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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913830

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Certain patient subgroups who do not respond to induction chemotherapy (IC) show inherent chemoresistance in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LA-HNSCC). This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of IC, and role of IC in guiding the selection of a definitive locoregional therapy. @*Materials and Methods@#Out of the 445 patients in multi-institutional LA-HNSCC cohort, 158 (36%) receiving IC were enrolled. The study outcome was to assess overall survival (OS) through IC responsiveness and its role to select subsequent treatments. @*Results@#Among 135 patients who completed subsequent treatment following IC, 74% responded to IC (complete response in 17% and partial response in 58%). IC-non-responders showed 4.5 times higher risk of mortality than IC-responders (hazard ratio, 4.52; 95% confidence interval, 2.32 to 8.81; p < 0.001). Among IC-responders, 84% subsequently received definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and OS was not differed by surgery or CCRT (p=0.960). Regarding IC-non-responders, 54% received CCRT and 46% underwent surgery, and OS was poor in CCRT (24-month survival rate of 38%) or surgery (24-month survival rate of 63%). @*Conclusion@#Response to IC is a favorable prognostic factor. For IC-responders, either surgery or CCRT achieved similar survival probabilities. For IC-non-responder, multidisciplinary approach was warranted reflecting patients’ preference, morbidity, and prognosis.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913822

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#K-MASTER project is a Korean national precision medicine platform that screened actionable mutations by analyzing next-generation sequencing (NGS) of solid tumor patients. We compared gene analyses between NGS panel from the K-MASTER project and orthogonal methods. @*Materials and Methods@#Colorectal, breast, non–small cell lung, and gastric cancer patients were included. We compared NGS results from K-MASTER projects with those of non-NGS orthogonal methods (KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations in colorectal cancer [CRC]; epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], anaplastic lymphoma kinase [ALK] fusion, and reactive oxygen species 1 [ROS1] fusion in non–small cell lung cancer [NSCLC], and Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) positivity in breast and gastric cancers). @*Results@#In the CRC cohort (n=225), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS were 87.4% and 79.3% (KRAS); 88.9% and 98.9% (NRAS); and 77.8% and 100.0% (BRAF), respectively. In the NSCLC cohort (n=109), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS for EGFR were 86.2% and 97.5%, respectively. The concordance rate for ALK fusion was 100%, but ROS1 fusion was positive in only one of three cases that were positive in orthogonal tests. In the breast cancer cohort (n=260), ERBB2 amplification was detected in 45 by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods that integrated immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, sensitivity and specificity were 53.7% and 99.4%, respectively. In the gastric cancer cohort (n=64), ERBB2 amplification was detected in six by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods, sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 98.2%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The results of the K-MASTER NGS panel and orthogonal methods showed a different degree of agreement for each genetic alteration, but generally showed a high agreement rate.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919203

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard of care for resected stage II-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NCSLC). The efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage IB (< 4 cm) NSCLC with high-risk factors is controversial. @*Methods@#This retrospective multicenter study included 285 stage IB NSCLC patients with high-risk factors according to the 8th edition tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification from four academic hospitals. High-risk factors included visceral pleural invasion, vascular invasion, lymphatic invasion, lung neuroendocrine tumors, and micropapillary histology patterns. @*Results@#Of the 285 patients, 127 (44.6%) were included in the adjuvant chemotherapy group and 158 (55.4%) were included in the non-adjuvant chemotherapy group. The median follow-up was 41.5 months. Patients in the adjuvant chemotherapy group had a significantly reduced recurrence rate and risk of mortality than those in the non-adjuvant chemotherapy group (hazards ratio, 0.408; 95% confidence interval, 0.221 to 0.754; p = 0.004 and hazards ratio, 0.176; 95% confidence interval, 0.057 to 0.546; p = 0.003, respectively). Adjuvant chemotherapy should be particularly considered for the high-risk factors such as visceral pleural involvement or vascular invasion. Based on the subgroup analysis, adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered when visceral pleural involvement is present, even if the tumor size is < 3 cm. @*Conclusions@#Adjuvant chemotherapy may be useful for patients with stage IB NSCLC with high-risk factors and is more relevant for patients with visceral pleural involvement or vascular invasion.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919191

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Treatment decisions for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LA-HNSCC) are complicated, and multi-modal treatments are usually indicated. However, it is challenging for older patients to complete treatments. Thus, we investigated disease characteristics, real-world treatment, and outcomes in older LA-HNSCC patients. @*Methods@#Older patients (aged ≥ 70 years) were selected from a large nationwide cohort that included 445 patients with stage III–IVB LA-HNSCC from January 2005 to December 2015. Their data were retrospectively analyzed and compared with those of younger patients. @*Results@#Older patients accounted for 18.7% (83/445) of all patients with median age was 73 years (range, 70 to 89). Proportions of primary tumors in the hypopharynx and larynx were higher in older patients and older patients had a more advanced T stage and worse performance status. Regarding treatment strategies of older patients, 44.5% of patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), 41.0% underwent surgery, and 14.5% did not complete the planned treatment. Induction chemotherapy (IC) was administered to 27.7% (23/83) of older patients; the preferred regimen for IC was fluorouracil and cisplatin (47.9%). For CCRT, weekly cisplatin was prescribed 3.3 times more often than 3-weekly cisplatin (62.2% vs. 18.9%). Older patients had a 60% higher risk of death than younger patients (hazard ratio, 1.6; p = 0.035). Oral cavity cancer patients had the worst survival probability. @*Conclusions@#Older LA-HNSCC patients had aggressive tumor characteristics and received less intensive treatment, resulting in poor survival. Further research focusing on the older population is necessary.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836639

ABSTRACT

Treatment of progressive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has advanced remarkably, due in part to the development of targeted therapies. Several gene alterations, including EGFR, ALK, ROS1, and BRAF, play important roles in carcinogenesis. Therefore, many targeted agents focusing these gene alterations have been developed and proving their therapeutic efficacies in many clinical trials. Now we should test these gene mutations and should apply treatments individually and properly to ensure the maximal survival benefit of each patient. In this review, we summarize the target genes and respective therapeutic agents in NSCLC.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831913

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Various preoperative screening tests, such as platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and bleeding time, have been widely used to evaluate the risk of bleeding during surgery. Use of platelet function analyzer (PFA)-100/200 for assessing platelet function instead of bleeding time is increasing. However, its role in predicting the perioperative risk of bleeding remains controversial. @*Methods@#Data of 703 patients who underwent surgery under general anesthesia were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative platelet function was measured using PFA-200 system and the association with intraoperative bleeding was assessed. Additionally, other variables that could affect PFA-200 results were assessed by logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#Collagen/epinephrine (COL/EPI) test was prolonged in 199/703 (28.3%) patients (EPI group), while 99/212 (46.7%) patients showed COL/adenosine diphosphate test abnormalities. Bleeding over 300 mL during surgery occurred in 14.3% and 20.1% of patients in the normal and EPI groups, respectively (p = 0.058). In addition, red blood cell transfusion within 72 hours after surgery rate was significantly higher in the EPI group than in the normal group (31.7% vs. 23.4%,p= 0.024). In multivariate logistic analysis, prolongation closure time with COL/EPI (p = 0.068) was marginally associated with risk of bleeding during surgery. Furthermore, PFA-200 results were influenced by various factors, such as nonsteroidalanti-inflammatory drug use, blood group, hematocrit, and time of blood collection. @*Conclusions@#Preoperative PFA-200 test may be helpful in predicting the risk of perioperative bleeding. However, its results should be carefully interpreted becausethey are affected by several factors.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831886

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The prognosis of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is still poor because of rapid recurrence, despite good response to initial chemotherapy. Additionally, patients’ old ages and comorbidities are often obstacles that make it difficult to apply subsequent treatment after initial treatment. This retrospective study analyzed the correlation of post-progression survival (PPS) with overall survival (OS), and prognostic factors including comorbidities to figure out impact of subsequent chemotherapy on OS in elderly extensive disease SCLC. @*Methods@#We analyzed 101 patients of age 65 years or older who were recently diagnosed with extensive disease SCLC (ED-SCLC) in Korea University Medical Center between January 1995 and December 2015. The degree of comorbidity was scored using simplified comorbidity score (SCS). Correlation between PPS, progression-free survival (PFS) and OS was analyzed using a Pearson correlation coefficient. Cox proportional hazards regression was employed to examine the influence of clinical variables on survival. @*Results@#Median age of patients was 71 years old (range, 65 to 83). Median OS was 8.7 months (range, 0.3 to 42.7). PPS was a reliable factor on OS than PFS (R2 = 0.852, p 4 cycles of first line chemotherapy and subsequent second line chemotherapy. @*Conclusions@#PPS was more correlated with OS than PFS in elderly patients with ED-SCLC. The most important prognostic factors for PPS and OS included SCS and second line chemotherapy. Patients receiving subsequent treatment had increased OS regardless of degree of comorbidity.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831773

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) generally have poor clinical outcomes. Early determination of their prognosis is crucial for developing a therapeutic strategy. Recently, various inflammatory markers have been validated as prognostic indicators for many cancers, including PC. However, few studies have evaluated these markers together. Thus, the purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the value of inflammatory markers as prognostic indicators in patients with advanced PC treated with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy as the first line regimen. @*Methods@#This was a single-center retrospective study evaluating 302 patients with advanced PC who began first line treatment between November 2004 and August 2016. These patients were monitored until June 2017. Survival rates were assessed with univariate and multivariate analyses. Continuous variables were separated using the normal range or ideal cut-off levels determined by receiver operating curve analyses. @*Results@#Among inflammatory markers evaluated, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) to albumin ratio (CRP-albumin ratio) were independent predictors of overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.712, 1.345, and 1.454, respectively). Difference in survival rates was significant (p < 0.001) among three groups divided by the number of marker-related risks. @*Conclusions@#Baseline inflammatory markers including NLR, PLR, and CRP-albumin ratio are useful in predicting survival rates in patients with PC. Combining these three markers is proven to be valuable.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899762

ABSTRACT

While recently extending that research, however, the authors discovered that 236 members of the general population were mistakenly to be duplicated by the investigating agency (Word Research) and 1,241 were reported rather than 1,005. The authors present corrections and discuss the relevant data. The authors wish to apologize to the publisher and readers of Journal of Korean Medical Science for these errors.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899715

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although international guidelines recommend palliative care approaches for many serious illnesses, the palliative needs of patients with serious illnesses other than cancer are often unmet, mainly due to insufficient prognosis-related discussion. We investigated physicians' and the general public's respective attitudes toward prognostic disclosure for several serious illnesses. @*Methods@#We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 928 physicians, sourced from 12 hospitals and the Korean Medical Association, and 1,005 members of the general public, sourced from all 17 administrative divisions in Korea. @*Results@#For most illnesses, most physicians (adjusted proportions – end-organ failure, 99.0%; incurable genetic or neurologic disease, 98.5%; acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS], 98.4%; stroke or Parkinson's disease, 96.0%; and dementia, 89.6%) and members of the general public (end-organ failure, 92.0%; incurable genetic or neurologic disease, 92.5%; AIDS, 91.5%; stroke or Parkinson's disease, 92.1%; and dementia, 86.9%) wanted to be informed if they had a terminal prognosis. For physicians and the general public, the primary factor to consider when disclosing terminal status was “the patient's right to know his/her condition” (31.0%). Yet, the general public was less likely to prefer prognostic disclosure than physicians. Particularly, when their family members were patients, more than 10% of the general public did not want patients to be informed of their terminal prognosis. For the general public, the main reason for not disclosing prognosis was “psychological burden such as anxiety and depression” (35.8%), while for the physicians it was “disclosure would have no beneficial effect” (42.4%). @*Conclusion@#Most Physicians and the general public agreed that disclosure of a terminal prognosis respects patient autonomy for several serious illnesses. The low response rate of physicians might limit the generalizability of the results.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892058

ABSTRACT

While recently extending that research, however, the authors discovered that 236 members of the general population were mistakenly to be duplicated by the investigating agency (Word Research) and 1,241 were reported rather than 1,005. The authors present corrections and discuss the relevant data. The authors wish to apologize to the publisher and readers of Journal of Korean Medical Science for these errors.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892011

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although international guidelines recommend palliative care approaches for many serious illnesses, the palliative needs of patients with serious illnesses other than cancer are often unmet, mainly due to insufficient prognosis-related discussion. We investigated physicians' and the general public's respective attitudes toward prognostic disclosure for several serious illnesses. @*Methods@#We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 928 physicians, sourced from 12 hospitals and the Korean Medical Association, and 1,005 members of the general public, sourced from all 17 administrative divisions in Korea. @*Results@#For most illnesses, most physicians (adjusted proportions – end-organ failure, 99.0%; incurable genetic or neurologic disease, 98.5%; acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS], 98.4%; stroke or Parkinson's disease, 96.0%; and dementia, 89.6%) and members of the general public (end-organ failure, 92.0%; incurable genetic or neurologic disease, 92.5%; AIDS, 91.5%; stroke or Parkinson's disease, 92.1%; and dementia, 86.9%) wanted to be informed if they had a terminal prognosis. For physicians and the general public, the primary factor to consider when disclosing terminal status was “the patient's right to know his/her condition” (31.0%). Yet, the general public was less likely to prefer prognostic disclosure than physicians. Particularly, when their family members were patients, more than 10% of the general public did not want patients to be informed of their terminal prognosis. For the general public, the main reason for not disclosing prognosis was “psychological burden such as anxiety and depression” (35.8%), while for the physicians it was “disclosure would have no beneficial effect” (42.4%). @*Conclusion@#Most Physicians and the general public agreed that disclosure of a terminal prognosis respects patient autonomy for several serious illnesses. The low response rate of physicians might limit the generalizability of the results.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810945

ABSTRACT

While recently extending that research, however, the authors discovered that 236 members of the general population were mistakenly to be duplicated by the investigating agency (Word Research) and 1,241 were reported rather than 1,005. The authors present corrections and discuss the relevant data. The authors wish to apologize to the publisher and readers of Journal of Korean Medical Science for these errors.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719422

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a deadly disease in which precision medicine needs to be incorporated. We aimed to implement next-generation sequencing (NGS) in determining actionable targets to guide appropriate molecular targeted therapy in HNSCC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-three tumors and matched blood samples underwent targeted sequencing of 244 genes using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform with an average depth of coverage of greater than 1,000×. Clinicopathological data from patients were obtained from 17 centers in Korea, and were analyzed in correlation with NGS data. RESULTS: Ninety-two of the 93 tumors were amenable to data analysis. TP53 was the most common mutation, occurring in 47 (51%) patients, followed by CDKN2A (n=23, 25%), CCND1 (n=22, 24%), and PIK3CA (n=19, 21%). The total mutational burden was similar between human papillomavirus (HPV)–negative vs. positive tumors, although TP53, CDKN2A and CCND1 gene alterations occurred more frequently in HPV-negative tumors. HPV-positive tumors were significantly associated with immune signature-related genes compared to HPV-negative tumors. Mutations of NOTCH1 (p=0.027), CDKN2A (p < 0.001), and TP53 (p=0.038) were significantly associated with poorer overall survival. FAT1 mutations were highly enriched in cisplatin responders, and potentially targetable alterations such as PIK3CA E545K and CDKN2A R58X were noted in 14 patients (15%). CONCLUSION: We found several targetable genetic alterations, and our findings suggest that implementation of precision medicine in HNSCC is feasible. The predictive value of each targetable alteration should be assessed in a future umbrella trial using matched molecular targeted agents.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cisplatin , Epithelial Cells , Head , Humans , Korea , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neck , Precision Medicine , Statistics as Topic
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is difficult to decide whether to inform the child of the incurable illness. We investigated attitudes of the general population and physicians toward prognosis disclosure to children and associated factors in Korea. METHODS: Physicians working in one of 13 university hospitals or the National Cancer Center and members of the general public responded to the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of the age appropriate for informing children about the prognosis and the reason why children should not be informed. This survey was conducted as part of research to identify perceptions of physicians and general public on the end-of-life care in Korea. RESULTS: A total of 928 physicians and 1,241 members of the general public in Korea completed the questionnaire. Whereas 92.7% of physicians said that children should be informed of their incurable illness, only 50.7% of the general population agreed. Physicians were also more likely to think that younger children should know about their poor prognosis compared with the general population. Physicians who opposed incurable illness disclosure suggested that children might not understand the situation, whereas the general public was primarily concerned that disclosure would exacerbate the disease. Physicians who were women or religious were more likely to want to inform children of their poor prognosis. In the general population, gender, education, comorbidity, and caregiver experience were related to attitude toward poor prognosis disclosure to children. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that physicians and the general public in Korea differ in their perceptions about informing children of poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Child , Comorbidity , Disclosure , Education , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Korea , Prognosis , Republic of Korea
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163184

ABSTRACT

Primary pericardial malignant mesothelioma (PPM) is a very rare malignancy, with an incidence of less than 0.002% and represents less than 5% of all mesotheliomas. The cause of pericardial mesothelioma is uncertain that differ from pleural mesothelioma which is associated with asbestos exposure. This malignancy is terribly aggressive and has very poor prognosis with less than six months of overall survival. We present a case of a 71-year-old woman who was diagnosed with cardiac tamponade caused by PPM and received chemotherapy with pemetrexed and cisplatin for six months. During two years she was alive without disease progression. To better understand the clinical, pathologic features and treatment outcome of this entity, we reviewed 23 cases described in the English literature from 2009, together with our case, provided a total of 24 cases. Based on this review, we suggest that PPM must be considered in patients who have unexplained massive pericardial effusion and recommend chemotherapy with pemetrexed and cisplatin for the better outcome of PPM.


Subject(s)
Aged , Asbestos , Cardiac Tamponade , Cisplatin , Disease Progression , Drug Therapy , Female , Humans , Incidence , Mesothelioma , Pemetrexed , Pericardial Effusion , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
18.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 357-360, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165890

ABSTRACT

Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a rare, aggressive tumor. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been shown to have beneficial effects on SDC-expressing androgen receptors (ARs). A 69-year-old male with a right neck mass presented to our clinic. Computed tomography (CT) of the neck revealed a mass (6 cm diameter) on the right parotid gland, and enlarged lymph nodes. Examination of a needle biopsy sample identified SDC-expressing ARs. We performed total parotidectomy with bilateral neck dissection and concurrent postoperative chemoradiotherapy (total 66 Gy) with cisplatin (35 mg/m2), followed by another two cycles of chemotherapy (cisplatin 60 mg/m2, 5 FU 750 mg/m2). Post-treatment neck CT indicated that no residual tumor tissue remained; however, chest CT indicated recurrence in the right axilla. We initiated ADT with bicalutamide and leuprolide. Five months later, the axillar tumor tissue had almost disappeared. Our case demonstrates that ADT is effective for SDC of ARs. Therefore, clinicians should consider ADT in recurrent or metastatic SDC of ARs.


Subject(s)
Aged , Axilla , Biopsy, Needle , Chemoradiotherapy , Cisplatin , Drug Therapy , Humans , Leuprolide , Lymph Nodes , Male , Neck , Neck Dissection , Neoplasm, Residual , Parotid Gland , Receptors, Androgen , Recurrence , Salivary Ducts , Salivary Gland Neoplasms , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 233-237, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-102976

ABSTRACT

Primary cardiac osteosarcoma is extremely rare. We herein report a case involving a 31-year-old woman with a 2-week history of left upper trunk pain and hemoptysis. She was diagnosed with primary cardiac osteosarcoma with pulmonary vein obstruction and successfully treated via surgical resection and chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Drug Therapy , Female , Heart , Heart Neoplasms , Hemoptysis , Humans , Osteosarcoma , Pulmonary Veins
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8773

ABSTRACT

Visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome is a clinical manifestation of systemic organ involvement by Toxocara species. VLM with involvement of the bladder and liver is a rare finding. A 62-year-old woman presented with diffuse bladder wall thickening and multiple liver masses with peripheral eosinophilia and urinary symptoms. We considered malignancy or eosinophilic cystitis through clinical manifestations and imaging findings. However, no suspicious malignant lesions were observed on cystoscopy and liver mass biopsy revealed the presence of eosinophilic necrotizing granuloma without malignant cells. Anti-Toxocara antibodies were detected by western blotting and the patient was diagnosed with VLM syndrome. After taking prednisolone, urinary symptoms disappeared. On abdominal CT scan taken after three months, the size of multiple liver masses and bladder wall thickening had decreased. VLM syndrome should be suspected in patients with an atypical imaging pattern and peripheral eosinophilia.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Biopsy , Blotting, Western , Cystitis , Cystoscopy , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Female , Granuloma , Humans , Larva Migrans, Visceral , Liver , Middle Aged , Prednisolone , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Toxocara , Toxocariasis , Urinary Bladder
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