associated with the allograft outcome. KIR-ligand mismatch was expected in 31.6% of Korean liver transplants and had no impact on AR or graft survival. CONCLUSIONS: This study could not confirm the clinical impact of KIR genotypes and KIR-ligand mismatch. However, we demonstrated that the presence of HLA-C2 allele in the donor influenced AR of Korean liver allografts.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alleles , Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics , Female , Genotype , Graft Rejection , Graft Survival , HLA-C Antigens/genetics , Homozygote , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Ligands , Liver Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Receptors, KIR/chemistry , Republic of Korea , Tissue Donors , Transplantation, Homologous
13.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 108-117, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the standard locoregional treatment in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Angiogenesis and inflammation play important roles in tumor growth in HCC. In this study, we evaluated the associations between the levels of growth factors and inflammatory markers and clinical prognosis in patients with unresectable HCC treated with TACE. METHODS: The clinical outcomes of 58 HCC patients treated with TACE at the Catholic Medical Centers from January, 2012 to February 2015 were evaluated. Baseline levels of the growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor and the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-17 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were compared with the treatment outcomes. The primary endpoint was time to progression (TTP); the secondary endpoint was overall survival (OS). RESULTS: During the 20.8 months of follow-up, TTP was significantly delayed in patients with low levels of hs-CRP (≤0.15) and IL-17 (≤0.94) and a maximal tumor diameter ≤5 cm (P=0.010, P=0.015, and 0.048, respectively). Patients with HCC with low hs-CRP and IL-17 levels had a longer survival than that of those with high hs-CRP levels and IL-17 (35.1 vs. 22.5 months, P=0.000; 41 vs. 21.8 months, P=0.000, respectively). However, any baseline growth factors were not significantly correlated with TTP and OS. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated IL-17 and hs-CRP may be predictive of a poor outcome in patients with HCC treated with TACE. A better understanding of this relationship will require further investigation of the immune mechanisms underlying tumor progression.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cytokines , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatocyte Growth Factor , Humans , Inflammation , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Interleukin-17 , Interleukins , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor , Prognosis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-73599

ABSTRACT

Development of luminex-based solid phase assays enables advanced measurement of HLA antibody with sensitivity, specificity, and increasing knowledge of unacceptable antigens. In this review, we described the principle of the luminex-based assay and its current applications for organ transplantation including C1q assay, calculated panel reactive antibody, and virtual cross-matching. We also discussed the technical aspects and limitations for clinical utilization. The variables related to measurement of HLA antibody specificities and their clinical relevance remain unclear, therefore the interpretation of results requires comprehensive knowledge and clinical information in critical cases.


Subject(s)
Antibody Specificity , Immunoassay , Organ Transplantation , Sensitivity and Specificity , Transplantation , Transplants
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The usefulness of the CytoDiff flow cytometric system (Beckman Coulter, USA) has been studied in various conditions, but its performance including rapidity in detecting and counting blasts, the most significant abnormal cells in the peripheral blood, has not been well evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the CytoDiff differential counting method in challenging samples with blasts. METHODS: In total, 815 blood samples were analyzed. Samples flagged as "blasts" or "variant lymphocytes" and showing 0.8) for neutrophils and lymphocytes but poor (r<0.8) for other cells. When the cutoff value of the CytoDiff blast count was set at 1%, the sensitivity was 94.4% (95% CI; 91.2-96.6) and specificity was 91.9% (95% CI; 89.0-94.1). The positive predictive value was 88.4% (95% CI; 84.4-91.5) (304/344 cases) and negative predictive value was 96.2% (95% CI; 93.9-97.7) (453/471 cases). The CytoDiff blast counts correlated well to the manual counts (r=0.9223). CONCLUSIONS: The CytoDiff method is a specific, sensitive, and rapid method for counting blasts. A cutoff value of 1% of at least 1 type of blast is recommended for positive CytoDiff blast counts.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Flow Cytometry/instrumentation , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytes/cytology , Lymphocytes/cytology , Male , Neutrophils/cytology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is responsible for cardiovascular effects mediated by angiotensin II. This study aimed to investigate the impact of antibodies directed against AT1R (anti-AT1R) in renal allograft rejection. METHODS: We evaluated 53 patients who had biopsy-proven rejection including antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) (N=22), T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) (N=29), and mixed AMR and TCMR (N=2). Donor specific HLA antibodies (DSA) and anti-AT1Rs were simultaneously determined. RESULTS: Anti-AT1Rs were detected in 9.4% (5/53) of rejection patients (one with acute AMR, two with chronic active AMR, one with acute TCMR, and one with mixed acute AMR & TCMR). HLA antibodies and DSA were detected in 75.5% (40/53) and 49.1% (26/53) of patients, respectively. There was no significant difference in transplant characteristics between anti-AT1R(+) and anti-AT1R(-) patients except for the association of HLA class-I DSA(+) and anti-AT1R(+). Four of five anti-AT1R(+) patients had DSA and were also found to have AMR. A single anti-AT1R(+)/DSA(-) patient developed acute TCMR. Detection rates of DSA, HLA antibodies, or anti-AT1R were not different between AMR and TCMR. However, DSA(+)/anti-AT1R(+) was more frequently found in AMR than in TCMR (P=0.036). Patients with anti-AT1R showed a greater tendency to develop high-grade rejection as Banff IIA/IIB or AMR. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of anti-AT1R was significantly associated with HLA class-I DSA in renal allograft rejection patients. Both anti-AT1R and DSA positivity was associated with AMR in patients with renal allograft rejection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies/blood , Female , Graft Rejection/etiology , HLA Antigens/immunology , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/immunology , Tissue Donors , Transplantation, Homologous
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although single antigen bead assays (SAB) are approved qualitative tests, the median fluorescence intensity (MFI) values obtained from SAB are frequently used in combination with quantitative significances for diagnostic purposes. To gauge the reproducibility of SAB results, we assessed the interlaboratory variability of MFI values using identical kits with reagents from the same lot and the manufacturer's protocol. METHODS: Six serum samples containing HLA-specific antibodies were analyzed at five laboratories by using Lifecodes LSA Class I and Class II SAB kits (Immucor, USA) from the same lot, according to the manufacturer's protocol. We analyzed the concordance of qualitative results according to distinct MFI cutoffs (1,000, 3,000, 5,000, and 10,000), and the correlation of quantitative MFI values obtained by the participating laboratories. The CV for MFI values were analyzed and grouped by mean MFI values from the five laboratories ( or =10,000). RESULTS: The categorical results obtained from the five laboratories exhibited concordance rates of 96.0% and 97.2% for detection of HLA class I and class II antibodies, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients for MFI values of class I and class II antibodies were between 0.947-0.991 and 0.992-0.997, respectively. The median CVs for the MFI values among five laboratories in the lower MFI range (<1,000) were significantly higher than those for the other MFI ranges (all P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of SAB performed in five laboratories using identical protocols and reagents from the same lot resulted in high levels of concordance and strong correlation of results.


Subject(s)
Analysis of Variance , HLA Antigens/immunology , Histocompatibility Testing , Humans , Isoantibodies/blood , Laboratories , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Reproducibility of Results
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical specificity and sensitivity are essential factors in the adoption of a human papillomavirus (HPV) test as a primary screening tool and test of cure after treatment of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions (High-Risk-Lesion). Using histologically-confirmed High-Risk-Lesion-patient specimens with postoperative follow-ups, we performed clinical validation of the AdvanSure GenoBlot Assay (GenoBlot; LG Life Sciences, Korea). METHODS: The study population included 100 cases with High-Risk-Lesion, 96 with high-risk genotype positive and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 or better, and 39 with HR-negative and better than CIN 1. Forty-eight High-Risk-Lesion cases received follow-up HPV exams after surgery. For validation as a test of cure, 48 preoperative specimens (PreOP) and 78 postoperative specimens (PostOP) from 48 subjects were separately analyzed. The results of HPV DNA chip tests (HPVDNAChip; BioMedLab Co., Korea) and sequencing were cross-compared. RESULTS: The concordance rates for each genotype between HPVDNAChip and GenoBlot were between 96.3-100%. The accuracy of HPVDNAChip and GenoBlot was 87.9% and 96.6%, respectively. Genotype-based specificity for High-Risk-Lesion detection was higher than 87% for both assays; genotype 16 showed the highest sensitivity. In the PostOP group, the positive rates for HPVDNAChip and GenoBlot were 30.8% and 47.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: GenoBlot showed a higher positive rate than HPVDNAChip for each genotype, with concordance rate and accuracy being similar to previous reports. As a test of cure, GenoBlot performed better than the HPVDNAChip.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Blotting, Southern , DNA, Viral/analysis , Female , Genotype , Humans , Middle Aged , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Young Adult
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies tried to find new markers that after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation predict engraftment earlier than the conventional marker, absolute neutrophil count (ANC >500/microL). Early engraftment prediction can be achieved by a marker that reflects the release of neutrophils and monocytes into the leukopenic peripheral blood. METHODS: We analyzed blood cell parameters, including cell population data such as volume, conductivity, and light scatter in 77 patients who underwent HSCT (allogeneic, n=63; autologous, n=11) to detect possible markers. RESULTS: We identified 2 early engraftment markers of neutrophils (NEUTRO) and monocytes (MONO); a pair of mean-volume-neutrophils (MNV) and mean-conductivity-neutrophils (MNC) for NEUTRO; and a pair of mean-volume-monocytes (MMV) and mean-conductivity-monocytes (MMC) for MONO. The new markers showed distinct patterns for early engraftment wherein 1) on the engraftment day, MNV peaked as MNC notched simultaneously for every case, and 2) MMV peaked as MMC notched simultaneously in most cases. Engraftment was predicted 3.8+/-2.7 days earlier than by ANC in 74 successful engraftment cases by using NEUTRO and/or MONO: 1) 72 cases (97.3%), in which NEUTRO and/or MONO predicted earlier engraftment than ANC, 2) 1 case, in which the 3 markers predicted engraftment on the same day, and 3) 1 case, in which NEUTRO predicted engraftment on the same day as ANC and MONO failed to predict engraftment. CONCLUSIONS: By analyzing the data from daily complete blood counts, engraftment can be predicted approximately 4 days earlier than ANC >500/microL using NEUTRO as a base marker and MONO as a supplementary marker.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/cytology , Humans , Infant , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/cytology , Neutrophils/cytology , Time Factors , Transplantation, Autologous , Transplantation, Homologous , Young Adult
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Elecsys hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) II quantitative assay is a newly introduced electrochemiluminescence immunoassay incorporating an initial 1:400 onboard dilution and a simple algorithm to determine HBsAg levels in serum. We evaluated the performance of the Elecsys HBsAg II assay and determined the impact of its initial onboard dilution on laboratory efficiency. METHODS: HBsAg levels were determined using both Roche Elecsys and Abbott Architect HBsAg assays. Linearity and precision of the Elecsys HBsAg II assay and its correlation with the Architect HBsAg assay were evaluated. In particular, precision was verified at Samsung Medical Center, Severance Hospital, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital in Seoul, using the same pooled serum controls. The efficiency of the dilution algorithm for both methods was verified using data from 1,848 clinical samples. RESULTS: The Elecsys HBsAg II assay showed a good linearity from 0.1 to 48,000.0 IU/mL and a good correlation (r=0.9998) between expected and measured values. Precision analyses performed at Samsung Medical Center, Severance Hospital, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital showed excellent performance with coefficients of variation between 1.28% and 6.82%. The values of the Elecsys HBsAg II and Architect HBsAg assays were well correlated (n=506, r=0.987, P<0.001) and also reliably determined in hepatitis C virus- and hepatitis B virus-co-infected patient sera (n=27). In terms of efficiency, 64.0% of samples provided a final HBsAg result on the first run without the need for further dilution, when using the 1:400 onboard pre-dilution protocol of the Elecsys HBsAg II assay. CONCLUSIONS: Given the excellent precision and correlation with the Architect assay, the Elecsys HBsAg II assay showed a potential advantage for laboratory efficiency by significantly reducing the need for retesting samples with high HBsAg levels.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Humans , Immunoassay , Seoul
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