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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 320-326, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977444

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the feasibility of preoperative 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/ computed tomography (CT) radiomics with machine learning to predict microsatellite instability (MSI) status in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Altogether, 233 patients with CRC who underwent preoperative FDG PET/CT were enrolled and divided into training (n=139) and test (n=94) sets. A PET-based radiomics signature (rad_score) was established to predict the MSI status in patients with CRC. The predictive ability of the rad_score was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) in the test set. A logistic regression model was used to determine whether the rad_score was an independent predictor of MSI status in CRC. The predictive performance of rad_score was compared with conventional PET parameters. @*Results@#The incidence of MSI-high was 15 (10.8%) and 10 (10.6%) in the training and test sets, respectively. The rad_score was constructed based on the two radiomic features and showed similar AUROC values for predicting MSI status in the training and test sets (0.815 and 0.867, respectively; p=0.490). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the rad_score was an independent predictor of MSI status in the training set. The rad_score performed better than metabolic tumor volume when assessed using the AUROC (0.867 vs. 0.794, p=0.015). @*Conclusion@#Our predictive model incorporating PET radiomic features successfully identified the MSI status of CRC, and it also showed better performance than the conventional PET image parameters.

2.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 252-263, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999453

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the rise of minimally invasive surgery has driven the development of surgical devices. Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging is receiving increased attention in colorectal surgery for improved intraoperative visualization and decision-making. ICG, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1959, rapidly binds to plasma proteins and is primarily intravascular. ICG absorption of near-infrared light (750–800 nm) and emission as fluorescence (830 nm) when bound to tissue proteins enhances deep tissue visualization. Applications include assessing anastomotic perfusion, identifying sentinel lymph nodes, and detecting colorectal cancer metastasis. However, standardized protocols and research on clinical outcomes remain limited. This study explores ICG’s role, advantages, disadvantages, and potential clinical impact in colorectal surgery.

3.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 219-226, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966416

ABSTRACT

Furanocoumarin 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) is the parent compound that naturally occurs in traditional medicinal plants used historically. 8-MOP has been employed as a photochemotherapeutic component of Psoralen + Ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for the treatment of vitiligo and psoriasis. Although the role of 8-MOP in PUVA therapy has been studied, little is known about the effects of 8-MOP alone on human gastric cancer cells. In this study, we observed anti-proliferative effect of 8-MOP in several human cancer cell lines. Among these, the human gastric cancer cell line SNU1 is the most sensitive to 8-MOP. 8-MOP treated SNU1 cells showed G1-arrest by upregulating p53 and apoptosis by activating caspase-3 in a dose-dependent manner, which was confirmed by loss-of-function analysis through the knockdown of p53-siRNA and inhibition of apoptosis by Z-VAD-FMK. Moreover, 8-MOPinduced apoptosis is not associated with autophagy or necrosis. The signaling pathway responsible for the effect of 8-MOP on SNU1 cells was confirmed to be related to phosphorylated PI3K, ERK2, and STAT3. In contrast, 8-MOP treatment decreased the expression of the typical metastasis-related proteins MMP-2, MMP-9, and Snail in a p53-independent manner. In accordance with the serendipitous findings, treatment with 8-MOP decreased the wound healing, migration, and invasion ability of cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, combination treatment with 8-MOP and gemcitabine was effective at the lowest concentrations. Overall, our findings indicate that oral 8-MOP has the potential to treat early human gastric cancer, with fewer side effects.

4.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 197-206, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937136

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic features and survival in patients with both breast cancer (BrC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). @*Methods@#Between 1996 and 2019, patients who were diagnosed with both BrC and CRC were evaluated retrospectively. Patients with distant metastasis, palliative resection, and previous cancer histories except for BrCs or CRCs were excluded. Altogether, 105 patients were divided into the B=C group (n=21), B-first group (n=40), and C-first group (n=44) according to the definition of synchronous and metachronous cancers. The clinicopathologic features and overall survival were evaluated. @*Results@#TNM stages and histologic types were comparable among the 3 groups (P=0.434). The interval of diagnosis was 67.1±40.4 and 59.3±47.2 months in the B- and C-first groups, respectively. The incidence of adjuvant chemotherapy in the B-first group was 57.5%, which was higher than the B=C and C-first groups (P<0.001). The estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Ki-67, and HER-2 molecular markers were not significantly different among the groups. The overall survival of the B-first group showed lower survival rates than the C-first group (P=0.039). In the logistic regression, HER-2 status (hazard ratio [HR], 11.9; P=0.032) and lymph node metastasis of CRC (HR, 5.8; P=0.036) were prognostic factors affecting overall survival. @*Conclusion@#B-first group had poorer survival outcomes than the C-first group in patients with the metachronous BrC and CRC. HER2 positivity and CRC lymph node metastasis may be prognostic factors that affect overall survival in these patients. The findings support that a colorectal cancer screening program should be included during BrC surveillance.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 517-524, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925691

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Machine learning (ML) is a strong candidate for making accurate predictions, as we can use large amount of data with powerful computational algorithms. We developed a ML based model to predict survival of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) using data from two independent datasets. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 364,316 and 1,572 CRC patients were included from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) and a Korean dataset, respectively. As SEER combines data from 18 cancer registries, internal validation was done using 18-Fold-Cross-Validation then external validation was performed by testing the trained model on the Korean dataset. Performance was evaluated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), sensitivity and positive predictive values. @*Results@#Clinicopathological characteristics were significantly different between the two datasets and the SEER showed a significant lower 5-year survival rate compared to the Korean dataset (60.1% vs. 75.3%, p < 0.001). The ML-based model using the Light gradient boosting algorithm achieved a better performance in predicting 5-year-survival compared to American Joint Committee on Cancer stage (AUROC, 0.804 vs. 0.736; p < 0.001). The most important features which influenced model performance were age, number of examined lymph nodes, and tumor size. Sensitivity and positive predictive values of predicting 5-year-survival for classes including dead or alive were reported as 68.14%, 77.51% and 49.88%, 88.1% respectively in the validation set. Survival probability can be checked using the web-based survival predictor (http://colorectalcancer.pythonanywhere.com). @*Conclusion@#ML-based model achieved a much better performance compared to staging in individualized estimation of survival of patients with CRC.

6.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e53-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893725

ABSTRACT

Background@#Canine adipose-derived stem cells (cADSCs) exhibit various differentiation properties and are isolated from the canine subcutaneous fat. Although cADSCs are valuable as tools for research on adipogenic differentiation, studies focusing on adipogenic differentiation methods and the underlying mechanisms are still lacking. @*Objectives@#In this study, we aimed to establish an optimal method for adipogenic differentiation conditions of cADSCs and evaluate the role of peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling in the adipogenic differentiation. @*Methods@#To induce adipogenic differentiation of cADSCs, 3 different adipogenic medium conditions, MDI, DRI, and MDRI, using 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (M), dexamethasone (D), insulin (I), and rosiglitazone (R) were tested. @*Results@#MDRI, addition of PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone to MDI, was the most significantly facilitated cADSC into adipocyte. GW9662, an antagonist of PPARγ, significantly reduced adipogenic differentiation induced by rosiglitazone. Adipogenic differentiation was also stimulated when 17β-estradiol was added to MDI and DRI, and this stimulation was inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI182,780. @*Conclusions@#Taken together, our results suggest that PPARγ and ER signaling are related to the adipogenic differentiation of cADSCs. This study could provide basic information for future research on obesity or anti-obesity mechanisms in dogs.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e109-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892292

ABSTRACT

Background@#There is increasing interest in the quality of health care and considerable efforts are being made to improve it. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease that can result in favorable outcomes when appropriate diagnosis and treatment are provided. However, several studies have shown that RA is often managed inappropriately. Therefore, the Korean College of Rheumatology aimed to develop quality indicators (QIs) to evaluate and improve the health care of patients with RA. @*Methods@#Preliminary QIs were derived based on the existing guidelines and QIs for RA. The final QIs were determined through two separate consensus meetings of experts. The consensus was achieved through a panel of experts who voted using the modified Delphi method. @*Results@#Fourteen final QIs were selected among 70 preliminary QIs. These included early referral to and regular follow-up with a rheumatologist, radiographs of the hands and feet, early initiation and maintenance of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy, periodic assessment of disease activity, screening for drug safety and comorbidities,including viral hepatitis and tuberculosis before biologic DMARD therapy, periodic laboratory testing, supplementation with folic acid, assessment of the risk for cervical spine instability before general anesthesia, patient education, and specialized nurse. @*Conclusion@#These QIs can be used to assess and improve the quality of health care for patients with RA.

8.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 76-84, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874922

ABSTRACT

. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease with obvious male preponderance. Males show more severe radiographic manifestations compared with females. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of sex and estrogen on the radiographic progression of AS. Methods. A total of 101 patients with AS were included in this study. All of the radiographs were scored using the modified Stoke AS Spine Score (mSASSS). Serum levels of 17β-estradiol (E2), dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), and leptin were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The generalized estimating equations model was used to evaluate factors associated with spinal radiographic progression. Results. The mean age at disease onset was 27.3±10.7 years, and 16 patients (15.8%) were female. In the multivariable analysis, body mass index (β-coefficient=0.12; β=0.047) and levels of Dkk1 (β-coefficient=−0.11; β<0.001), and female (β-coefficient=−1.40; β=0.001) were associated with radiographic progression. Among male patients with AS, baseline C-reactive protein (β=0.11; β=0.005) and mSASSS (β=0.21; p=0.030) were also associated with radiographic progression. E2 and leptin levels were not significantly related to the radiographic progression. Conclusion. Although female patients were associated with less radiographic progression in AS, there was no significant relationship between serum estrogen level and radiographic progression. Results of current study suggests that genetic factors or other environmental factors associated with female may influence radiographic progression in patients with AS.

9.
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 93-99, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916484

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Nutritional status and support in critically ill patients are important factors in determining patient recovery and prognosis.The aim of this study was to analyze the early nutritional status and the methods of nutritional support in critically ill patients with acute poisoning and to evaluate the effect of nutritional status on prognosis. @*Methods@#A retrospective study was conducted in tertiary care teaching hospital from January 2018 to December 2020. in an emergency department of university hospital, 220 patients who were stayed more than 2 days of poisoning in intensive care unit were enrolled. @*Results@#155 (70.5%) of patients with acute poisoning had low-risk in nutritional risk screening (NRS). Patients with malignancy had higher NRS (low risk 5.2%, moderate risk 18.5%, high risk 13.2%, p=0.024). Patients of 91.4% supplied nutrition via oral route or enteral route. Parenteral route for starting method of nutritional support were higher in patients with acute poisoning of herbicide or pesticide (medicine 3.2%, herbicide 13.8%, pesticide 22.2%, p=0.000). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, herbicide or pesticide intoxication, higher risk in NRS and sequential organ failure assessment over 4.5 were affecting factor on poor recovery at discharge. @*Conclusion@#NRS in patients intoxicated with herbicide or pesticide were higher than that in patients intoxicated with medicine intoxication. Enteral nutrition in patients intoxicated with herbicide or pesticide was less common. Initial NRS was correlated with recovery at discharge in patient with intoxication. It is expected to be helpful in finding patients with high-risk nutritional status in acute poisoning patients and establishing a treatment plan that can actively implement nutritional support.

10.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e53-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901429

ABSTRACT

Background@#Canine adipose-derived stem cells (cADSCs) exhibit various differentiation properties and are isolated from the canine subcutaneous fat. Although cADSCs are valuable as tools for research on adipogenic differentiation, studies focusing on adipogenic differentiation methods and the underlying mechanisms are still lacking. @*Objectives@#In this study, we aimed to establish an optimal method for adipogenic differentiation conditions of cADSCs and evaluate the role of peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling in the adipogenic differentiation. @*Methods@#To induce adipogenic differentiation of cADSCs, 3 different adipogenic medium conditions, MDI, DRI, and MDRI, using 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (M), dexamethasone (D), insulin (I), and rosiglitazone (R) were tested. @*Results@#MDRI, addition of PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone to MDI, was the most significantly facilitated cADSC into adipocyte. GW9662, an antagonist of PPARγ, significantly reduced adipogenic differentiation induced by rosiglitazone. Adipogenic differentiation was also stimulated when 17β-estradiol was added to MDI and DRI, and this stimulation was inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI182,780. @*Conclusions@#Taken together, our results suggest that PPARγ and ER signaling are related to the adipogenic differentiation of cADSCs. This study could provide basic information for future research on obesity or anti-obesity mechanisms in dogs.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e109-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899996

ABSTRACT

Background@#There is increasing interest in the quality of health care and considerable efforts are being made to improve it. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease that can result in favorable outcomes when appropriate diagnosis and treatment are provided. However, several studies have shown that RA is often managed inappropriately. Therefore, the Korean College of Rheumatology aimed to develop quality indicators (QIs) to evaluate and improve the health care of patients with RA. @*Methods@#Preliminary QIs were derived based on the existing guidelines and QIs for RA. The final QIs were determined through two separate consensus meetings of experts. The consensus was achieved through a panel of experts who voted using the modified Delphi method. @*Results@#Fourteen final QIs were selected among 70 preliminary QIs. These included early referral to and regular follow-up with a rheumatologist, radiographs of the hands and feet, early initiation and maintenance of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy, periodic assessment of disease activity, screening for drug safety and comorbidities,including viral hepatitis and tuberculosis before biologic DMARD therapy, periodic laboratory testing, supplementation with folic acid, assessment of the risk for cervical spine instability before general anesthesia, patient education, and specialized nurse. @*Conclusion@#These QIs can be used to assess and improve the quality of health care for patients with RA.

12.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 4-21, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786147

ABSTRACT

Biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) are highly effective agents for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis; however, they also possess a potential risk for serious infection. Recently, with the rapid expansion of the bDMARDs market in Korea, reports of serious adverse events related to the agents have also increased, necessitating guidance for the use of bDMARDs. Current work entitled, “Expert Consensus for the Use of bDMARDs Drugs for Inflammatory Arthritis in Korea,” is the first to describe the appropriate use of bDMARDs in the management of inflammatory arthritis in Korea, with an aim to provide guidance for the local medical community to improve the quality of clinical care. Twelve consensus statements regarding the use of bDMARDs for the management of rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis were generated. In this review, we provide detailed guidance on bDMARDs use based on expert consensus, including who should prescribe, the role of education, indications for use, and monitoring strategies for safety.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Consensus , Education , Korea , Spondylitis, Ankylosing
13.
14.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1317-1332, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831880

ABSTRACT

Patients with systemic rheumatic diseases (SRD) are vulnerable for coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The Korean College of Rheumatology recognized the urgent need to develop recommendations for rheumatologists and other physicians to manage patients with SRD during the COVID-19 pandemic. The working group was organized and was responsible for selecting key health questions, searching and reviewing the available literature, and formulating statements. The appropriateness of the statements was evaluated by voting panels using the modified Delphi method. Four general principles and thirteen individual recommendations were finalized through expert consensus based on the available evidence. The recommendations included preventive measures against COVID-19, medicinal treatment for stable or active SRD patients without COVID-19, medicinal treatment for SRD patients with COVID-19, and patient evaluation and monitoring. Medicinal treatments were categorized according to the status with respect to both COVID-19 and SRD. These recommendations should serve as a reference for individualized treatment for patients with SRD. As new evidence is emerging, an immediate update will be required.

15.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 41-59, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831754

ABSTRACT

Biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) are highly effective agents for the treatment of inf lammatory arthritis; however, they also possess a potential risk for serious infection. Recently, with the rapid expansion of the bDMARDs market in Korea, reports of serious adverse events related to the agents have also increased, necessitating guidance for the use of bDMARDs. Current work entitled, “Expert consensus for the use of bDMARDs drugs for inflammatory arthritis in Korea,” is the first to describe the appropriate use of bDMARDs in the management of inflammatory arthritis in Korea, with an aim to provide guidance for the local medical community to improve the quality of clinical care. Twelve consensus statements regarding the use of bDMARDs for the management of rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis were generated. In this review, we provide detailed guidance on bDMARDs use based on expert consensus, including who should prescribe, the role of education, indications for use, and monitoring strategies for safety.

16.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 370-379, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830924

ABSTRACT

Econazole, a potent broad-spectrum antifungal agent and a Ca2+ channel antagonist, induces cytotoxicity in leukemia cells and is used for the treatment of skin infections. However, little is known about its cytotoxic effects on solid tumor cells. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying econazole-induced toxicity in vitro and evaluated its regulatory effect on the metastasis of gastric cancer cells. Using the gastric cancer cell lines AGS and SNU1 expressing wild-type p53 we demonstrated that econazole could significantly reduce cell viability and colony-forming (tumorigenesis) ability. Econazole induced G0/G1 phase arrest, promoted apoptosis, and effectively blocked proliferation- and survival-related signal transduction pathways in gastric cancer cells. In addition, econazole inhibited the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase- 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, which degrade the extracellular matrix and basement membrane. Econazole also effectively inhibited the metastasis of gastric cancer cells, as confirmed from cell invasion and wound healing assays. The protein level of p53 was significantly elevated after econazole treatment of AGS and SNU1 cells. However, apoptosis was blocked in econazole-treated cells exposed to a p53-specific small-interfering RNA to eliminate p53 expression. These results provide evidence that econazole could be repurposed to induce gastric cancer cell death and inhibit cancer invasion.

17.
Journal of the Korean Dysphagia Society ; (2): 143-150, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836373

ABSTRACT

Oral stereognosis is a function recognizing the characteristics, such as the size and shape, of objects in the mouth by integrating the senses with movement. As a child grows up, this function develops gradually but is reduced by aging and neurological damage, such as a stroke. In addition, it may affect the swallowing function in the oral phase of stroke patients with dysphagia. The shape and size of an intraoral bolus provide sensory information that is important for swallowing. Therefore, oral stereognosis is important for safety during eating and drinking. Oral stereognosis is designed for evaluation using two-dimensional or three-dimensional shapes of various sizes, and the accuracy or response rate is scored. On the other hand, there is no method of standardized examination. Accordingly, it is necessary to develop a new training method for promoting the recovery of the oral sensory function. The method should also aim to recover the oral stereognostic ability through a larger number of subjects and diseases in the future.

18.
Journal of the Korean Dysphagia Society ; (2): 31-46, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836363

ABSTRACT

Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a clinical condition caused by various underlying diseases and is characterized by difficulty in swallowing. Diagnosis and treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia require multidisciplinary consultations. This position statement for oropharyngeal dysphagia was developed by The Korean Dysphagia Society (KDS) to outline its position on oropharyngeal dysphagia. The clinical practice guideline, position statements, a recent meta-analysis, a systematic review, and randomized controlled trials for oropharyngeal dysphagia were all performed. An expert Delphi survey was also done to achieve a consensus of opinion on this position statement. This position statement for oropharyngeal dysphagia aims to help make evidence-based decisions in clinical practice, improve clinical evaluation and manage oropharyngeal dysphagia in Korea.

19.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 218-232, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836269

ABSTRACT

Patients with systemic rheumatic diseases (SRD) are vulnerable for coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The Korean College of Rheumatology recognized the urgent need to develop recommendations for rheumatologists and other physicians to manage patients with SRD during the COVID-19 pandemic. The working group was organized and was responsible for selecting key health questions, searching and reviewing the available literature, and formulating statements. The appropriateness of the statements was evaluated by voting panels using the modified Delphi method. Four general principles and thirteen individual recommendations were finalized through expert consensus based on the available evidence. The recommendations included preventive measures against COVID-19, medicinal treatment for stable or active SRD patients without COVID-19, medicinal treatment for SRD patients with COVID-19, and patient evaluation and monitoring. Medicinal treatments were categorized according to the status with respect to both COVID-19 and SRD. These recommendations should serve as a reference for individualized treatment for patients with SRD. As new evidence is emerging, an immediate update will be required.

20.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 453-462, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Platycodon grandiflorum (PG), an oriental herbal medicine, has been known to improve liver function, and has both anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. However, little is known about the immune-enhancing effects of PG and its mechanism. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether fermented PG extract (FPGE), which has increased platycodin D content, activates the immune response in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7.MATERIALS/METHODS: Cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and the nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured using Griess reagent. Cytokine messenger RNA levels of were monitored by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying immunomodulatory actions of FPGE in RAW 264.7 cells, we have conducted luciferase reporter gene assay and western blotting. @*RESULTS@#We found that FPGE treatment induced macrophage cell proliferation in a dosedependent manner. FPGE also modulated the expression of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. The activation and phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) were increased by FPGE treatment. Moreover, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, an activator of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), significantly reduced both lipopolysaccharides- and FPGE-induced NF-κB reporter gene activity. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Taken together, our findings suggest that FPGE may be a novel immuneenhancing agent acting via AMPK-NF-κB signaling pathway.

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