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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938777

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The optimal imaging approach for evaluating pathological nipple discharge remains unclear. We investigated the value of adding ductography to ultrasound (US) for evaluating pathologic nipple discharge in patients with negative mammography findings. @*Materials and Methods@#From July 2003 to December 2018, 101 women (mean age, 46.3 ± 12.2 years; range, 23–75 years) with pathologic nipple discharge were evaluated using pre-ductography (initial) US, ductography, and post-ductography US. The imaging findings were reviewed retrospectively. The standard reference was surgery (70 patients) or > 2 years of followup with US (31 patients). The diagnostic performances of initial US, ductography, and post-ductography US for detecting malignancy were compared using the McNemar’s test or a generalized estimating equation. @*Results@#In total, 47 papillomas, 30 other benign lesions, seven high-risk lesions, and 17 malignant lesions were identified as underlying causes of pathologic nipple discharge. Only eight of the 17 malignancies were detected on the initial US, while the remaining nine malignancies were detected by ductography. Among the nine malignancies detected by ductography, eight were detected on post-ductography US and could be localized for US-guided intervention. The sensitivities of ductography (94.1% [16/17]) and post-ductography US (94.1% [16/17]) were significantly higher than those of initial US (47.1% [8/17]; p = 0.027 and 0.013, respectively). The negative predictive value of post-ductography US (96.9% [31/32]) was significantly higher than that of the initial US (83.3% [45/54]; p = 0.006). Specificity was significantly higher for initial US than for ductography and post-ductography US (p = 0.001 for all). @*Conclusion@#The combined use of ductography and US has a high sensitivity for detecting malignancy in patients with pathologic nipple discharge and negative mammography. Ductography findings enable lesion localization on second-look post-ductography US, thus facilitating the selection of optimal treatment plans.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898996

ABSTRACT

Surgical approaches in breast cancer have been changing to ensure both oncologic safety and cosmetic results. Although the concept of “oncoplastic breast surgery” has been accepted for decades, breast and plastic surgeons have been striving to develop more advanced surgical skills that ensure non-inferior oncologic outcomes with better cosmetic outcomes.Endoscopic or robotic devices, which are currently available only for chest or abdominal surgeries, could be used for breast surgery to ensure better cosmetic outcomes. The authors refer to this surgical concept as “aesthetic scar-less breast surgery and reconstruction,” a term that encompasses the consequential concepts rather than naming it with simple technical words such as endoscopy-assisted or robot-assisted surgery. The “scar-less” term simply means leaving less of a scar, and better results can be expected by designing incisions on invisible areas. Herein, we summarize our experiences with various techniques of “aesthetic scar-less” surgery and review the existing literature on this topic.

3.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 367-376, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898991

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Restricted shoulder motion is a major morbidity associated with a lower quality of life and disability after axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients with breast cancer.This study sought to evaluate the antiadhesive effect of a poloxamer-based thermosensitive sol-gel (PTAS) agent after ALND. @*Methods@#We designed a double-blind, multicenter randomized controlled study to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of PTAS in reducing upper-limb dysfunction after ALND. The primary outcome was the change in the range of motion (ROM) of the shoulder before surgery and 4 weeks after ALND (early postoperative period). Secondary outcomes were shoulder ROM at six months, axillary web syndrome, and lymphedema (late postoperative period). @*Results@#A total of 170 patients with planned ALND were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups (poloxamer and control) and 15 patients were excluded. In the poloxamer group (n = 76), PTAS was applied to the surface of the operative field after ALND. ALND was performed without the use of poloxamer in the control group (n = 79). Relative to the control group, the poloxamer group had significantly lower early postoperative restrictions in total shoulder ROM at four weeks (−30.04 ± 27.76 vs. −42.59 ± 36.79; p = 0.0236). In particular, the poloxamer group showed greater reductions in horizontal abduction at four weeks (−3.92 ± 9.80 vs. −10.25 ± 15.42; p = 0.0050). The ROM of the shoulder at 24 weeks, axillary web syndrome, and lymphedema were not significantly different between the two groups. No adverse effects were observed in either group. @*Conclusion@#We suggest that poloxamer might improve the early postoperative shoulder ROM in patients with breast cancer who have undergone ALND.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891292

ABSTRACT

Surgical approaches in breast cancer have been changing to ensure both oncologic safety and cosmetic results. Although the concept of “oncoplastic breast surgery” has been accepted for decades, breast and plastic surgeons have been striving to develop more advanced surgical skills that ensure non-inferior oncologic outcomes with better cosmetic outcomes.Endoscopic or robotic devices, which are currently available only for chest or abdominal surgeries, could be used for breast surgery to ensure better cosmetic outcomes. The authors refer to this surgical concept as “aesthetic scar-less breast surgery and reconstruction,” a term that encompasses the consequential concepts rather than naming it with simple technical words such as endoscopy-assisted or robot-assisted surgery. The “scar-less” term simply means leaving less of a scar, and better results can be expected by designing incisions on invisible areas. Herein, we summarize our experiences with various techniques of “aesthetic scar-less” surgery and review the existing literature on this topic.

5.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 367-376, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891287

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Restricted shoulder motion is a major morbidity associated with a lower quality of life and disability after axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients with breast cancer.This study sought to evaluate the antiadhesive effect of a poloxamer-based thermosensitive sol-gel (PTAS) agent after ALND. @*Methods@#We designed a double-blind, multicenter randomized controlled study to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of PTAS in reducing upper-limb dysfunction after ALND. The primary outcome was the change in the range of motion (ROM) of the shoulder before surgery and 4 weeks after ALND (early postoperative period). Secondary outcomes were shoulder ROM at six months, axillary web syndrome, and lymphedema (late postoperative period). @*Results@#A total of 170 patients with planned ALND were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups (poloxamer and control) and 15 patients were excluded. In the poloxamer group (n = 76), PTAS was applied to the surface of the operative field after ALND. ALND was performed without the use of poloxamer in the control group (n = 79). Relative to the control group, the poloxamer group had significantly lower early postoperative restrictions in total shoulder ROM at four weeks (−30.04 ± 27.76 vs. −42.59 ± 36.79; p = 0.0236). In particular, the poloxamer group showed greater reductions in horizontal abduction at four weeks (−3.92 ± 9.80 vs. −10.25 ± 15.42; p = 0.0050). The ROM of the shoulder at 24 weeks, axillary web syndrome, and lymphedema were not significantly different between the two groups. No adverse effects were observed in either group. @*Conclusion@#We suggest that poloxamer might improve the early postoperative shoulder ROM in patients with breast cancer who have undergone ALND.

6.
Ultrasonography ; : 520-529, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919545

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to predict a heavy nodal burden (≥3 metastatic axillary lymph nodes [LNs]) using axillary ultrasonography (US) and US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in patients with early-stage breast cancer. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 403 women (404 cancers) who underwent US-guided FNAB for axillary LN staging from January 2006 to December 2015. US findings and US-guided FNAB results were reviewed and compared using pathology results as the reference. Diagnostic performance was analyzed, and clinicopathological and radiological findings were compared between patients with <3 metastatic LNs and ≥3 metastatic LNs. @*Results@#The final pathology results revealed that 20.5% of cancers had heavy nodal metastases. US-guided FNAB showed significantly higher sensitivity (79.0% vs. 63.0%, P=0.009) and specificity (84.8% vs. 79.3%, P=0.036) in predicting heavy nodal metastases than did US. The presence of a larger number of suspicious LNs (two or more) on axillary US and positive FNAB results were significantly correlated with a heavy nodal burden in the multivariate analysis. The odds ratios were 4.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90 to 9.39) for two suspicious LNs, 9.40 (95% CI, 2.99 to 29.54) for three or more suspicious LNs, and 14.22 (95% CI, 6.78 to 29.82) for positive FNAB results. @*Conclusion@#The number of suspicious LNs detected on axillary US and FNAB results can help predict a heavy axillary nodal burden in patients with early-stage breast cancer.

7.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 25-36, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835616

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Although the number of elderly patients with breast cancer is increasing as the population ages, their treatment is controversial. We evaluated the prognostic factors associated with survival in elderly breast cancer patients and assessed the impact of comorbidity on prognosis. @*Methods@#This study included 362 patients (aged ≥65 years) who underwent surgery for breast cancer in our institution between 2003 and 2014. The patients were divided into early-aged (65–74 years) and late-aged (≥75 years) groups. Comorbidity was parametrized using the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Kaplan–Meier analysis was used to analyze overall survival (OS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Prognostic factors were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards regression. @*Results@#The surgical method, subtypes, stage, and oncological features were similar between early- and late-aged groups; however, smaller proportions of patients in the late-aged group received chemotherapy (12.9% vs. 45.5%) and endocrine therapy (55.3% vs. 73.3%). In multivariable analysis, the poor prognostic factors associated with DMFS and OS were high CCI, high histologic grade, and advanced stage. Chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and radiotherapy were not significantly related to DMFS and OS. @*Conclusion@#In this study, adjuvant treatments did not affect the prognosis of elderly patients with breast cancer. To clarify the effects of adjuvant therapies in these patients, a large-scale retrospective study that considers not only tumor characteristics but also life expectancy is necessary.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834541

ABSTRACT

BRCA1/2 germline mutations account for the majority of hereditary breast cancers. Since the identification of the BRCA genes, several attempts have been made to define the clinicopathological characteristics of BRCA-associated breast cancer in comparison with sporadic breast cancer. Asians constitute 60% of the world population, and although the incidence of breast cancer in Asia remains low compared to the West, breast cancer is the most prevalent female cancer in the region. The epidemiological aspects of breast cancer are different between Asians and Caucasians. Asian patients present with breast cancer at a younger age than Western patients. The contributions of BRCA1/2 mutations to breast cancer incidence are expected to differ between Asians and Caucasians, and the different genetic backgrounds among races are likely to influence the breast cancer phenotypes. However, most large-scale studies on the clinicopathological characteristics of BRCA-associated breast cancer have been on Western patients, while studies on Asian populations were small and sporadic. In this review, we provide an overview of the clinical and pathological characteristics of BRCA-associated breast cancer, incorporating findings on Asian patients.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831120

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Recent studies revealed the BRCA1 c.5339T>C, p.Leu1780Pro variant (L1780P) is highly suggested as a likely pathogenic. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathologic features of L1780P with breast cancer (BC) using multicenter data from Korea to reinforce the evidence as a pathogenic mutation and to compare L1780P and other BRCA1/2mutations using Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study data. @*Materials and Methods@#The data of 54 BC patients with L1780P variant from 10 institutions were collected and the clinicopathologic characteristics of the patients were reviewed. The hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer–related characteristics of the L1780P variant were compared to those of BC patients in the KOHBRA study. @*Results@#The median age of all patients was 38 years, and 75.9% of cases showed triple-negative breast cancer. Comparison of cases with L1780P to carriers from the KOHBRA study revealed that the L1780P patients group was more likely to have family history (FHx) of ovarian cancer (OC) (24.1% vs. 19.6% vs. 11.2%, p < 0.001 and p=0.001) and a personal history of OC (16.7% vs. 2.9% vs. 1.3%, p=0.003 and p=0.001) without significant difference in FHx of BC and bilateral BC. The cumulative risk of contralateral BC at 10 years after diagnosis was 31.9%, while the cumulative risk of OC at 50 years of age was 20.0%. Patients with L1780P showed similar features with BRCA1 carriers and showed higher penetrance of OC than patients with other BRCA1 mutations. @*Conclusion@#L1780P should be considered as a pathogenic mutation. Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy is highly recommended for women with L1780P.

10.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 439-452, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764278

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is cumulative evidence that changes in biomarker status occur frequently during the metastatic progression of breast cancer and affect treatment response. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of biomarker changes in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and its impact on prognosis. METHODS: A total of 152 patients diagnosed with MBC at the time of initial diagnosis or during post-surgical follow-up were included. Changes in biomarker status in MBCs, their frequency according to various metastatic sites, tumor characteristics, and their association with patient survival were analyzed. RESULTS: Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki-67 status changed in 9 (6.0%), 40 (26.3%), 12 (7.9%), and 29 (19.1%) patients, respectively. ER, PR, and HER2 mainly showed positive to negative conversion, whereas Ki-67 changed mostly from a low to high index. There were no differences in the frequencies of biomarker changes according to the metastatic sites. As for ER and HER2, cases with negative conversion showed low expression levels in the primary tumor. Survival analyses indicated that a positive to negative conversion of ER was an independent poor prognostic factor in patients with primary ER-positive breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Changes in biomarker status are not rare, and usually occur in an unfavorable direction in breast cancer metastases. Negative conversion of ER status is a predictor of poor prognosis. Thus, it is beneficial to evaluate changes in biomarker status in MBC not only for the purpose of determining treatment options but also for prognostication of patients.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Estrogens , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739592

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate superiority of a night float (NF) system in comparison to a traditional night on-call (NO) system for surgical residents at a single institution in terms of efficacy, safety, and satisfaction. METHODS: A NF system was implemented from March to September 2017 and big data analysis from electronic medical records was performed for all patients admitted for surgery or contacted from the emergency room (ER). Parameters including vital signs, mortality, and morbidity rates, as well as promptness of response to ER calls, were compared against a comparable period (March to September 2016) during which a NO system was in effect. A survey was also performed for physicians and nurses who had experienced both systems. RESULTS: A total of 150,000 clinical data were analyzed. Under the NO and NF systems, a total of 3,900 and 3,726 patients were admitted for surgery. Mortality rates were similar but postoperative bleeding was significantly higher in the NO system (0.5% vs. 0.2%, P = 0.031). From the 1,462 and 1,354 patients under the NO and NF systems respectively, that required surgical consultation from the ER, the time to response was significantly shorter in the NF system (54.5 ± 70.7 minutes vs. 66.8 ± 83.8 minutes, P < 0.001). Both physicians (90.4%) and nurses (91.4%) agreed that the NF system was more beneficial. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of a NF system using big data analysis in Korea, and potential benefits of this new system were observed in both ward and ER patient management.


Subject(s)
Electronic Health Records , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hemorrhage , Humans , Internship and Residency , Korea , Medical Staff , Mortality , Statistics as Topic , Vital Signs
13.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 197-205, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714860

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although microinvasive carcinoma is distinct from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the clinical significance of microinvasion in DCIS remains elusive. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes of microinvasive carcinoma compared with pure DCIS. METHODS: We assessed 613 cases of DCIS and microinvasive carcinoma that were consecutively resected from 2003 to 2014 and analyzed clinicopathological variables, expression of standard biomarkers such as the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), p53, and Ki-67, and tumor recurrence. RESULTS: Among the 613 cases, 136 (22.2%) were classified as microinvasive carcinoma. Microinvasive carcinoma was significantly associated with DCIS with a large extent, high nuclear grade, necrosis, and comedotype architectural pattern. ER and PR expressions were dominantly observed in pure DCIS, whereas positive HER2 status, p53 overexpression, and high Ki-67 proliferation indices were more frequently observed in microinvasive carcinoma. Lymph node metastasis was found in only four cases of microinvasive carcinoma with multifocal microinvasion. In the multivariate analysis, DCIS with a large extent, comedo-type architectural pattern, and negative ER status were found to be independent predictors of microinvasion. During follow-up, 12 patients had ipsilateral breast recurrence, and no differences in recurrence rates were observed between patients with DCIS and those with microinvasive carcinoma. The triple-negative subtype was the only factor that was associated with tumor recurrence. CONCLUSION: Microinvasive carcinomas are distinct from DCIS in terms of clinicopathological features and biomarker expressions but are similar to DCIS in terms of clinical outcomes. Our results suggest that microinvasive carcinoma can be treated and followed up as pure DCIS.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Ductal , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Estrogens , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Necrosis , Neoplasm Metastasis , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone , Recurrence , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713694

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The management of benign intraductal papilloma (IDP) without atypia diagnosed on core needle biopsy (CNB) remains controversial. This study was performed to evaluate the rate of upgrading to malignancy or high-risk lesions after excision and to identify factors associated with upgrading using a large series of benign IDP cases without atypia. METHODS: We included patients who were diagnosed as having benign IDP without atypia on CNB and underwent surgical or vacuum-assisted excision between 2010 and 2015. We analyzed the clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic features of IDPs that were upgraded to malignancy or high-risk lesions after excision. RESULTS: A total of 511 benign IDPs without atypia diagnosed via CNB were identified, of which 398 cases were treated with excision. After reviewing these cases, four cases of high-risk lesions in adjacent tissue on CNB, two cases which were revealed as papilloma with atypia, and nine cases of malignancy in the same breast were excluded. In the remaining 383 cases, the rate of upgrading to malignancy and high-risk lesions after excision was 0.8% and 4.4%, respectively. The presence of concurrent contralateral breast cancer, the presence of symptoms, and multifocality were factors significantly associated with upgrading to malignancy on subsequent excision. Surgical excision rather than vacuum-assisted excision was significantly associated with upgrading to high-risk lesions or malignancy. CONCLUSION: The rate of upgrading to malignancy for benign IDP without atypia was very low, suggesting that close clinical and radiologic observation may be sufficient for patients with benign IDP without atypia on CNB under proper settings.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Humans , Papilloma , Papilloma, Intraductal
15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1140-1148, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717753

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify predictors for distant metastatic behavior and build a related prognostic nomogram in breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,181 patients with non-metastatic breast cancer between 2003 and 2011 were analyzed. To predict the probability of distant metastasis, a nomogram was constructed based on prognostic factors identified using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The 7-year overall survival and 5-year post-progression survival of locoregional versus distant recurrence groups were 67.6% versus 39.1% (p=0.027) and 54.2% versus 33.5% (p=0.043), respectively. Patients who developed distant metastasis showed early and late mortality risk peaks within 3 and after 5 years of follow-up, respectively, but a broad and low risk increment was observed in other patients with locoregional relapse. In multivariate analysis of distant metastasis-free interval, age (≥ 45 years vs. < 45 years), molecular subtypes (luminal A vs. luminal B, human epidermal growth receptor 2, and triple negative), T category (T1 vs. T2-3 and T4), and N category (N0 vs. N1 and N2-3) were independently associated (p < 0.05 for all). Regarding the significant factors, a well-validated nomogram was established (concordance index, 0.812). The risk score level of patients with initial brain failure was higher than those of non-brain sites (p=0.029). CONCLUSION: The nomogram could be useful for predicting the individual probability of distant recurrence in breast cancer. In high-risk patients based on the risk scores, more aggressive systemic therapy and closer surveillance for metastatic failure should be considered.


Subject(s)
Brain , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Nomograms , Phenobarbital , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1418-1432, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717512

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Alteration of biomarker status after primary systemic therapy (PST) is occasionally found in breast cancer. This study was conducted to clarify the clinical implications of change of biomarker status in breast cancer patients treated with PST. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pre-chemotherapeutic biopsy and post-chemotherapeutic resection specimens of 442 breast cancer patients who had residual disease after PST were included in this study. The association between changes of biomarker status after PST and clinicopathologic features of tumors, and survival of the patients, were analyzed. RESULTS: Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status changed after PST in 18 (4.1%), 80 (18.1%), and 15 (3.4%) patients,respectively. ER and PR mainly underwent positive to negative conversion,whereas HER2 status underwent negative to positive conversion. Negative conversion of ER and PR status after PST was associated with reduced disease-free survival. Moreover, a decline in the Allred score for PR in post-PST specimens was significantly associated with poor clinical outcome of the patients. HER2 change did not have prognostic significance. In multivariate analyses, negative PR status after PST was found to be an independent adverse prognostic factor in the whole patient group, in the adjuvant endocrine therapy-treated subgroup, and also in pre-PST PR positive subgroup. CONCLUSION: ER and HER2 status changed little after PST, whereas PR status changed significantly. In particular, negative conversion of PR status was revealed as a poor prognostic indicator, suggesting that re-evaluation of basic biomarkers is mandatory in breast cancer after PST for proper management and prognostication of patients.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease-Free Survival , Estrogens , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Progesterone , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone
17.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 264-269, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83454

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) in comparison with non-pregnancy associated breast cancer (non-PABC). METHODS: A total of 344 eligible patients with PABC were identified in the Korean Breast Cancer Society Registry database. PABC was defined as ductal carcinoma in situ, invasive ductal carcinoma, or invasive lobular carcinoma diagnosed during pregnancy or within 1 year after the birth of a child. Patients with non-PABC were selected from the same database using a 1:2 matching method. The matching variables were operation, age, and initial stage. RESULTS: Patients with PABC had significantly lower survival rates than patient with non-PABC (10-year survival rate: PABC, 76.4%; non-PABC, 85.1%; p=0.011). PABC patients had higher histologic grade and were more frequently hormone receptor negative than non-PABC patients. Being overweight (body mass index [BMI], ≥23 kg/m²), early menarche (≤13 years), late age at first childbirth (≥30 years), and a family history of breast cancer were more common in the PABC group than in the non-PABC group. Multivariate analysis showed the following factors to be significantly associated with PABC (vs. non-PABC): early menarche (odds ratio [OR], 2.165; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.566–2.994; p<0.001), late age at first childbirth (OR, 2.446; 95% CI, 1.722–3.473; p<0.001), and being overweight (OR, 1.389; 95% CI, 1.007–1.917; p=0.045). CONCLUSION: Early menarche, late age at first childbirth, and BMI ≥23 kg/m² were more associated with PABC than non-PABC.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Ductal , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Carcinoma, Lobular , Child , Female , Humans , Menarche , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Overweight , Parturition , Pregnancy , Survival Rate
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1153-1163, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176905

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although combining aromatase inhibitors (AI) with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) is becoming more common, it is still not clear if GnRHa is as effective as bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of 66 premenopausal patients with hormone receptor– positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative recurrent and metastatic breast cancer who had been treated with AIs in combination with GnRHa or BSO between 2002 and 2015. RESULTS: The median patient age was 44 years. Overall, 24 (36%) received BSO and 42 (64%) received GnRHa. The clinical benefit rate was higher in the BSO group than in the GnRHa group (88% vs. 69%, p=0.092). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was longer in the BSO group, although statistical significance was not reached (17.2 months vs. 13.3 months, p=0.245). When propensity score matching was performed, the median PFS was 17.2 months for the BSO group and 8.2 months for the GnRHa group (p=0.137). Multivariate analyses revealed that the luminal B subtype (hazard ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 2.60; p=0.022) and later-line treatment (≥ third line vs. first line; hazard ratio, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.59 to 6.59; p=0.001) were independent predictive factors for a shorter PFS. Incomplete ovarian suppression was observed in a subset of GnRHa-treated patients whose disease showed progression, with E2 levels higher than 21 pg/mL. CONCLUSION: Both BSO and GnRHa were found to be effective in our AI-treated premenopausal metastatic breast cancer patient cohort. However, further studies in larger populations are needed to determine if BSO is superior to GnRHa.


Subject(s)
Aromatase Inhibitors , Aromatase , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Ovariectomy , Phenobarbital , Premenopause , Propensity Score , ErbB Receptors , Retrospective Studies
19.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 8-15, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-645297

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the magnitude of distress after breast cancer diagnosis and to investigate factors associated with distress, as well as to determine the effectiveness of psychological intervention. METHODS: This study was performed retrospectively, reviewing 264 patients who underwent breast cancer surgery at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between November 2011 and May 2014. Distress was measured using the distress thermometer (DT) and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) questionnaires before, as well as at 3 and 6 months postsurgery. Psychological intervention was recommended to high risk patients (DT score ≥5 or CES-D score ≥16). RESULTS: In total, 149 patients (56.4%) were classified as high risk in the initial assessment. In the following assessments, the proportion of those in the high risk group was 38.5% and 25.0% at 3 and 6 months postsurgery, respectively. Mastectomy was significantly associated with high levels of distress compared to breast-conserving surgery in the univariate (p=0.048) and multivariate analyses (p=0.014). However, there was no significant relationship between any of the various socioeconomic factors and distress. Distress level was reduced over time in both scales. Of the 149 high risk patients, only 21 received the psychological intervention. Using linear mixed models, the psychological intervention resulted in marginally significant reductions in DT (p=0.051) and CES-D (p=0.077) scores. CONCLUSION: More than half of patients experienced distress upon initial diagnosis, and the determined surgery type was an important factor associated with high distress level. It is important to identify high risk patients and to manage distress during the initial phase.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Humans , Mass Screening , Mastectomy , Mastectomy, Segmental , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Socioeconomic Factors , Thermometers , Weights and Measures
20.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 271-278, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112049

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the survival benefit of different adjuvant chemotherapy regimens in patients with T1-2N0 triple-negative breast cancer. METHODS: Of 67,321 patients who were registered in the Korean Breast Cancer Society nationwide database between January 1999 and December 2008, 4,033 patients with T1-2N0 triple-negative breast cancer were included. The overall survival of patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy was compared with those treated with adjuvant anthracycline and cyclophosphamide (AC), 5-fluorouracil, anthracycline, and cyclophosphamide (FAC), or cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil (CMF). RESULTS: The median follow-up was 52.5 months. Chemotherapy was used in 87.4% of patients; it was used more commonly in patients with T2 tumors, those who were younger, had a higher histologic grade, and who showed lymphovascular invasion. The 5-year cumulative overall survival rate was 95.4%. Younger age, breast-conserving surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy were significantly associated with improved overall survival. The 5-year cumulative overall survival rate of patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy and those treated with AC, FAC, and CMF were 92.5%, 95.9%, 95.3%, and 95.9%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, the administration of any adjuvant chemotherapy regimen was significantly associated with improved overall survival (p=0.038). No significant difference in survival benefit was observed among the three different treatment groups. CONCLUSION: A standard adjuvant chemotherapy regimen with the least drug-related toxicity might be a reasonable treatment for patients with T1-2N0 triple-negative breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cyclophosphamide , Drug Therapy , Fluorouracil , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy, Segmental , Methotrexate , Multivariate Analysis , Survival Rate , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
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