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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918634

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1α (PGC-1α) has a central role in regulating muscle differentiation and mitochondrial metabolism. PGC-1α stimulates muscle growth and muscle fiber remodeling, concomitantly regulating lactate and lipid metabolism and promoting oxidative metabolism.Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thumb.) has been widely employed as a traditional herbal medicine and possesses antioxidant, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, hypolipemic, hypoglycemic, and anticancer properties. We investigated whether G. pentaphyllum extract (GPE) and its active compound, gypenoside L (GL), affect muscle differentiation and mitochondrial metabolism via activation of the PGC-1α pathway in murine C2C12 myoblast cells.MATERIALS/METHODS: C2C12 cells were treated with GPE and GL, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot were used to analyze the mRNA and protein expression levels. Myh1 was determined using immunocytochemistry.Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation was measured using the 2′7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. @*RESULTS@#GPE and GL promoted the differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes and elevated mRNA and protein expression levels of Myh1 (type IIx). GPE and GL also significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of the PGC-1α gene (Ppargc1a), lactate metabolismregulatory genes (Esrra and Mct1), adipocyte-browning gene fibronectin type III domaincontaining 5 gene (Fndc5), glycogen synthase gene (Gys), and lipid metabolism gene carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b gene (Cpt1b). Moreover, GPE and GL induced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase, p38, sirtuin1, and deacetylated PGC-1α. We also observed that treatment with GPE and GL significantly stimulated the expression of genes associated with the anti-oxidative stress response, such as Ucp2, Ucp3, Nrf2, and Sod2/i>. @*CONCLUSIONS@#The results indicated that GPE and GL enhance exercise performance by promoting myotube differentiation and mitochondrial metabolism through the upregulation of PGC-1α in C2C12 skeletal muscle.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#The effectiveness of natural compounds in improving athletic ability has attracted attention in both sports and research. Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) leaves are used to make traditional herbal medicines in Asia. The active components of G.pentaphyllum, dammarane saponins, or gypenosides, possess a range of biological activities. On the other hand, the anti-fatigue effects from G. pentaphyllum extract (GPE) and its effective compound, gypenoside L (GL), remain to be determined.MATERIALS/METHODS: This study examined the effects of GPE on fatigue and exercise performance in ICR mice. GPE was administered orally to mice for 6 weeks, with or without treadmill training. The biochemical analysis in serum, glycogen content, mRNA, and protein expressions of the liver and muscle were analyzed. @*RESULTS@#The ExGPE (exercise with 300 mg/kg body weight/day of GPE) mice decreased the fat mass percentage significantly compared to the ExC mice, while the ExGPE showed the greatest lean mass percentage compared to the ExC group. The administration of GPE improved the exercise endurance and capacity in treadmill-trained mice, increased glucose and triglycerides, and decreased the serum creatine kinase and lactate levels after intensive exercise. The muscle glycogen levels were higher in the ExGPE group than the ExC group. GPE increased the level of mitochondrial biogenesis by enhancing the phosphorylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) protein and the mRNA expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial DNA, peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-δ, superoxide dismutase 2, and by decreasing the lactate dehydrogenase B level in the soleus muscle (SOL). GPE also improved PGC-1α activation in the SOL significantly through AMPK/p38 phosphorylation. @*CONCLUSIONS@#These results showed that GPE supplementation enhances exercise performance and has anti-fatigue activity. In addition, the underlying molecular mechanism was elucidated. Therefore, GPE is a promising candidate for developing functional foods and enhancing the exercise capacity and anti-fatigue activity.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925598

ABSTRACT

Melanogenesis is the production of melanin from tyrosine by a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, in which tyrosinase and DOPA oxidase play key roles. The melanin content in the skin determines skin pigmentation. Abnormalities in skin pigmentation lead to various skin pigmentation disorders. Recent research has shown that the expression of EMP2 is much lower in melanoma than in normal melanocytes, but its role in melanogenesis has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the role of EMP2 in the melanogenesis of MNT1 human melanoma cells. We examined TRP-1, TRP-2, and TYR expression levels during melanogenesis in MNT1 melanoma cells by gene silencing of EMP2. Western blot and RT-PCR results confirmed that the expression levels of TYR and TRP-2 were decreased when EMP2 expression was knocked down by EMP2 siRNA in MNT1 cells, and these changes were reversed when EMP2 was overexpressed. We verified the EMP2 gene was knocked out of the cell line (EMP2 CRISPR/Cas9) by using a CRISPR/Cas9 system and found that the expression levels of TRP-2 and TYR were significantly lower in the EMP2 CRISPR/Cas9 cell lines. Loss of EMP2 also reduced migration and invasion of MNT1 melanoma cells. In addition, the melanosome transfer from the melanocytes to keratinocytes in the EMP2 KO cells cocultured with keratinocytes was reduced compared to the cells in the control coculture group. In conclusion, these results suggest that EMP2 is involved in melanogenesis via the regulation of TRP-2 expression.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875377

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Electro-convulsive therapy (ECT) has been established as a treatment modality for patients with treatment-resistant depression and with some specific subtypes of depression. This narrative review intends to provide psychiatrists with the latest findings on the use of ECT in depression, devided into total eight sub-topics. @*Methods@#We searched PubMed for English-language articles using combined keywords and tried to analyze journals published from 1995–2020. @*Results@#Pharmacotherapy such as antidepressants or maintenance ECT is more effective than a placebo as prevention of recurrence after ECT. The use of ECT in treatment-resistant depression, depressed patients with suicidal risks, elderly depression, bipolar depression, psychotic depression, and depression during pregnancy or postpartum have therapeutic benefits. As possible mechanisms of ECT, the role of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and other findings in the field of neurophysiology, neuro-immunology, and neurogenesis are also supported. @*Conclusion@#ECT is evolving toward reducing cognitive side effects and maximizing therapeutic effects. If robust evidence for ECT through randomized controlled studies are more established and the mechanism of ECT gets further clarified, the scope of its use in the treatment of depression will be more expanded in the future.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874789

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study compared the psychological autopsies of suicide victims through interviews of the bereaved family members and investigations of the police death records. @*Methods@#A psychological autopsy was performed using both the Korea Psychological Autopsy Checklist (K-PAC) through an interview of the bereaved family members and the Korea Psychological Autopsy Checklist for Police Record (K-PAC-PR) from the police death records at the same suicide victims. The frequency and percentage of each analysis item were checked, and the information collected was compared. @*Results@#Of 129 victims, information from two methods showed no significant differences in marital status, employment status, cohabitation status and relationship, location of suicide, method of suicide, and main cause. Among the stress information at the time of death, interpersonal and mental health problems were consistent, but the occupational, economy, family-related, physical health problems were estimated to have greater impact according to the interview methods. The estimates of depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and dementia were consistent, but the investigation method estimated more sleep disorders and anxiety disorders, and the interview methods estimated more drug use disorders. @*Conclusion@#Based on the analysis results, the two methods of a psychological autopsy should be properly utilized, and effective suicide prevention using the psychological autopsy information was discussed.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Petasites japonicus Maxim (P. japonicus) has been used as an edible and medicinal plant and contains many bioactive compounds. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of P. japonicus on osteogenesis.MATERIALS/METHODS: The leaves and stems of P. japonicus were separated and extracted with hot water or ethanol, respectively. The total phenolic compound and total polyphenol contents of each extract were measured, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of each extract was evaluated to determine their effect on bone metabolism. To investigate the effect on osteoblast differentiation of the aqueous extract of P. japonicus leaves (AL), which produced the highest ALP activity among the tested extracts, collagen content was measured using the Sirius Red staining method, mineralization using the Alizarin Red S staining method, and osteocalcin production through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. Also, realtime reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to investigate the mRNA expression levels of Runt-related transcriptional factor 2 (Runx2) and Osterix. @*RESULTS@#Among the 4 P. japonicus extracts, AL had the highest values in all of the following measures: total phenolic compounds, total polyphenols, and ALP activity, which is a major biomarker of osteoblast differentiation. The AL-treated MC3T3-E1 cells showed significant increases in induced osteoblast differentiation, collagen synthesis, mineralization, and osteocalcin production. In addition, mRNA expressions of Runx2 and Osterix, transcription factors that regulate osteoblast differentiation, were significantly increased. @*CONCLUSIONS@#These results suggest that AL can regulate osteoblasts differentiation, at least in part through Runx2 and Osterix. Therefore, it is highly likely that P. japonicus will be useful as an alternate therapeutic for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899947

ABSTRACT

Background@#South Korea has been experiencing a third wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since mid-November 2020. Our hospital in Gwangju metropolitan city experienced a healthcare-associated COVID-19 outbreak early in the third wave. The first confirmed COVID-19 patient was a symptomatic neurosurgery resident with high mobility throughout the hospital. We analyzed the transmission routes of nosocomial COVID-19 and discussed infection control strategies. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing results according to time point and evaluated transmission routes. @*Results@#Since COVID-19 was first confirmed in a healthcare worker (HCW) on 11/13/2020, we performed RT-PCR tests for all patients and caregivers and four complete enumeration surveys for all HCWs. We detected three clusters of nosocomial spread and several sporadic cases. The first cluster originated from the community outbreak spot, where an asymptomatic HCW visited, which led to a total of 22 cases. The second cluster, which included patient-to-patient transmission, originated from a COVID-19 positive caregiver before diagnosis and the third cluster involved a radiologist and a banker. We took measures to isolate Building 1 of the hospital for 17 days and controlled the outbreak during a period of increasing community COVID-19 prevalence. Universal screening of all inpatients upon admission and resident caregivers was made mandatory and hospital-related employees are now screened monthly. @*Conclusion@#Infection control strategies to prevent the nosocomial transmission of emerging infectious diseases must correspond with community disease prevalence. Our data reinforce the importance of multi-time point surveillance of asymptomatic HCWs and routine surveillance of patients and caregivers during an epidemic.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Petasites japonicus Maxim (P. japonicus) has been used as an edible and medicinal plant and contains many bioactive compounds. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of P. japonicus on osteogenesis.MATERIALS/METHODS: The leaves and stems of P. japonicus were separated and extracted with hot water or ethanol, respectively. The total phenolic compound and total polyphenol contents of each extract were measured, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of each extract was evaluated to determine their effect on bone metabolism. To investigate the effect on osteoblast differentiation of the aqueous extract of P. japonicus leaves (AL), which produced the highest ALP activity among the tested extracts, collagen content was measured using the Sirius Red staining method, mineralization using the Alizarin Red S staining method, and osteocalcin production through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. Also, realtime reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to investigate the mRNA expression levels of Runt-related transcriptional factor 2 (Runx2) and Osterix. @*RESULTS@#Among the 4 P. japonicus extracts, AL had the highest values in all of the following measures: total phenolic compounds, total polyphenols, and ALP activity, which is a major biomarker of osteoblast differentiation. The AL-treated MC3T3-E1 cells showed significant increases in induced osteoblast differentiation, collagen synthesis, mineralization, and osteocalcin production. In addition, mRNA expressions of Runx2 and Osterix, transcription factors that regulate osteoblast differentiation, were significantly increased. @*CONCLUSIONS@#These results suggest that AL can regulate osteoblasts differentiation, at least in part through Runx2 and Osterix. Therefore, it is highly likely that P. japonicus will be useful as an alternate therapeutic for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892243

ABSTRACT

Background@#South Korea has been experiencing a third wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since mid-November 2020. Our hospital in Gwangju metropolitan city experienced a healthcare-associated COVID-19 outbreak early in the third wave. The first confirmed COVID-19 patient was a symptomatic neurosurgery resident with high mobility throughout the hospital. We analyzed the transmission routes of nosocomial COVID-19 and discussed infection control strategies. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing results according to time point and evaluated transmission routes. @*Results@#Since COVID-19 was first confirmed in a healthcare worker (HCW) on 11/13/2020, we performed RT-PCR tests for all patients and caregivers and four complete enumeration surveys for all HCWs. We detected three clusters of nosocomial spread and several sporadic cases. The first cluster originated from the community outbreak spot, where an asymptomatic HCW visited, which led to a total of 22 cases. The second cluster, which included patient-to-patient transmission, originated from a COVID-19 positive caregiver before diagnosis and the third cluster involved a radiologist and a banker. We took measures to isolate Building 1 of the hospital for 17 days and controlled the outbreak during a period of increasing community COVID-19 prevalence. Universal screening of all inpatients upon admission and resident caregivers was made mandatory and hospital-related employees are now screened monthly. @*Conclusion@#Infection control strategies to prevent the nosocomial transmission of emerging infectious diseases must correspond with community disease prevalence. Our data reinforce the importance of multi-time point surveillance of asymptomatic HCWs and routine surveillance of patients and caregivers during an epidemic.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915632

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study sought to identify the effect of various types of communication by physical therapists on patient satisfaction and revisit intention. @*Methods@#A total of 212 patients who received physical therapy in Seoul and the Gyeonggi province were surveyed on patient satisfaction and revisit intentions depending on the types of communication by physical therapists. Frequency and correlation analyses were conducted to process the data using the SPSS 22.0 program, and the AMOS 18.0 statistical package was used for confirmatory factor analysis. A structural equation modeling analysis was also performed to verify the model and the hypothesis that was set up in the present paper. @*Results@#The survey showed that patient satisfaction correlates positively and significantly with patient-centric communication, physical factors, and spatial behavior. A significant negative correlation was also found between patient satisfaction and therapist-centered communication. Patient satisfaction positively correlated with revisit intentions. @*Conclusion@#These results showed that there was a positive correlation between the communication of the physical therapist and the satisfaction recognized by a patient. This implies that the patient satisfaction with a physical therapist increases as the communication skills of a physical therapist improve. These findings suggest that a physical therapist must adopt patient-centric communication styles, physical factors, and spatial behavior. This study was important as it generated basic data for the formation of a therapeutic relationship through efficient and promotional communication skills. It recognizes the importance of communication between a physical therapist and a patient as the indispensable factor for interaction.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913591

ABSTRACT

Background@#Reconstruction of congenital microtia remains challenging, particularly in patients with a history of ear canaloplasty due to insufficient regional soft tissue. The insertion of a tissue expander prior to implantation of the cartilage framework has traditionally been employed. However, this procedure could induce additional morbidity. Herein, we present a method using V-Y advancement of a temporal triangular flap to gain additional soft tissue in these challenging cases. @*Methods@#Congenital microtia patients with a history of ear canaloplasty who underwent auricular reconstruction using the Nagata technique between 2016 and 2020 were reviewed. To obtain additional soft tissue, V-Y advancement of a temporal triangular flap was performed concurrently with implantation of the costal cartilage framework, without prior insertion of a tissue expander. The outcomes of these patients with respect to postoperative complications and esthetics were evaluated. @*Results@#Eight patients with bilateral lesions were included. No specific complications developed after the first-stage surgery. However, one patient experienced complications after the second stage (auricular elevation). An analysis of the esthetic results showed most patients had excellent outcomes, achieving a satisfactory convolution. The median number of operations needed to complete reconstruction was 2, which was fewer than required using the conventional method with prior insertion of a tissue expander. @*Conclusions@#In patients with a history of previous canaloplasty, V-Y advancement of a temporal triangular flap could serve as an alternative to tissue expansion for microtia reconstruction. This technique provided reliable and satisfactory results with a reduced number of surgical stages.

12.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 328-334, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902630

ABSTRACT

Some drugs cause phototoxicity in humans when exposed to light, thus there is a need for an in vivo phototoxicity test to evaluate them. However, an in vivo phototoxicity test method to evaluate this has not been established. This study aimed to establish an in vivo phototoxicity test method for transdermally administered drugs. For this, we evaluated the phototoxicity using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for transdermal administered drugs and we studied the appropriate UVA dose using 8-methoxypsalen, which is a well-known phototoxic drug. We found that a UVA dose of 15 J/cm2 was dose and time dependent response compared to other UVA doses. We performed the Minimum Erythema Dose (MED) test because UVB can cause skin irritation by itself and selected 0.01 J/cm2 as an appropriate dose of UVB. Using the selected UVA and UVB doses, we performed a phototoxicity study of 6 pharmaceutical drugs, which included phototoxic and non-phototoxic drugs. As a result of the phototoxicity test, 100% accuracy was obtained when compared with previous studies. In addition, we performed histopathology to confirm the new findings. We found that histopathology can be used as an additional indicator of phototoxicity test for transdermally administered drugs.

13.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 328-334, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894926

ABSTRACT

Some drugs cause phototoxicity in humans when exposed to light, thus there is a need for an in vivo phototoxicity test to evaluate them. However, an in vivo phototoxicity test method to evaluate this has not been established. This study aimed to establish an in vivo phototoxicity test method for transdermally administered drugs. For this, we evaluated the phototoxicity using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for transdermal administered drugs and we studied the appropriate UVA dose using 8-methoxypsalen, which is a well-known phototoxic drug. We found that a UVA dose of 15 J/cm2 was dose and time dependent response compared to other UVA doses. We performed the Minimum Erythema Dose (MED) test because UVB can cause skin irritation by itself and selected 0.01 J/cm2 as an appropriate dose of UVB. Using the selected UVA and UVB doses, we performed a phototoxicity study of 6 pharmaceutical drugs, which included phototoxic and non-phototoxic drugs. As a result of the phototoxicity test, 100% accuracy was obtained when compared with previous studies. In addition, we performed histopathology to confirm the new findings. We found that histopathology can be used as an additional indicator of phototoxicity test for transdermally administered drugs.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Many studies have suggested that Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) and its extract are anticancer agents. However, RVS had limited use because it contains urushiol, an allergenic toxin. By improving an existing allergen-removal extraction method, we developed a new allergen-free Rhus verniciflua Stokes extract (RVSE) with higher flavonoid content. In this study, we examined whether RVSE inhibits the ability of AGS gastric cancer cells to migrate and invade.MATERIALS/METHODS: The flavonoids content of RVSE was analyzed by HPLC. The effects of RVSE on migration and invasion in AGS cells were analyzed by each assay kit. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) protein expression was analyzed by protein antibody array. The Phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 were assayed by Western blot analysis. @*RESULTS@#RVSE treatment with 0–100 μg/mL dose-dependently reduced the ability of AGS cells to migrate and invade. Notably, treatment with RVSE strongly inhibited the expression of MMP-9 and uPA and the phosphorylation of STAT3. In contrast, RVSE treatment dramatically increased the expression of PAI-1. These results indicate that the inhibition of MMP-9 and uPA expression and STAT3 phosphorylation and the stimulation of PAI-1 expression contributed to the decreased migration and invasion of AGS cells treated with RVSE. @*CONCLUSIONS@#These results suggest that RVSE may be used as a natural herbal agent to reduce gastric cancer metastasis.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830547

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Although metastasis occurs in 1 or 2 sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has been widely not performed. For axillary staging and management, the necessity of intraoperative frozen section analysis of SLN has been controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity and benefit of SLN analysis by permanent section alone in clinically negative lymph node breast cancer patients. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective study of 283 cases with negative node clinical findings between July 2018 and August 2019 in Samsung Medical Center. Clinical nodal stage was evaluated by physical examination, breast ultrasonography, breast magnetic resonance imaging, and chest computerized tomography. The cases were divided into 2 groups; the permanent group had 151 cases (53.4%) and the frozen group had 132 cases (46.6%). We retrospectively analyzed the differences in the number of metastatic lymph nodes and rates of performed ALND between the 2 groups. @*Results@#Baseline and clinicopathologic characteristics between the 2 groups were well balanced. Three cases in the permanent group and 6 cases in the frozen group underwent additional or immediate ALND. The rates of ALND between the 2 groups were not significantly different (P = 0.312). The cased of 78.9% and 89.5% with metastatic lymph nodes in permanent and frozen groups were in the pathologic N1 stage, respectively. @*Conclusion@#SLNs analysis by permanent section alone may be performed in clinically negative axillary node breast cancer patients. Our findings can help to avoid unnecessary intraoperative frozen section analysis.

16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786256

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Reduced glucose utilization in the main parts of the brain involved in memory is a major cause of Alzheimer's disease, in which ketone bodies are used as the only and effective alternative energy source of glucose. This study examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate and high-fat (LCHF) diet supplemented with a ketogenic nutrition drink on cognitive function and physical activity in the elderly at high risk for dementia.METHODS: The participants of this study were 28 healthy elderly aged 60-91 years showing a high risk factor of dementia or whose Korean Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) score was less than 24 points. Over 3 weeks, the case group was given an LCHF diet with nutrition drinks consisting of a ketone/non-ketone ratio of 1.73:1, whereas the control group consumed well-balanced nutrition drinks while maintaining a normal diet. After 3 weeks, K-MMSE, body composition, urine ketone bodies, and physical ability were all evaluated.RESULTS: Urine ketone bodies of all case group subjects were positive, and K-MMSE score was significantly elevated in the case group only (p=0.021). Weight and BMI were elevated in the control group only (p<0.05). Grip strength was elevated in all subjects (p<0.01), and measurements of gait speed and one leg balance were improved only in the case group (p<0.05).CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that adherence to the LCHF diet supplemented with a ketogenic drink could possibly influence cognitive and physical function in the elderly with a high risk factor for dementia. Further, we confirmed the applicability of this dietary intervention in the elderly based on its lack of any side effects or changes in nutritional status.


Subject(s)
Aged , Alzheimer Disease , Body Composition , Brain , Cognition , Dementia , Diet , Diet, High-Fat , Gait , Glucose , Hand Strength , Humans , Ketone Bodies , Leg , Memory , Motor Activity , Nutritional Status , Risk Factors
17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 249-253, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760911

ABSTRACT

“Comfort women” are survivors of sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II, who endured extensive trauma including massive rape and physical torture. While previous studies have been focused on the trauma of the survivors themselves, the effects of the trauma on the offspring has never been evaluated before. In this article, we reviewed the first study on the offspring of former “comfort women” and aimed to detect the evidence of transgenerational transmission of trauma. In-depth psychiatric interviews and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5 Axis I Disorders were conducted with six offspring of former “comfort women.” Among the six participants, five suffered from at least one psychiatric disorder including major depressive disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, insomnia disorder, somatic symptom disorder, and alcohol use disorder. Participants showed similar shame and hyperarousal symptoms as their mothers regarding stimuli related to the “comfort woman” issue. Increased irritability, problems with aggression control, negative worldview, and low self-esteem were evident in the children of mothers with posttraumatic stress disorder. Finding evidence of transgenerational transmission of trauma in offspring of “comfort women” is important. Future studies should include more samples and adopt a more objective method.


Subject(s)
Adjustment Disorders , Aggression , Asians , Child , Depressive Disorder, Major , Humans , Methods , Military Personnel , Mothers , Panic Disorder , Rape , Shame , Enslavement , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Survivors , Torture , World War II
18.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 737-744, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760907

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that there is a correlation between lipid levels and depressive mood, and that lipids could be useful biomarkers for depression. We conducted this study to clarify the association between lipid levels and depressive mood in adolescents, especially in community samples. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) that was conducted from 2013 to 2016. A total of 2,454 adolescents aged 12–18 years (1,273 boys, 1,181 girls) participated in the Survey. We conducted a cross-sectional study using multiple logistic regression, adjusting for age, household income, daily energy intake, daily fat intake, and daily cholesterol intake, to assess the association between depressive mood and serum lipid levels. RESULTS: Depressive mood was found in 8.7% of those included in the study. Borderline (110–129 mg/dL) and high (≥130 mg/dL) levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly associated with depressive mood [Borderline level: odds ratio (OR)=5.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56–19.81, p=0.01; High level: OR=5.73, 95% CI 1.06–31.08, p=0.04]. However, this association was not found in girls. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that depressive mood in boys is associated with higher LDL-C levels. Further investigation regarding this relationship and the underlying biological mechanisms is needed.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Biomarkers , Cholesterol , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Energy Intake , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Korea , Lipoproteins , Logistic Models , Nutrition Surveys , Odds Ratio
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759853

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify the difficulties with end-of-life care (EOLC) experienced by intensive care unit (ICU) nurses and to investigate their educational needs for EOLC. METHODS: This study aimed to identify the difficulties with end-of-life care (EOLC) experienced by intensive care unit (ICU) nurses and to investigate their educational needs for EOLC. RESULTS: The mean score on the difficulty of EOLC was 3.41 out of 5. The education needs derived from the qualitative analysis was categorized into four themes: 1) guidelines on professional EOLC, 2) spiritual care, 3) a program to take care of feelings of patients, families and nurses, and 4) activities to think about death. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that ICU nurses were experiencing an extreme difficulty in providing EOLC. In addition, a qualitative analysis confirmed that they needed an EOL nursing program. To mitigate the difficulties experienced by nurses involved in EOLC, there is an urgent need to develop an education program for EOLC tailored to nurses' needs.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Education , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Methods , Needs Assessment , Nursing , Terminal Care
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: There is intense interest in soy isoflavone as a hormone replacement therapy for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. A new kind of isoflavone-enriched whole soy milk powder (I-WSM) containing more isoflavones than conventional whole soy milk powder was recently developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of I-WSM on bone metabolism in ovariectomized mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: Sixty female ICR mice individually underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or a sham operation, and were randomized into six groups of 10 animals each as follows: Sham, OVX, OVX with 2% I-WSM diet, OVX with 10% I-WSM diet, OVX with 20% I-WSM diet, and OVX with 20% WSM diet. After an 8-week treatment period, bone mineral density (BMD), calcium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5b, osteocalcin (OC), procollagen 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and osteoprotegenin (OPG) were analyzed. RESULTS: BMD was significantly lower in the OVX group compared to the Sham group but was significantly higher in OVX + 10% I-WSM and OVX + 20% I-WSM groups compared to the OVX group (P < 0.05). Serum calcium concentration significantly increased in the OVX + 10% and 20% I-WSM groups. Serum ALP levels were significantly lower in the OVX + 10% and 20% I-WSM groups compared to the other experimental groups (P < 0.05). OC was significantly reduced in the OVX group compared to the Sham group (P < 0.05), but a dose-dependent increase was observed in the OVX groups supplemented with I-WSM. P1NP and OPG levels were significantly reduced, while TRAP 5b level was significantly elevated in the OVX group compared with the Sham group, which was not affected by I-WSM (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that I-WSM supplementation in OVX mice has the effect of preventing BMD reduction and promoting bone formation. Therefore, I-WSM can be used as an effective alternative to postmenopausal osteoporosis prevention.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Alkaline Phosphatase , Animals , Bone Density , Bone Remodeling , Calcium , Diet , Female , Functional Food , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Humans , Isoflavones , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Osteocalcin , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal , Ovariectomy , Procollagen , Soy Milk , Soybeans
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