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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926727

ABSTRACT

Rhabdomyomas are rare benign tumors. Most extracardiac rhabdomyomas are found in the head and neck region, especially in the pharynx and larynx. Herein, we have described the case of a 1-year-old boy presenting with recurrent otorrhea and postauricular swelling. His symptoms were due to a mass that was histologically diagnosed as fetal rhabdomyoma (FR). Here, we report the first case of FR in the postauricular area. Clinicians should keep in mind the possibility of FR if a child presents with external auditory canal mass associated with recurrent otorrhea and signs of mastoiditis.

2.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1352-1368, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894720

ABSTRACT

Objective@#For an accurate dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI analysis, exact baseline T1 mapping is critical. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of DCE MRI using synthetic MRI with those using fixed baseline T1 values. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective study included 102 patients who underwent both DCE and synthetic brain MRI. Two methods were set for the baseline T1: one using the fixed value and the other using the T1 map from synthetic MRI. The volume transfer constant (Ktrans ), volume of the vascular plasma space (vp), and the volume of the extravascular extracellular space (ve) were compared between the two methods. The interclass correlation coefficients and the Bland-Altman method were used to assess the reliability. @*Results@#In normal-appearing frontal white matter (WM), the mean values of Ktrans , ve, and vp were significantly higher in the fixed value method than in the T1 map method. In the normal-appearing occipital WM, the mean values of ve and vp were significantly higher in the fixed value method. In the putamen and head of the caudate nucleus, the mean values of Ktrans , ve, and vp were significantly lower in the fixed value method. In addition, the T1 map method showed comparable interobserver agreements with the fixed baseline T1 value method. @*Conclusion@#The T1 map method using synthetic MRI may be useful for reflecting individual differences and reliable measurements in clinical applications of DCE MRI.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1369-1378, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894719

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Few attempts have been made to investigate the prognostic value of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI or dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI of non-enhancing, T2-high-signal-intensity (T2-HSI) lesions of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in newly diagnosed patients. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic values of DCE MRI and DSC MRI parameters from non-enhancing, T2-HSI lesions of GBM. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 76 patients with GBM who underwent preoperative DCE MRI and DSC MRI and standard treatment were retrospectively included. Six months after surgery, the patients were categorized into early progression (n = 15) and non-early progression (n = 61) groups. We extracted and analyzed the permeability and perfusion parameters of both modalities for the non-enhancing, T2-HSI lesions of the tumors. The optimal percentiles of the respective parameters obtained from cumulative histograms were determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and univariable Cox regression analyses. The results were compared using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis of progression-free survival. @*Results@#The 95th percentile value (PV) of Ktrans, mean Ktrans, and median Ve were significant predictors of early progression as identified by the ROC curve analysis (area under the ROC curve [AUC] = 0.704, p = 0.005; AUC = 0.684, p = 0.021; and AUC = 0.670, p = 0.0325, respectively). Univariable Cox regression analysis of the above three parametric values showed that the 95th PV of Ktrans and the mean Ktrans were significant predictors of early progression (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.06, p = 0.009; HR = 1.25, p = 0.017, respectively). Multivariable Cox regression analysis, which also incorporated clinical parameters, revealed that the 95th PV of Ktrans was the sole significant independent predictor of early progression (HR = 1.062, p < 0.009). @*Conclusion@#The 95th PV of Ktrans from the non-enhancing, T2-HSI lesions of GBM is a potential prognostic marker for disease progression.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893595

ABSTRACT

We report a case of Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) related disease involving the pterygoplataine fossa. A 83-year-old male presented with left ocular pain and visual disturbance. CT showed an isodense soft tissue lesion in the left pterygopalatine fossa with bony sclerotic changes and erosion. MRI revealed an infiltrative soft tissue mass in the left pterygopalatine fossa as a T2 slightly low signal intensity and heterogeneous enhancement. The patient underwent left ethmoidectomy, and biopsy of the mass was conducted. The histopathological diagnosis was IgG4-related disease. In this case, it was difficult to differentiate invasive aspergillosis, which is common in immunocompromised patients, considering the patient’s clinical history of diabetes mellitus. This report describes the imaging findings of IgG4-related disease mimicking invasive sinusitis such as invasive aspergillosis.

5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893396

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To report a case with corneal decompensation in a patient of pseudoexfoliation syndrome.Case summary: A 70-year-old woman was referred to our clinic to evaluate decreased visual acuity in the right eye. She had no history of previous ocular surgery or laser treatment. The best corrected visual acuity was 0.5 in both eyes. The patient had diffuse corneal edema in the epithelium and stroma in the right eye. The left eye showed diffuse endothelial pigment deposits. Deposition of pseudoexfoliation material on the iris and anterior lens capsule was observed in both eyes. The intraocular pressure was 15 mmHg in both eyes without treatment. Specular microscopy was limited in the right eye due to the corneal edema and the left eye showed endothelial cell loss, increased pleomorphism, and atypical guttata. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography revealed irregular thickening of the corneal stroma and protrusion of Descemet’s membrane in the right eye. @*Conclusions@#In patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome, corneal decompensation can occur without intraocular pressure elevation and glaucomatous damage.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891362

ABSTRACT

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) after posterior fossa surgery is rare but may occur. A 70-year-old man with trigeminal neuralgia underwent microvascular decompression. The patient took several medications for trigeminal neuralgia and tremor for a long time. The patient tended to bleed easily and did not stop well, but the bleeding was thoroughly controlled intraoperatively. A month later, he presented with left side weakness, and brain computed tomography showed huge amount of CSDH in the right cerebral convex with midline shifting. Although CSDH was completely drained via burr hole trephination, the brain was not fully expanded, and the CSDH recurred a month later. CSDH was evacuated, but there was still considerable subdural space and remained small CSDH in another superficial subdural space. We considered that the patient was at high risk of recurrence of CSDH and performed middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization. Afterward, he did not suffer a recurrence. Here, we reviewed the risk factors of CSDH recurrence and the usefulness of MMA embolization in the treatment of CSDH, and we recommend upfront MMA embolization as an effective adjuvant to treat CSDH in patients at a high risk of recurrence of CSDH.

7.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1352-1368, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902424

ABSTRACT

Objective@#For an accurate dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI analysis, exact baseline T1 mapping is critical. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of DCE MRI using synthetic MRI with those using fixed baseline T1 values. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective study included 102 patients who underwent both DCE and synthetic brain MRI. Two methods were set for the baseline T1: one using the fixed value and the other using the T1 map from synthetic MRI. The volume transfer constant (Ktrans ), volume of the vascular plasma space (vp), and the volume of the extravascular extracellular space (ve) were compared between the two methods. The interclass correlation coefficients and the Bland-Altman method were used to assess the reliability. @*Results@#In normal-appearing frontal white matter (WM), the mean values of Ktrans , ve, and vp were significantly higher in the fixed value method than in the T1 map method. In the normal-appearing occipital WM, the mean values of ve and vp were significantly higher in the fixed value method. In the putamen and head of the caudate nucleus, the mean values of Ktrans , ve, and vp were significantly lower in the fixed value method. In addition, the T1 map method showed comparable interobserver agreements with the fixed baseline T1 value method. @*Conclusion@#The T1 map method using synthetic MRI may be useful for reflecting individual differences and reliable measurements in clinical applications of DCE MRI.

8.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1369-1378, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902423

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Few attempts have been made to investigate the prognostic value of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI or dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI of non-enhancing, T2-high-signal-intensity (T2-HSI) lesions of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in newly diagnosed patients. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic values of DCE MRI and DSC MRI parameters from non-enhancing, T2-HSI lesions of GBM. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 76 patients with GBM who underwent preoperative DCE MRI and DSC MRI and standard treatment were retrospectively included. Six months after surgery, the patients were categorized into early progression (n = 15) and non-early progression (n = 61) groups. We extracted and analyzed the permeability and perfusion parameters of both modalities for the non-enhancing, T2-HSI lesions of the tumors. The optimal percentiles of the respective parameters obtained from cumulative histograms were determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and univariable Cox regression analyses. The results were compared using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis of progression-free survival. @*Results@#The 95th percentile value (PV) of Ktrans, mean Ktrans, and median Ve were significant predictors of early progression as identified by the ROC curve analysis (area under the ROC curve [AUC] = 0.704, p = 0.005; AUC = 0.684, p = 0.021; and AUC = 0.670, p = 0.0325, respectively). Univariable Cox regression analysis of the above three parametric values showed that the 95th PV of Ktrans and the mean Ktrans were significant predictors of early progression (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.06, p = 0.009; HR = 1.25, p = 0.017, respectively). Multivariable Cox regression analysis, which also incorporated clinical parameters, revealed that the 95th PV of Ktrans was the sole significant independent predictor of early progression (HR = 1.062, p < 0.009). @*Conclusion@#The 95th PV of Ktrans from the non-enhancing, T2-HSI lesions of GBM is a potential prognostic marker for disease progression.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901299

ABSTRACT

We report a case of Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) related disease involving the pterygoplataine fossa. A 83-year-old male presented with left ocular pain and visual disturbance. CT showed an isodense soft tissue lesion in the left pterygopalatine fossa with bony sclerotic changes and erosion. MRI revealed an infiltrative soft tissue mass in the left pterygopalatine fossa as a T2 slightly low signal intensity and heterogeneous enhancement. The patient underwent left ethmoidectomy, and biopsy of the mass was conducted. The histopathological diagnosis was IgG4-related disease. In this case, it was difficult to differentiate invasive aspergillosis, which is common in immunocompromised patients, considering the patient’s clinical history of diabetes mellitus. This report describes the imaging findings of IgG4-related disease mimicking invasive sinusitis such as invasive aspergillosis.

10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901100

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To report a case with corneal decompensation in a patient of pseudoexfoliation syndrome.Case summary: A 70-year-old woman was referred to our clinic to evaluate decreased visual acuity in the right eye. She had no history of previous ocular surgery or laser treatment. The best corrected visual acuity was 0.5 in both eyes. The patient had diffuse corneal edema in the epithelium and stroma in the right eye. The left eye showed diffuse endothelial pigment deposits. Deposition of pseudoexfoliation material on the iris and anterior lens capsule was observed in both eyes. The intraocular pressure was 15 mmHg in both eyes without treatment. Specular microscopy was limited in the right eye due to the corneal edema and the left eye showed endothelial cell loss, increased pleomorphism, and atypical guttata. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography revealed irregular thickening of the corneal stroma and protrusion of Descemet’s membrane in the right eye. @*Conclusions@#In patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome, corneal decompensation can occur without intraocular pressure elevation and glaucomatous damage.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899066

ABSTRACT

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) after posterior fossa surgery is rare but may occur. A 70-year-old man with trigeminal neuralgia underwent microvascular decompression. The patient took several medications for trigeminal neuralgia and tremor for a long time. The patient tended to bleed easily and did not stop well, but the bleeding was thoroughly controlled intraoperatively. A month later, he presented with left side weakness, and brain computed tomography showed huge amount of CSDH in the right cerebral convex with midline shifting. Although CSDH was completely drained via burr hole trephination, the brain was not fully expanded, and the CSDH recurred a month later. CSDH was evacuated, but there was still considerable subdural space and remained small CSDH in another superficial subdural space. We considered that the patient was at high risk of recurrence of CSDH and performed middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization. Afterward, he did not suffer a recurrence. Here, we reviewed the risk factors of CSDH recurrence and the usefulness of MMA embolization in the treatment of CSDH, and we recommend upfront MMA embolization as an effective adjuvant to treat CSDH in patients at a high risk of recurrence of CSDH.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920264

ABSTRACT

Anaplastic thyroid cancers (ATC) are a rapid growing and highly lethal form of thyroid cancer. Distant metastases of ATC are detected in about half of patients. Clinically, it is very rare to metastasize to the kidney. The most common initial symptoms of ATC are a palpable neck mass and accompanying compression symptoms of the upper aerodigestive tract. A 68-year-old patient was referred with a huge renal mass, which was detected during the evaluation of abdominal pain. Left total nephrectomy was performed. Histologically, the kidney tumor was a metastatic anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. To our knowledge, it is the first case of occult ATC presenting as a huge renal mass.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835574

ABSTRACT

Fungal balls consist of rounded conglomerates of fungal mycelia, which can form within a preexisting cavity. They are mostly found in the paranasal sinuses in the head and neck regions. Cholesterol granuloma is a fibrotic lesion that develops as a tissue response to a foreign body such as cholesterol crystals or hemosiderin and is often associated with chronic otitis media. We present the unusual case of a 62-year-old male who was treated for chronic otitis media, which was histologically confirmed as a fungal ball and cholesterol granuloma in the middle ear cavity following tympanomastoidectomy. This is the first reported case of synchronous fungal ball and cholesterol granuloma in the middle ear cavity.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830347

ABSTRACT

Background@#Ideal dose of the antimicrobials should be decided by considering their killing dynamics since sufficient elimination of the causative microorganisms is critical for proper antimicrobial treatment. In this study, the bactericidal activities of carbapenems by resistance mechanisms were assessed for carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. @*Methods@#Minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) of carbapenems were determined by broth dilution method and the resistance mechanisms were identified by PCR and DNA sequencing. The expression levels of efflux pumps were determined by reverse transcriptase real-time PCR. Time-kill curves were plotted by time-course numeration of the viable cells grown under imipenem and meropenem at 1× and 4×MICs, respectively. @*Results@#One P. aeruginosa strain was susceptible, whereas three were resistant to carbapenems by defective OprD, efflux pump overproduction, and/or IMP-6 production.The susceptible strain had imipenem and meropenem MICs of 2 and 1 mg/L, respectively.The MICs were elevated by eight-fold by defective OprD, 16- and 32-fold by the pump overproduction, and four- and >64-fold by the combination of two determinants and the IMP-6 carbapenemase. While both the carbapenems showed time-dependent bactericidal activity to the susceptible isolate, either of the carbapenem-resistant determinants, such as decreased membrane permeability, carbapenemase production, or the defective OprD, presented concentration-dependent bacteriostatic activity. @*Conclusion@#Different killing dynamics of the carbapenems were observed depending on the resistance determinants, and the results would guide a proper treatment strategy for the patients using these drugs.

15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920058

ABSTRACT

A perilymphatic fistula (PLF) is defined as leakage of perilymph with several possible causes such as superior canal dehiscence through trauma, temporal bone fracture, or sudden pressure change (e.g., skydiving or scuba diving). Pneumolabyrinth can result from temporal bone fracture after trauma, or sudden pressure change in the middle ear or cerebrospinal fluid, such as excessive nose blowing or Valsalva maneuver. A PLF and pneumolabyrinth may occur without trauma, associated with a sudden pressure change in the middle ear. We report two cases of PLF followed by pneumolabyrinth and one case of suspicious PLF without pneumolabyrinth after excessive nose blowing. All three cases were diagnosed as having sensorineural hearing loss and the patients recovered completely after conservative treatment. We report various CT findings of pneumolabyrinth and PLF, from normal CT findings to air pockets in the labyrinth and soft tissue density around the stapes.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765344

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy surgery that eliminates the epileptogenic focus or disconnects the epileptic network has the potential to significantly improve seizure control in patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT) has been an established option for epilepsy surgery since the US Food and Drug Administration cleared the use of MRgLITT in neurosurgery in 2007. MRgLITT is an ablative stereotactic procedure utilizing heat that is converted from laser energy, and the temperature of the tissue is monitored in real-time by MR thermography. Real-time quantitative thermal monitoring enables titration of laser energy for cellular injury, and it also estimates the extent of tissue damage. MRgLITT is applicable for lesion ablation in cases that the epileptogenic foci are localized and/or deep-seated such as in the mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hypothalamic hamartoma. Seizure-free outcomes after MRgLITT are comparable to those of open surgery in well-selected patients such as those with mesial temporal sclerosis. Particularly in patients with hypothalamic hamartoma. In addition, MRgLITT can also be applied to ablate multiple discrete lesions of focal cortical dysplasia and tuberous sclerosis complex without the need for multiple craniotomies, as well as disconnection surgery such as corpus callosotomy. Careful planning of the target, the optimal trajectory of the laser probe, and the appropriate parameters for energy delivery are paramount to improve the seizure outcome and to reduce the complication caused by the thermal damage to the surrounding critical structures.


Subject(s)
Anterior Temporal Lobectomy , Craniotomy , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Hamartoma , Hot Temperature , Humans , Laser Therapy , Malformations of Cortical Development , Neurosurgery , Sclerosis , Seizures , Thermography , Tuberous Sclerosis , United States Food and Drug Administration
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765324

ABSTRACT

Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is an emerging new technology with considerable potential to treat various neurological diseases. With refinement of ultrasound transducer technology and integration with magnetic resonance imaging guidance, transcranial sonication of precise cerebral targets has become a therapeutic option. Intensity is a key determinant of ultrasound effects. High-intensity focused ultrasound can produce targeted lesions via thermal ablation of tissue. MRgFUS-mediated stereotactic ablation is non-invasive, incision-free, and confers immediate therapeutic effects. Since the US Food and Drug Administration approval of MRgFUS in 2016 for unilateral thalamotomy in medication-refractory essential tremor, studies on novel indications such as Parkinson's disease, psychiatric disease, and brain tumors are underway. MRgFUS is also used in the context of blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening at low intensities, in combination with intravenously-administered microbubbles. Preclinical studies show that MRgFUS-mediated BBB opening safely enhances the delivery of targeted chemotherapeutic agents to the brain and improves tumor control as well as survival. In addition, BBB opening has been shown to activate the innate immune system in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease. Amyloid plaque clearance and promotion of neurogenesis in these studies suggest that MRgFUS-mediated BBB opening may be a new paradigm for neurodegenerative disease treatment in the future. Here, we review the current status of preclinical and clinical trials of MRgFUS-mediated thermal ablation and BBB opening, described their mechanisms of action, and discuss future prospects.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Essential Tremor , High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation , Immune System , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Microbubbles , Models, Animal , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurogenesis , Parkinson Disease , Plaque, Amyloid , Sonication , Therapeutic Uses , Transducers , Ultrasonography , United States Food and Drug Administration
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In-hospital detection of newly diagnosed active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is important for prevention of potential outbreaks. Here, we report our experience of the aggressive contact investigation strategy in a university hospital in the Republic of Korea after healthcare workers (HCWs), patients, and visitors experience an in-hospital exposure to active pulmonary TB. METHODS: A contact investigation after the unexpected detection of newly diagnosed active pulmonary TB (index patients) was performed in a university hospital from August 2016 to April 2017. Initial and 3-month-post-exposure chest radiographs were advised for all patients, visitors, and HCWs in close contact with the index patients. An additional tuberculous skin test or interferon gamma releasing assay was performed at the time of exposure and 3 months post-exposure in HCWs in close contact with the index patients. RESULTS: Twenty-four index patients were unexpectedly diagnosed with active pulmonary TB after admission to the hospital with unassociated diseases. The median time from admission to TB diagnosis was 5 days (range, 1–22 days). In total, 1,057 people were investigated because of contact with the index patients, 528 of which had close contact (206 events in 157 HCWs, 322 patients or visitors). Three months post exposure, 9 (9.2%) among 98 TB-naïve close contact HCWs developed latent tuberculosis infections (LTBIs). Among the 65 close contact patients or visitors, there was no radiological or clinical evidence of active pulmonary TB. CONCLUSION: An aggressive contact investigation after an unexpected in-hospital diagnosis of active pulmonary TB revealed a high incidence of LTBI among TB-naïve HCWs who had contact with the index patients.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control , Interferons , Latent Tuberculosis , Mycobacterium , Radiography, Thoracic , Republic of Korea , Skin Tests , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741526

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine effect of incivility, resilience, and social support experienced by nursing students on burnout in clinical practice. METHODS: Subjects were 140 nursing students who agreed to participate in this study. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation and stepwise multiple regression with SPSS WIN 23.0 program. RESULTS: Burnout showed significantly positive correlation with incivility but significantly negative correlations with resilience and social support. Factors affecting burnout were satisfaction with major-dissatisfaction, satisfaction with major-average, social support, grade, and relationship with peers. Satisfaction with major (dissatisfaction) had the greatest effect on burnout, explaining 41% of the total variance. CONCLUSION: According to this study, dissatisfaction with major was identified as the most significant factor influencing burnout of nursing students in clinical practice. Therefore, it is important to develop and implement programs that can reduce dissatisfaction with major and increase social support and relationship with peers in order to lower burnout of nursing students. In addition, a systemic management of fourth-grade students with a high level of clinical practice is necessary to reduce the level of clinical practice. The authors declared no conflict of interest.


Subject(s)
Conflict of Interest , Humans , Nursing , Resilience, Psychological , Students, Nursing
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830050

ABSTRACT

Lymphoepithelial carcinoma is a rare subtype of head and neck malignancy. Histologically, it is an undifferentiated carcinoma accompanied by a prominent reactive lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. We report a case of anewly found lymphoepithelial carcinoma in the retropharynx of a patient who had been diagnosed and treated as nasopharyngeal carcinoma with multiple metastasis; the case could not be ruled out as a recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma according to recent World Health Organization pathology guideline.

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