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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 109-119, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968543

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to explore the characteristics and factors related to changes in cognitive function in vulnerable individuals with cognitive impairment during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. @*Methods@#Among patients who visited a local university hospital with subjective cognitive complaints, those who had been tested for cognitive function at least once after the onset of COVID-19 and tested regularly at least three times within the last 5 years were included (1st, the initial screening; 2nd, the test immediately before the COVID-19 pandemic; 3rd, the most recent test after the pandemic). Finally, 108 patients were included in this study. They were divided into groups according to whether the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) was maintained/improved and deteriorated. We investigated the characteristics of the changes in cognitive function and related factors during COVID-19. @*Results@#When comparing CDR changes before and after COVID-19, there was no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.317). Alternatively, the main effect of the time when the test was conducted was significant (p<0.001). There was also a significant difference in the interaction between the groups and time. When the effect of the interaction was analyzed, the CDR score of the maintained/ improved group significantly decreased before COVID-19 (1st–2nd) (p=0.045). After COVID-19 (2nd–3rd), the CDR score of the deteriorated group was significantly higher than that of the maintained/improved group (p<0.001). Mini-Mental State Examination recall memory and changes in activity during COVID-19 were significantly associated with CDR deterioration. @*Conclusion@#Memory dysfunction and decreased activity during the COVID-19 pandemic are strongly related to the deterioration of cognitive impairment.

2.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 57-67, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966696

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study investigated the effectiveness of switching to once-monthly long-acting injectable (LAI) aripiprazole from other second-generation antipsychotics including LAI paliperidone palmitate in both recent-onset and chronic schizophrenia patients. @*Methods@#This was a 24-week prospective, open-label, flexible dose-switching study in patients with schizophrenia. Scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale, Clinical Global Impression (CGI), Subjective Well-being Under Neuroleptics−Short Form (SWN-K), and a computerized emotional recognition test (ERT) were evaluated. Subjects were divided into two groups (recent onset and chronic) based on 5 years’ duration of the illness. @*Results@#Among the 82 patients participating, 67 (81.7%) completed the 24-week study. The discontinuation rate after switching to LAI aripiprazole did not differ according to clinical characteristics including type of previous antipsychotics. Scores on the PANSS, PSP, SWN-K, CGI, and ERT were significantly improved after a switch to LAI aripiprazole without exacerbation of metabolic parameters and bodyweight. The improvements in the PANSS, PSP, and CGI scores were significantly greater in patients with recent-onset than in those with chronic schizophrenia; the improvement in metabolic parameters was significantly greater in the latter group. @*Conclusion@#High rates of successful switching to LAI aripiprazole from other antipsychotics suggest its good tolerability and effectiveness. Improvements in psychopathology and social functioning were more evident in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia, and improvements in metabolic abnormalities were more prominent in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

3.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 181-186, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897017

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of depression in individuals with fecal incontinence (FI) and the relationship between the symptoms of depression and the severity of objective test parameters. @*Methods@#Patients with FI for over 3 months were included in the study. The exclusion criteria were (1) diagnosis or treatment of the pelvic organ prolapse syndrome, (2) previous anorectal surgery, (3) inflammatory bowel disease, (4) previous diagnosis of psychiatric disorder, and (5) inability to read or understand the questionnaire themselves. The questionnaire included the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) for measuring depression, and 142 patients were included for analysis. @*Results@#Of the 142 patients, 34 were males and 108 were females, with a mean age of 67.8 years. The mean duration of FI symptoms was 38.36 months (range, 3–600 months). The mean Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score and BDI-II were 11.96 ± 4.76 and 12.46 ± 9.84, respectively. The Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score showed a positive correlation with the BDI-II score (P = 0.005). Of the 142 patients, 99 showed minimal to mild BDI-II scores, and 43 showed moderate-to-severe BDI-II scores. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that health insurance status was related to the depression in FI patients. @*Conclusion@#Mood disorders related to FI are more affected by the severity of the subjective symptoms or the surrounding environment than the objective indicators derived from the test.

4.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 181-186, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889313

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of depression in individuals with fecal incontinence (FI) and the relationship between the symptoms of depression and the severity of objective test parameters. @*Methods@#Patients with FI for over 3 months were included in the study. The exclusion criteria were (1) diagnosis or treatment of the pelvic organ prolapse syndrome, (2) previous anorectal surgery, (3) inflammatory bowel disease, (4) previous diagnosis of psychiatric disorder, and (5) inability to read or understand the questionnaire themselves. The questionnaire included the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) for measuring depression, and 142 patients were included for analysis. @*Results@#Of the 142 patients, 34 were males and 108 were females, with a mean age of 67.8 years. The mean duration of FI symptoms was 38.36 months (range, 3–600 months). The mean Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score and BDI-II were 11.96 ± 4.76 and 12.46 ± 9.84, respectively. The Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score showed a positive correlation with the BDI-II score (P = 0.005). Of the 142 patients, 99 showed minimal to mild BDI-II scores, and 43 showed moderate-to-severe BDI-II scores. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that health insurance status was related to the depression in FI patients. @*Conclusion@#Mood disorders related to FI are more affected by the severity of the subjective symptoms or the surrounding environment than the objective indicators derived from the test.

5.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Therapies in Psychiatry ; (3): 31-43, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901139

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:Suicide attempt history is one of the major suicide risk factors and the suicide mortality rate increases with the number of suicide attempts. This study aimed to compare demographic and clinical factors between first and multiple suicide attempters and investigate risk factors for multiple suicide attempts. @*Methods@#:Participants were 537 patients who were admitted to an emergency room after attempting suicide and divided into two groups (393 first attempters and 144 multiple attempters). Demographic factors, clinical characteristics, and suicide-related characteristics were compared between the two groups. Variables with a p-value lower than 0.1 were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Logistic regression models were considered to identify independent risk factors for multiple suicide attempts. The significance level was set to 0.05. @*Results@#:Among demographic factors, the two groups differed in age, sex, education, occupation, and marital and cohabitation status. Multiple attempters were more likely to have a mental disorder, current use of psychiatric medication, interpersonal and psychiatric motivation for suicide, current suicidal thoughts, help seeking behavior, awareness of suicide, and agreement with psychiatric follow up. In the regression analysis, unmarried status, mental disorder, interpersonal or psychiatric stress, help seeking behavior, and antidepressant use emerged as significant risk factors of multiple suicide attempts. @*Conclusion@#:The study’s findings suggested that there are differences in the demographic and clinical characteristics of first and multiple suicide attempters. Specific strategies that consider unmarried status, mental disorder, interpersonal or psychiatric stress, help seeking behavior, and antidepressant use may be valuable for future suicide prevention.

6.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Therapies in Psychiatry ; (3): 31-43, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893435

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:Suicide attempt history is one of the major suicide risk factors and the suicide mortality rate increases with the number of suicide attempts. This study aimed to compare demographic and clinical factors between first and multiple suicide attempters and investigate risk factors for multiple suicide attempts. @*Methods@#:Participants were 537 patients who were admitted to an emergency room after attempting suicide and divided into two groups (393 first attempters and 144 multiple attempters). Demographic factors, clinical characteristics, and suicide-related characteristics were compared between the two groups. Variables with a p-value lower than 0.1 were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Logistic regression models were considered to identify independent risk factors for multiple suicide attempts. The significance level was set to 0.05. @*Results@#:Among demographic factors, the two groups differed in age, sex, education, occupation, and marital and cohabitation status. Multiple attempters were more likely to have a mental disorder, current use of psychiatric medication, interpersonal and psychiatric motivation for suicide, current suicidal thoughts, help seeking behavior, awareness of suicide, and agreement with psychiatric follow up. In the regression analysis, unmarried status, mental disorder, interpersonal or psychiatric stress, help seeking behavior, and antidepressant use emerged as significant risk factors of multiple suicide attempts. @*Conclusion@#:The study’s findings suggested that there are differences in the demographic and clinical characteristics of first and multiple suicide attempters. Specific strategies that consider unmarried status, mental disorder, interpersonal or psychiatric stress, help seeking behavior, and antidepressant use may be valuable for future suicide prevention.

7.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 840-849, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832485

ABSTRACT

Objective@#There have been many biological studies on suicide behaviors of borderline personality disorder (BPD), however few studies have sought to psychoanalytic characteristics including defense mechanisms. Therefore, we investigated psychological, symptomatic, and personality characteristics including defense mechanisms in suicide attempters and non-suicide attempters among patients with BPD. @*Methods@#We enrolled 125 patients with BPD. Forty-two patients with a history of one or more suicide attempts formed the suicide attempters group and 83 patients with no such history formed the non-suicide attempters group. We collated the differences in clinical and psychological characteristics between the two groups by using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Personality Disorder Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+), and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ). @*Results@#The suicide attempters group scored higher on the hostility subscale of SCL-90-R. The suicide attempters group also scored higher on the Infrequency, Back Infrequency, Lie, Masculinity-femininity, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, and Schizophrenia scales of the MMPI-2. The incidence of paranoid and antisocial personality disorders, as assessed by the PDQ-4+, was significantly different in both groups. Maladaptive, self-sacrificing defense style, splitting and affiliation on the DSQ were also higher for the suicide attempters group. In the results of the logistic regression analysis, gender, the F(B) and L scales on the MMPI-2, and ‘splitting of other’s image’ defense mechanism on the DSQ were the factors that significantly influenced to suicide attempts. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that impulsive psychiatric features and maladaptive defense style may be related to suicidal risk in patients with BPD. Therefore, our findings may help clinicians in estimating the risk of suicide in patients with BPD.

8.
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine ; : 249-253, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785324

ABSTRACT

There is considerable overlap in the clinical presentations of apathy and depression. However, differential diagnosis between apathy and other psychiatric conditions, including depression and dementia, is important. In this report, we present the case of a 67-year-old woman with a history of receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment for depression. Differential diagnosis between treatment-resistant depression and SSRI-induced apathy syndrome was required. The symptoms of her apathy syndrome were relieved after the discontinuation of SSRIs and the addition of olanzapine, methylphenidate, and modafinil. Furthermore, we briefly review related literature in this article.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Apathy , Dementia , Depression , Diagnosis, Differential , Methylphenidate , Serotonin , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
9.
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine ; : 249-253, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939361

ABSTRACT

There is considerable overlap in the clinical presentations of apathy and depression. However, differential diagnosis between apathy and other psychiatric conditions, including depression and dementia, is important. In this report, we present the case of a 67-year-old woman with a history of receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment for depression. Differential diagnosis between treatment-resistant depression and SSRI-induced apathy syndrome was required. The symptoms of her apathy syndrome were relieved after the discontinuation of SSRIs and the addition of olanzapine, methylphenidate, and modafinil. Furthermore, we briefly review related literature in this article.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e287-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effects of neurofeedback as an augmentation treatment on depressive symptoms and functional recovery in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). METHODS: We included 24 adult patients with TRD and 12 healthy adults. 24 TRD patients were assigned to the neurofeedback augmentation group (n = 12) and the medication-only (treatment as usual [TAU]) group (n = 12). The neurofeedback augmentation group underwent combined therapy comprising medication and 12–24 sessions of neurofeedback training for 12 weeks. To assess the serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in both groups, pre- and post-treatment blood samples were obtained. Patients were evaluated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S), 5-level version of European Quality of Life Questionnaire 5-Dimensional Classification (EQ-5D-5L), and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) at baseline, and at the 1-, 4-, and 12-week. RESULTS: From baseline to week 12, neurofeedback training reduced mean scores on HAM-D, BDI-II, CGI-S, and SDS, and increased mean EQ-5D-5L tariff score. In the neurofeedback augmentation group, the response and remission rates were 58.3% and 50.0%, respectively, at week 12. Changes in HAM-D, EQ-5D-5L tariff score, and SDS were significantly larger in the neurofeedback group than in the medication-only (TAU) group. No significant difference in BDNF level was found pre- vs. post-treatment in any of the groups. CONCLUSION: Despite the small sample size, these results suggest that neurofeedback treatment may be effective as an augmentation treatment, not only for depressive symptoms, but also for functional recovery, in patients with TRD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0004183 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04078438


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Classification , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Information Services , Neurofeedback , Pilot Projects , Quality of Life , Sample Size
11.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 235-245, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713258

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Physical or mental imbalance caused by harmful stimuli can induce stress to maintain homeostasis. During chronic stress, the sympathetic nervous system is hyperactivated, causing physical, psychological, and behavioral abnormalities. At present, there is no accepted standard for stress evaluation. This review aimed to survey studies providing a rationale for selecting heart rate variability (HRV) as a psychological stress indicator. METHODS: Term searches in the Web of Science®, National Library of Medicine (PubMed), and Google Scholar databases yielded 37 publications meeting our criteria. The inclusion criteria were involvement of human participants, HRV as an objective psychological stress measure, and measured HRV reactivity. RESULTS: In most studies, HRV variables changed in response to stress induced by various methods. The most frequently reported factor associated with variation in HRV variables was low parasympathetic activity, which is characterized by a decrease in the high-frequency band and an increase in the low-frequency band. Neuroimaging studies suggested that HRV may be linked to cortical regions (e.g., the ventromedial prefrontal cortex) that are involved in stressful situation appraisal. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the current neurobiological evidence suggests that HRV is impacted by stress and supports its use for the objective assessment of psychological health and stress.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autonomic Nervous System , Heart Rate , Heart , Homeostasis , Neuroimaging , Stress, Psychological , Sympathetic Nervous System
12.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 140-151, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786889

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine effects of adjunctive aripiprazole versus bupropion, on depressive symptoms of female depression.METHODS: Sixty six female patients with major depressive disorders were enrolled from a six-week, randomized prospective open-label multi-center study. Participants were randomized to receive aripiprazole (2.5–10 mg/day) or bupropion (150–300 mg/day). Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating scale (HAM-D17), Iowa Fatigue Scale, Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale, Psychotropic-Related Sexual Dysfunction Questionnaire scores, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) were obtained at baseline and after one, two, four, and six weeks. Changes on individual items of HAM-D17 were assessed as well as on composite scales (anxiety, insomnia and drive), and on four core subscales that capture core depression symptoms.RESULTS: Overall, both treatments improved depressive symptoms, without causing serious adverse events. There were significant differences in the HAM-D17 total score (p=0.046) and CGI-S (p=0.004), between aripiprazole and bupropion augmentation, favoring aripiprazole over bupropion. Aripiprazole revealed significantly greater effect size in depressed mood (p=0.006), retardation (p=0.005), anxiety psychic (p=0.032), and general somatic symptom (p=0.01).CONCLUSION: While both treatments were effective, results of this study suggested that aripiprazole may be preferable, in treating general and core symptoms of female depression.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Anxiety , Aripiprazole , Bupropion , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant , Fatigue , Iowa , Prospective Studies , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Weights and Measures
13.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 378-382, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160422

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cerebral amyloid deposition and overall clinical factors including cognitive functions in geriatric depression by using 18F-florbetaben positron emission tomography. Thirteen subjects aged over 60 years who had a history of major depressive disorder and also had subjective memory complaint were included. Of all subjects, 3 subjects judged as amyloid positive, and the others judged as amyloid negative. Their memory, visuospatial functions and attention abilities were negatively correlated with amyloid deposition in specific brain regions, but their language and recognition abilities were not correlated with any region. The amyloid deposition of the whole brain region was significantly negatively correlated with immediate memory.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Attention , Brain , Cognition , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Electrons , Memory , Memory, Short-Term , Pilot Projects , Plaque, Amyloid , Positron-Emission Tomography
14.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 447-452, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74570

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare duloxetine monotherapy to combination therapy with other antidepressants in patients with major depressive disorder in a clinical, real world setting. METHODS: An eight-week, retrospective, multi-center study of outpatients with major depressive disorder was undertaken. After screening 415 patients, enrolled in this study from July 2009 to June 2014 were 82 patients from among three centers who had been taking duloxetine with or without other antidepressant and not administered with atypical antipsychotics. We compared the mean changes of the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) as a primary measure and the discontinuation rate as a secondary measure between the duloxetine monotherapy group (n=36, 43.9%) and the combination therapy with other antidepressants group (n=46, 56.1%) at baseline, one, two, four and eight weeks. RESULTS: There were no significant differences across the demographic characteristics between two groups. There was, however, a statistically greater improvement on the CGI-S at weeks 2, 4 and 8 in the combination group compared with the monotherapy group. There were no significant differences in discontinuation rate and adverse events between two groups. No serious adverse events were reported in both groups during the study period. CONCLUSION: This result suggests that the duloxetine combination therapy with other antidepressants could improve effectiveness and have comparable tolerability with the monotherapy in the treatment of outpatients with major depressive disorders in a naturalistic setting. Adequately powered, well-controlled clinical trials are strongly warranted to confirm our findings due to methodological shortcomings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antidepressive Agents , Antipsychotic Agents , Depressive Disorder, Major , Duloxetine Hydrochloride , Mass Screening , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies
15.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 596-599, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39330

ABSTRACT

Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with ovarian teratoma has variable clinical manifestations, including hallucination, abnormal behavior, amnesia, mental change, fever, chorea and dystonia, and often has antibodies to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), however cases without tumor or antibodies to NMDAR have also been reported. Here, we describe a 35-year-old female who was initially misdiagnosed as schizophrenia because she presented with acute onset of psychiatric symptoms, including visual hallucination, abnormal behavior, confusion, and memory impairment. Three days after admission, she developed high fever refractory to antibiotics. Brain MRI and examination of cerebrospinal fluid were normal. Computerized tomography of the pelvis showed an ovarian teratoma. The patient showed complete improvement after surgical removal of the ovarian teratoma and steroid therapy. We suggest that physicians should consider the possibility of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis in patients who present with acute onset of psychiatric symptoms with high fever or movement disorder.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Amnesia , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antibodies , Brain , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Chorea , Dystonia , Fever , Hallucinations , Limbic Encephalitis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Memory , Movement Disorders , N-Methylaspartate , Pelvis , Schizophrenia , Teratoma
16.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 18-25, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28127

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study explored the relationships among demographic (DVs) and clinical variables (CVs), neurocognitive (NOs) and functional outcome (FO) that could be used as prognostic factors for old aged patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) undergoing or appointed disability evaluation (DE) after treatment. METHODS: A total of 162 subjects with TBI above the age of 55 years undergoing DE or appointed to do so after treatments were selected. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to age : a junior elderly group 55 to 64 years old and a senior elderly group over the age of 65. NOs and FO were evaluated using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery and Clinical Dementia Rating scale. RESULTS: Gender, age, and education level were shown to significantly impact the recovery of NOs after TBI. Other DVs and CVs such as area of residency, occupation, type of injury, or loss of consciousness were not found to significantly affect the recovery of NOs after TBI. Analysis of the relationships among DVs, CVs and NOs demonstrated that gender, age, and education level contributed to the variance of NOs. In FO, loss of consciousness (LOC) was included to prognostic factor. CONCLUSION: Gender, age and education level significantly influence the NOs of elderly patients with TBI. LOC may also serve as a meaningful prognostic factor in FO. Unlike younger adult patients with TBI, old aged patients with TBI did not show global faking-bad or malingering attitudes to DE for compensation, but assume that they could faking their performance in a test set available visual feedback.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Brain Injuries , Compensation and Redress , Dementia , Disability Evaluation , Education , Feedback, Sensory , Internship and Residency , Malingering , Mass Screening , Occupations , Prognosis , Seoul , Unconsciousness
17.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 390-398, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179143

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We determined whether the relationship between the neuropsychological performance of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their psychopathological characteristics measured by disability evaluation are interrelated. In addition, we assessed which psychopathological variable was most influential on neuropsychological performance via statistical clustering of the same characteristics of mild TBI. METHODS: A total of 219 disability evaluation participants with mild brain injury were selected. All participants were classified into three groups, based on their psychopathological characteristics, via a two-step cluster analysis using validity and clinical scales from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R). The Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (K-WAIS), Korean Memory Assessment Scale (K-MAS) and the Korean Boston Naming Test (K-BNT) were used to evaluate the neurocognitive functions of mild TBI patients. RESULTS: Over a quarter (26.9%) experienced severe psychopathological symptoms and 43.4% experienced mild or moderate psychopathological symptoms, and all of the mild TBI patients showed a significant relationship between neurocognitive functions and subjective and/or objective psychopathic symptoms, but the degree of this relationship was moderate. Variances of neurocognitive function were explained by neurotic and psychotic symptoms, but the role of these factors were different to each other and participants did not show intelligence and other cognitive domain decrement except for global memory abilities compared to the non-psychopathology group. CONCLUSION: Certain patients with mild TBI showed psychopathological symptoms, but these were not directly related to cognitive decrement. Psychopathology and cognitive decrement are discrete aspects in patients with mild TBI. Furthermore, the neurotic symptoms of mild TBI patients made positive complements to decrements or impairments of neurocognitive functions, but the psychotic symptoms had a negative effect on neurocognitive functions.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Brain Injuries , Complement System Proteins , Disability Evaluation , Intelligence , Memory , MMPI , Post-Concussion Syndrome , Psychopathology , Weights and Measures
18.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 511-517, 2005.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95280

ABSTRACT

To investigate psychopathology and executive functions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children according to intelligence level, this study included 197 ADHD children who visited the outpatient department of neuropsychiatry of YeungNam University Medical Center, from July 2000 to June 2002. The children were divided into groups based on their intelligence levels. They were compared by the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC), Conncers' Continuous Performence Test (CPT), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). There were significant differences in PIC, on the subscales of verbal development, socialization and autism. In the CPT, there was no significant difference. In the WCST, there were significant differences in the total number of errors, the number of perseverative errors, the number of completed categories and the number of trials needed to complete the first category. Considering these results, the intelligence level of ADHD children is related to their disabilities and behavioral symptoms. Executive functions such as abstract thinking, categorization, working memory and flexibility had significant relationship to the intelligence levels of ADHD children. Therefore, the intelligence level of children with ADHD influences the higher executive functions of regulating attention and information processing rather than attentional functions and capacity alone.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Academic Medical Centers , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Autistic Disorder , Electronic Data Processing , Behavioral Symptoms , Executive Function , Intelligence , Memory, Short-Term , Neuropsychiatry , Outpatients , Personality Inventory , Pliability , Psychopathology , Socialization , Thinking , Wisconsin
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