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1.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 319-329, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999681

ABSTRACT

Resistance to hypomethylating agents (HMAs) in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a concerning problem. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is a key cell cycle modulator and is known to be associated with an activation of the PI3K pathway, which is related to the stabilization of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), a target of HMAs. We investigated the effects of volasertib on HMA-resistant cell lines (MOLM/AZA-1 and MOLM/DEC-5) derived from MOLM-13, and bone marrow (BM) samples obtained from patients with MDS (BM blasts >5%) or AML evolved from MDS (MDS/AML). Volasertib effectively inhibited the proliferation of HMA-resistant cells with suppression of DNMTs and PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK pathways. Volasertib also showed significant inhibitory effects against primary BM cells from patients with MDS or MDS/AML, and the effects of volasertib inversely correlated with DNMT3B expression. The DNMT3B-overexpressed AML cells showed primary resistance to volasertib treatment. Our data suggest that volasertib has a potential role in overcoming HMA resistance in patients with MDS and MDS/ AML by suppressing the expression of DNMT3 enzymes and PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK pathways. We also found that DNMT3B overexpression might be associated with resistance to volasertib.

2.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 357-367, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002043

ABSTRACT

Background@#Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPoC) is induced by several cycles of brief, reversible, mechanical blood flow occlusion, and reperfusion of the distal organs thereby protecting target organs. We investigated if RIPoC ameliorated liver injury in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemic rats. @*Methods@#Protocol 1) Rats were administered LPS and samples collected at 0, 2, 6, 12, and 18 h. 2) After RIPoC at 2, 6, and 12 h (L+2R+18H, L+6R+18H, and L+12R+18H), samples were analyzed at 18 h. 3) RIPoC was performed at 2 h, analysis samples at 6, 12, 18 h (L+2R+6H, L+2R+12H, L+2R+18H), and RIPoC at 6 h, analysis at 12 h (L+6R+12H). 4) Rats were assigned to a control group while in the RIPoC group, RIPoC was performed at 2, 6, 10, and 14 h, with samples analyzed at 18 h. @*Results@#Protocol 1) Liver enzyme, malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) levels increased while superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels decreased over time. 2) Liver enzyme and MDA levels were lower while SOD levels were higher in L+12R+18H and L+6R+18H groups when compared with L+2R+18H group. 3) Liver enzyme and MDA levels were lower while SOD levels were higher in L+2R+6H and L+6R+12H groups when compared with L+2R+12H and L+2R+18H groups. 4) Liver enzyme, MDA, TNF-α, and NF-κB levels were lower while SOD levels were higher in RIPoC group when compared with control group. @*Conclusions@#RIPoC attenuated liver injury in the LPS-induced sepsis model by modifying inflammatory and oxidative stress response for a limited period.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1181-1189, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999834

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The detection rate of early-stage lung cancer with ground-glass opacity (GGO) has increased, and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been suggested as an alternative to surgery in inoperable patients. However, reports on treatment results are limited. Therefore, we performed a retrospective study to investigate the clinical outcome after SBRT in patients with early-stage lung cancer with GGO-predominant tumor lesions at a single institution. @*Materials and Methods@#This study included 89 patients with 99 lesions who were treated with SBRT for lung cancer with GGO-predominant lesions that had a consolidation-to-tumor ratio of ≤0.5 at Asan Medical Center between July 2016 and July 2021. A median total dose of 56.0 Gy (range, 48.0–60.0) was delivered using 10.0–15.0 Gy per fraction. @*Results@#The overall follow-up period for the study was median 33.0 months (range, 9.9 to 65.9 months). There was 100% local control with no recurrences in any of the 99 treated lesions. Three patients had regional recurrences outside of the radiation field, and three had distant metastasis. The 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year overall survival rates were 100.0%, 91.6%, and 82.8%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that advanced age and a low level of diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide were significantly associated with overall survival. There were no patients with grade ≥3 toxicity. @*Conclusion@#SBRT is a safe and effective treatment for patients with GGO-predominant lung cancer lesions and is likely to be considered as an alternative to surgery.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e169-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976951

ABSTRACT

Background@#Healthcare professionals often experience moral distress while providing endof-life care. This study explored how physicians and nurses experienced moral distress when they cared for critically and terminally ill patients in tertiary hospitals in South Korea. @*Methods@#This study used semi-structured in-depth interviews. A total of 22 people in two tertiary hospitals were interviewed, nine (40.9%) of which were physicians and 13 (59.1%) were nurses. The recorded interview files and memos were analyzed using grounded theory. @*Results@#Most physicians and nurses encountered similar feelings of anger, helplessness, and burden owing to a lack of appropriate resources for end-of-life care. However, the factors and contexts of their moral distress differed. Nurses mainly addressed poorly organized end-of-life care, intensive labor conditions without support for nurses, and providing care without participation in decision-making. Meanwhile, physicians addressed the prevailing misperceptions on end-of-life care, communication failure between physicians owing to hierarchy and fragmented disciplines, the burden of responsibility in making difficult decisions, and the burden of resource allocation. @*Conclusion@#Differences in moral distress between physicians and nurses leave them isolated and can affect communication regarding healthcare. Mutual understanding between job disciplines will enhance their communication and help resolve conflicts in end-of-life care.

5.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 199-208, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002776

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#An optimal once-daily radiotherapy (RT) regimen is under investigation for definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in limited disease small cell lung cancer (LD-SCLC). We compared the efficacy and safety of dose escalation with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). @*Materials and Methods@#Between January 2016 and March 2021, patients treated with definitive CCRT for LD-SCLC with IMRT were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who received a total dose <50 Gy or those with a history of thoracic RT or surgery were excluded. The patients were divided into two groups (standard and dose-escalated) based on the total biologically effective dose (BED, α/β = 10) of 70 Gy. The chemotherapeutic regimen comprised four cycles of etoposide and cisplatin. @*Results@#One hundred and twenty-two patients were analyzed and the median follow-up was 27.8 months (range, 4.4 to 76.9 months). The median age of the patients was 63 years (range, 35 to 78 years) and the majority had a history of smoking (86.0%). The 1- and 3-year overall survival rates of the escalated dose group were significantly higher than those of the standard group (93.5% and 50.5% vs. 76.7% and 33.3%, respectively; p = 0.008), as were the 1- and 3-year freedom from in-field failure rates (91.4% and 66.5% vs. 73.8% and 46.9%, respectively; p = 0.018). The incidence of grade 2 or higher acute and late pneumonitis was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.062, 0.185). @*Conclusion@#Dose-escalated once-daily CCRT with IMRT led to improved locoregional control and survival, with no increase in toxicity.

6.
Journal of Genetic Medicine ; : 1-6, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937951

ABSTRACT

Radiation therapy (RT) is a very important treatment for cancer that irradiates a large amount of radiation to lead cancer cells and tissues to death. The progression of RT in the aspect of personalized medicine has greatly advanced over the past few decades in the field of technical precision responding anatomical characteristics of each patient. However, the consideration of biological heterogeneity that makes different effect in individual patients has not actually applied to clinical practice. There have been numerous discovery and validation of biomarkers that can be applied to improve the efficiency of radiotherapy, among which those related to genomic information are very promising developments. These genome-based biomarkers can be applied to identify patients who can benefit most from altering their therapeutic dose and to select the best chemotherapy improving sensitivity to radiotherapy. The genomics-based biomarkers in radiation oncology focus on mutational changes, particularly oncogenes and DNA damage response pathways. Although few have translated into clinically viable tools, there are many promising candidates in this field. In this review the prominent mutation-based biomarkers and their potential for clinical translation will be discussed.

7.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 202-209, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903281

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the safety and efficacy of hypofractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer who are unfit for surgery or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) at our institution. @*Materials and Methods@#From May 2007 to December 2018, HFRT was used to treat 68 lesions in 64 patients who were unsuitable for SBRT because of central tumor location, large tumor size, or contiguity with the chest wall. The HFRT schedule included a dose of 50–70 Gy delivered in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. The primary outcome was freedom from local progression (FFLP), and the secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), disease-free survival, and toxicities. @*Results@#The median follow-up period was 25.5 months (range, 5.3 to 119.9 months). The FFLP rates were 79.8% and 67.8% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. The OS rates were 82.8% and 64.1% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. A larger planning target volume was associated with lower FFLP (p = 0.023). Dose escalation was not associated with FFLP (p = 0.964). Four patients (6.3%) experienced grade 3–5 pulmonary toxicities. Tumor location, central or peripheral, was not associated with either grade 3 or higher toxicity. @*Conclusion@#HFRT with 50–70 Gy in 10 fractions demonstrated acceptable toxicity; however, the local control rate can be improved compared with the results of SBRT. More studies are required in patients who are unfit for SBRT to investigate the optimal fractionation scheme.

8.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 210-218, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903276

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To determine the effectiveness of salvage radiation therapy (RT) in patients with locoregional recurrence (LRR) following initial curative resection of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and identify the prognostic factors affecting survival. @*Materials and Methods@#Between January 2009 and January 2019, 54 patients with LRR after NSCLC surgery were treated with salvage RT (83.3%) or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (16.7%). Twenty-three (42.6%), 21 (38.9%), and 10 (18.5%) patients had local, regional, and both recurrences, respectively. The median RT dose was 66 Gy (range, 37.5 to 70 Gy). The radiation target volume included recurrent lesions with or without regional lymphatics depending on the location and recurrence type. @*Results@#The median follow-up time from the start of RT was 28.3 months (range, 2.4 to 112.4 months) and disease-free interval (DFI) from surgery to recurrence was 21.0 months (range, 0.5 to 92.3 months). Tumor response after RT was complete response, partial response, stable disease, and progressive disease in 17, 29, 5, and 3 patients, respectively. The rates of freedom from local progression at 1 and 2 years were 77.2% and 66.0%, respectively. The median survival duration after RT was 24.8 months, and the 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was 51.1%. On univariate analysis, initial stage, recurrence site, DFI, and tumor response after RT were significant prognostic factors for OS. DFI ≥12 months and tumor response after RT were statistically significant factors on multivariate Cox analysis for OS. @*Conclusion@#Our results demonstrated the effectiveness of salvage RT for LRR of NSCLC following curative surgery.

9.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 202-209, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895577

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the safety and efficacy of hypofractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer who are unfit for surgery or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) at our institution. @*Materials and Methods@#From May 2007 to December 2018, HFRT was used to treat 68 lesions in 64 patients who were unsuitable for SBRT because of central tumor location, large tumor size, or contiguity with the chest wall. The HFRT schedule included a dose of 50–70 Gy delivered in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. The primary outcome was freedom from local progression (FFLP), and the secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), disease-free survival, and toxicities. @*Results@#The median follow-up period was 25.5 months (range, 5.3 to 119.9 months). The FFLP rates were 79.8% and 67.8% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. The OS rates were 82.8% and 64.1% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. A larger planning target volume was associated with lower FFLP (p = 0.023). Dose escalation was not associated with FFLP (p = 0.964). Four patients (6.3%) experienced grade 3–5 pulmonary toxicities. Tumor location, central or peripheral, was not associated with either grade 3 or higher toxicity. @*Conclusion@#HFRT with 50–70 Gy in 10 fractions demonstrated acceptable toxicity; however, the local control rate can be improved compared with the results of SBRT. More studies are required in patients who are unfit for SBRT to investigate the optimal fractionation scheme.

10.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 210-218, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895572

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To determine the effectiveness of salvage radiation therapy (RT) in patients with locoregional recurrence (LRR) following initial curative resection of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and identify the prognostic factors affecting survival. @*Materials and Methods@#Between January 2009 and January 2019, 54 patients with LRR after NSCLC surgery were treated with salvage RT (83.3%) or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (16.7%). Twenty-three (42.6%), 21 (38.9%), and 10 (18.5%) patients had local, regional, and both recurrences, respectively. The median RT dose was 66 Gy (range, 37.5 to 70 Gy). The radiation target volume included recurrent lesions with or without regional lymphatics depending on the location and recurrence type. @*Results@#The median follow-up time from the start of RT was 28.3 months (range, 2.4 to 112.4 months) and disease-free interval (DFI) from surgery to recurrence was 21.0 months (range, 0.5 to 92.3 months). Tumor response after RT was complete response, partial response, stable disease, and progressive disease in 17, 29, 5, and 3 patients, respectively. The rates of freedom from local progression at 1 and 2 years were 77.2% and 66.0%, respectively. The median survival duration after RT was 24.8 months, and the 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was 51.1%. On univariate analysis, initial stage, recurrence site, DFI, and tumor response after RT were significant prognostic factors for OS. DFI ≥12 months and tumor response after RT were statistically significant factors on multivariate Cox analysis for OS. @*Conclusion@#Our results demonstrated the effectiveness of salvage RT for LRR of NSCLC following curative surgery.

11.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 215-223, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896977

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment often produce stress in patients. Anxiety is one of the most prevalent psychological symptoms perceived by breast cancer patients. This study aims to evaluate the temporal patterns of anxiety and find factors associated with persistent anxiety during breast cancer treatment. @*Methods@#This is prospective cohort study. Between July 2010 and July 2011, we recruited patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer who were expected to receive adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 411) from 2 cancer hospitals in Seoul, Korea. Anxiety was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. @*Results@#The mean age of the participants was 46.4 ± 7.9 years. Preoperatively, 44.5% (183 of 411) of the patients showed abnormal anxiety. The proportion of the abnormal anxiety group significantly decreased after surgery (P < 0.01) and this phenomenon continued until the 12-month follow-up point. Patients experienced renewed anxiety at 12 months when the main adjuvant therapies were finished. Socioeconomic factors were not associated with persistent anxiety. Pain, breast, and arm symptoms were significantly higher in the persistently abnormal group, especially at postoperative months 6 and 12. @*Conclusion@#Surgery was a major relieving factor of anxiety, and patients who finished their main adjuvant treatment experienced renewed anxiety. Surgeons should be the main detectors and care-givers with respect to psychological distress in breast cancer patients. To reduce persistent anxiety, caring for the patient’s physical symptoms is important.

12.
Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research ; (3): 395-406, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891909

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to analyze nurse staffing according to patients' acuity and dependency by measuring nursing hours. @*Methods@#The study sample included patients who visited the adult emergency departments (EDs) of three tertiary referral hospitals and nurses who worked on shifts for 48 hours from October 24 to 26, 2019. Hourly patient census and nurse staffing were analyzed. Patient acuity was measured using the Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS), ranging from Level 1 (highest) to Level 5 (lowest). Patient dependency was measured using six items (e.g., clinical attention and communication) and classified into four groups. Nursing activities were observed every 10 minutes and nursing hours per patient and nurse staffing were analyzed according to acuity and dependency. @*Results@#Nurse-to-patient ratio ranged from 1:1.8 to 1:4.2 during the 48 hours of observation. The average work hours of nurses, excluding breaks and meals, was 8.57 hours; 42.5% of which was spent providing direct care. Higher acuity and dependency were associated with higher nursing hours and staffing level. Patients with KTAS Level 1 were provided 74.3 minutes per hour, 5.02 times higher than Level 5 (14.8 minutes). Patients in the highest dependency group were provided 87.4 minutes per hour, 5.75 times higher than the lowest group (15.2 minutes). Newly arrived patients received more nursing hours than continuously stayed patients within the same KTAS Levels. @*Conclusion@#Large variations were found in hourly patient census, acuity, and dependency. Nurse staffing in EDs should be determined based on patient acuity and dependency.

13.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 215-223, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889273

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment often produce stress in patients. Anxiety is one of the most prevalent psychological symptoms perceived by breast cancer patients. This study aims to evaluate the temporal patterns of anxiety and find factors associated with persistent anxiety during breast cancer treatment. @*Methods@#This is prospective cohort study. Between July 2010 and July 2011, we recruited patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer who were expected to receive adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 411) from 2 cancer hospitals in Seoul, Korea. Anxiety was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. @*Results@#The mean age of the participants was 46.4 ± 7.9 years. Preoperatively, 44.5% (183 of 411) of the patients showed abnormal anxiety. The proportion of the abnormal anxiety group significantly decreased after surgery (P < 0.01) and this phenomenon continued until the 12-month follow-up point. Patients experienced renewed anxiety at 12 months when the main adjuvant therapies were finished. Socioeconomic factors were not associated with persistent anxiety. Pain, breast, and arm symptoms were significantly higher in the persistently abnormal group, especially at postoperative months 6 and 12. @*Conclusion@#Surgery was a major relieving factor of anxiety, and patients who finished their main adjuvant treatment experienced renewed anxiety. Surgeons should be the main detectors and care-givers with respect to psychological distress in breast cancer patients. To reduce persistent anxiety, caring for the patient’s physical symptoms is important.

14.
Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research ; (3): 395-406, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899613

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to analyze nurse staffing according to patients' acuity and dependency by measuring nursing hours. @*Methods@#The study sample included patients who visited the adult emergency departments (EDs) of three tertiary referral hospitals and nurses who worked on shifts for 48 hours from October 24 to 26, 2019. Hourly patient census and nurse staffing were analyzed. Patient acuity was measured using the Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS), ranging from Level 1 (highest) to Level 5 (lowest). Patient dependency was measured using six items (e.g., clinical attention and communication) and classified into four groups. Nursing activities were observed every 10 minutes and nursing hours per patient and nurse staffing were analyzed according to acuity and dependency. @*Results@#Nurse-to-patient ratio ranged from 1:1.8 to 1:4.2 during the 48 hours of observation. The average work hours of nurses, excluding breaks and meals, was 8.57 hours; 42.5% of which was spent providing direct care. Higher acuity and dependency were associated with higher nursing hours and staffing level. Patients with KTAS Level 1 were provided 74.3 minutes per hour, 5.02 times higher than Level 5 (14.8 minutes). Patients in the highest dependency group were provided 87.4 minutes per hour, 5.75 times higher than the lowest group (15.2 minutes). Newly arrived patients received more nursing hours than continuously stayed patients within the same KTAS Levels. @*Conclusion@#Large variations were found in hourly patient census, acuity, and dependency. Nurse staffing in EDs should be determined based on patient acuity and dependency.

15.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 1-10, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837107

ABSTRACT

Radiotherapy (RT) has been used for decades as one of the main treatment modalities for cancer patients. The therapeutic effect of RT has been primarily ascribed to DNA damage leading to tumor cell death. Besides direct tumoricidal effect, RT affects antitumor responses through immune-mediated mechanism, which provides a rationale for combining RT and immunotherapy for cancer treatment. Thus far, for the combined treatment with RT, numerous studies have focused on the immune checkpoint inhibitors and have shown promising results. However, treatment resistance is still common, and one of the main resistance mechanisms is thought to be due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment where myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a crucial role. MDSCs are immature myeloid cells with a strong immunosuppressive activity. MDSC frequency is correlated with tumor progression, recurrence, negative clinical outcome, and reduced efficacy of immunotherapy. Therefore, increasing efforts to target MDSCs have been made to overcome the resistance in cancer treatments. In this review, we focus on the role of MDSCs in RT and highlight growing evidence for targeting MDSCs in combination with RT to improve cancer treatment.

16.
Korean Journal of Blood Transfusion ; : 5-20, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836486

ABSTRACT

Blood is an essential medical resource for treating diseases and trauma of people, but a limited biological resource for which no artificial production is possible. Therefore, systematic and rational management of its supply and use must be carried out under the national responsibility. On the other hand, the low birthrate and aging population have raised the problem of blood shortages in Korea. To help solve this problem, this study examined proposals for the development of a blood management system in Korea. In addition, the works of blood management bodies were analyzed based on the operation subjects and types of blood projects in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Canada, Australia, Singapore, and Japan. Based on these data, this paper proposes a new organization that can best enhance the specialization of national blood services and strengthen its capacity under the current blood supply system in Korea.

17.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 434-440, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sub-umbilical surgery under caudal block in conjunction with sevoflurane sedation may be safe in terms of maintaining spontaneous breathing and avoiding complications associated with general anesthesia. However, sevoflurane-induced emergence agitation (EA) continues to be a clinically important phenomenon in children. To compare the incidence of EA in children undergoing sub-umbilical surgery under caudal block with two different doses of sevoflurane.METHODS: Forty children (aged 1–5 years) scheduled to undergo inguinal hernia repair under caudal block with sevoflurane sedation via a face mask were randomized into either the low-dose (1.0%) end-tidal sevoflurane concentration group (Group LS) or the high-dose (2.5%) end-tidal sevoflurane concentration group (Group HS). We monitored EA episodes at 5 and 30 min in the post-anesthetic care unit (PACU) by using the four-point agitation scale and the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) scale.RESULTS: The four-point agitation scale scores and PAED scores were not different between the groups at 5 min. However, the agitation score was higher in Group HS than in Group LS at 30 min after arriving in the PACU. The time required to recover from sedation was longer in Group HS than in Group LS.CONCLUSIONS: Face-mask sedation with 1.0% sevoflurane in conjunction with caudal block may be more effective than that with 2.5% sevoflurane in preventing EA.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Delirium , Dihydroergotamine , Hernia, Inguinal , Incidence , Masks , Respiration
18.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 156-165, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761014

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is a standard treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) showing a response to initial treatment, but many patients do not receive PCI due to comorbidities or refusal. This study aims to define the patient group for whom PCI can be omitted with minimal risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with LS-SCLC who underwent radiotherapy with curative aim at our institution between January 2004 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who did not receive PCI were evaluated for brain metastasis-free survival (BMFS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and prognostic factors for survival, and treatment outcomes were compared with a patient cohort who received PCI. RESULTS: A total of 350 patients achieved a response following thoracic radiotherapy, and 190 of these patients did not receive PCI. Stage I–II and a complete response (CR) to initial therapy were good prognostic factors for BMFS and OS on univariate analysis. Patients with both stage I–II and a CR who declined PCI showed comparable 2-year BMFS to those who received PCI (92% vs. 89%). In patients who achieved CR, PCI did not significantly improve OS or PFS. CONCLUSION: There should be less concern about omitting PCI in patients with comorbidities if they have stage I–II or a CR, with brain metastasis control being comparable to those patients who receive PCI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Cranial Irradiation , Disease-Free Survival , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma
19.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 224-231, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761006

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the patterns of recurrence in patients with neuroblastoma treated with radiation therapy to the primary tumor site. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with high-risk neuroblastoma managed with definitive treatment with radiation therapy to the primary tumor site between January 2003 and June 2017. These patients underwent three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or intensity-modulated radiation therapy. A total of 14–36 Gy was delivered to the planning target volume, which included the primary tumor bed and the selected metastatic site. The disease stage was determined according to the International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS). We evaluated the recurrence pattern (i.e., local or systemic), progression-free survival, and overall survival. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients with high-risk neuroblastoma were included in this study. The median patient age was 4 years (range, 1 to 11 years). Thirty patients (75%) had INSS stage 4 neuroblastoma. At the median follow-up of 58 months, there were 6 cases of local recurrence and 10 cases of systemic recurrence. Among the 6 local failure cases, 4 relapsed adjacent to the radiation field. The other 2 relapsed in the radiation field (i.e., para-aortic and retroperitoneal areas). The main sites of distant metastasis were the bone, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. The 5-year progression-free survival was 70.9% and the 5-year overall survival was 74.3%. CONCLUSION: Radiation therapy directed at the primary tumor site provides good local control. It seems to be adequate for disease control in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma after chemotherapy and surgical resection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Marrow , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neuroblastoma , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1011-1021, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763178

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) may be avoidable for breast cancer patients with 1-2 positive lymph nodes (LN) after breast-conserving therapy. However, the effects of ALND after mastectomy remain unclear because radiation is not routinely used. Herein, we compared the benefits of post-mastectomy ALND versus sentinel node biopsy (SNB) alone for breast cancer patients with 1-3 metastatic LNs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,697 patients with pN1 disease who underwent mastectomy during 2000-2015 were identified from an institutional database. Outcomes were compared using the inverse probability of treatment weighted method. RESULTS: Patients who underwent SNB tended to have smaller tumors, a lower histology grade, a lower number of positive LNs, and better immunohistochemical findings. After correcting all confounding factors regarding patient, tumor, and adjuvant treatment, the SNB and ALND groups did not differ in terms of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), distant metastasis and locoregional recurrence. The 10-year DFS and OS rates were 83% and 84%, respectively, during a median follow-up period of 93 months. CONCLUSION: ALND did not improve post-mastectomy survival outcomes among patients with N1 breast cancer, even after adjusting for all histopathologic and treatment-related factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy , Methods , Neoplasm Metastasis , Recurrence , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
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