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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915798

ABSTRACT

Background@#Papillary breast lesions (PBLs) comprise diverse entities from benign and atypical lesions to malignant tumors. Although PBLs are characterized by a papillary growth pattern, it is challenging to achieve high diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility. Thus, we investigated the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs in core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens with World Health Organization (WHO) classification. @*Methods@#Diagnostic reproducibility was assessed using interobserver variability (kappa value, κ) and agreement rate in the pathologic diagnosis of 60 PBL cases on CNB among 20 breast pathologists affiliated with 20 medical institutions in Korea. This analysis was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for cytokeratin 5 (CK5) and p63. The pathologic diagnosis of PBLs was based on WHO classification, which was used to establish simple classifications (4-tier, 3-tier, and 2-tier). @*Results@#On WHO classification, H&E staining exhibited ‘fair agreement’ (κ = 0.21) with a 47.0% agreement rate. Simple classifications presented improvement in interobserver variability and agreement rate. IHC staining increased the kappa value and agreement rate in all the classifications. Despite IHC staining, the encapsulated/solid papillary carcinoma (EPC/SPC) subgroup (κ = 0.16) exhibited lower agreement compared to the non-EPC/SPC subgroup (κ = 0.35) with WHO classification, which was similar to the results of any other classification systems. @*Conclusions@#Although the use of IHC staining for CK5 and p63 increased the diagnostic agreement of PBLs in CNB specimens, WHO classification exhibited a higher discordance rate compared to any other classifications. Therefore, this result warrants further intensive consensus studies to improve the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs with WHO classification.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915774

ABSTRACT

Energy requirement is defined as energy expenditure in an energy equilibrium state.The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the gold standard for measuring total energy expenditure (TEE). In 2002, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies established dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for Americans and Canadians, and the equations for estimated energy requirement (EER) were developed by using pooled data from studies that had applied the DLW method. Since 2005, these equations have been used for establishing EER in the DRI for Koreans. These equations based on age group include the physical activity (PA) coefficient determined by the PA level (PAL; sedentary, low active, active and very active) as well as body weight and height. The PAL values of Koreans calculated using the DLW method and PA diaries were determined to fall in the low active category (1.40~1.59). Therefore, the PA coefficient corresponding to ‘low active’ was applied to the EER equations. In recent years, with increasing number of people regularly engaging in various physical activities in Korea, EER is now separately presented for people with ‘active’ and ‘very active’ PALs. In the future, like the United States and Japan, Korea needs to expand the DLW research for developing EER predictive equations for Koreans. In addition, standardized guidelines should be prepared to accurately evaluate the PAL using the physical activity diary and the new PA classification table for Koreans.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915765

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated the food consumption behaviors in Korean adults, according to the agrifood consumer competency index (ACCI). @*Methods@#Data obtained from the 2019 Consumption Behaviors Survey for Food were analyzed. A total of 6,176 adults (2,783 males, 3,393 females) aged ≥ 19 years, were included in the study. Based on the score of agrifood consumer competency index, the subjects were classified into three groups. The dietary habits, eating-out and food-delivery/take-out behaviors, opinion of food labeling, and concerns for domestic products were compared among the 3 groups. @*Results@#The ACCI scores of the male and female subjects were 63.6 and 64.8, respectively. Subjects of both genders in the highest tertile of the ACCI were more likely to have a higher education level and higher health concerns, as compared to subjects in the lowest tertile (p < 0.05). Male subjects having highest tertile of the ACCI reported significantly more exercise and alcohol consumption, as compared to subjects in the lowest tertile (p < 0.05). A higher score of the ACCI also portrayed a higher satisfaction in own diet and greater checking of the food label. Moreover, subjects with a higher score of the ACCI showed greater satisfaction and reliability in the food label, as well as increased concerns for domestic agrifoods, local foods, and eco-friendly foods. Subjects in the lowest tertile of the ACCI acquired their dietary information from acquaintances, whereas subjects in the highest tertile of the ACCI learnt the information from food labels themselves. @*Conclusion@#These results are indicative of the food consumption and behaviors of Koreanadults according to their ACCI scores, and provide basic data that will be useful for implementing an effective food policy.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915764

ABSTRACT

To set the estimated energy requirement (EER) in Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRI), we need the coefficient by physical activity stage, as determined by the physical activity level(PAL). Thus, there has been demand for a tool to calculate PAL based on the physical activity diary. This study was undertaken to develop a physical activity (PA) classification table for Koreans, using the 2011 Compendium of physical activities in the United States. The PA classification table for Koreans contains 262 codes, and values of the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) for specific activities. Of these, 243 PAs which do not have Korean specific data or information, were selected from the 2011 Compendium of PAs that originated in the United States; another 19 PAs were selected from the previous research data of Koreans. The PA classification table is codified to facilitate the selection of energy values corresponding to each PA. The code for each PA consists of a single letter alphabet (activity category) and four numeric codes that display the activity type (2 digit number), activity intensity (1 digit number), and specific activities (1 digit number). In addition, the intensity (sedentary behavior, low, middle and high) of specific PA and its rate of energy expenditure in MET are presented together. The activity categories are divided into 4 areas: Daily Activity (A), Movement (B), Occupation (C), and Exercise and Sports (D). The developed PA classification table can be applied to quantify the energy cost of PA for adults in research or practice, and to assess energy expenditure and physical activity levels based on self-reported PA.

5.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 304-314, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903817

ABSTRACT

Background@#The study investigated virtual reality (VR) immersion in alleviating procedure-related pain in patients with chronic pain undergoing fluoroscopy-guided minimally-invasive intervention in a prone position at an outpatient clinic. @*Methods@#In this prospective randomized controlled study, 38 patients undergoing lumbar sympathetic ganglion block were randomized into either the VR or the control group. In the VR group, procedure-related pain was controlled via infiltration of local anesthetics while watching a 30-minute VR hypnotic program. In the control group, the skin infiltration alone was used, with the VR device switched off. The primary endpoint was an 11-point score on the numerical rating scale, indicating procedure-related pain. Patients’ satisfaction with pain control, anxiety levels, the need for additional local anesthetics during the procedure, hemodynamic stability, and any adverse events were assessed. @*Results@#Procedure-related pain was significantly lower in the VR group (3.7 ± 1.4) than in the control group (5.5 ± 1.7; P = 0.002). Post-procedural anxiety was lower in the VR group than in the control group (P = 0.025), with a significant reduction from pre-procedural anxiety (P < 0.001). Although patients’ satisfaction did not differ significantly (P = 0.158) between the groups, a higher number of patients required additional local anesthetics in the control group (n = 13) than in the VR group (n = 4; P = 0.001). No severe adverse events occurred in either group during the study. @*Conclusions@#VR immersion can be safely used as a novel adjunct to reduce procedural pain and anxiety during fluoroscopic pain intervention.

6.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1266-1278, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902428

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to compare the aortic valve area (AVA) calculated using fast high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) image acquisition with that of the conventional two-dimensional (2D) cine MR technique. @*Materials and Methods@#We included 139 consecutive patients (mean age ± standard deviation [SD], 68.5 ± 9.4 years) with aortic valvular stenosis (AS) and 21 asymptomatic controls (52.3 ± 14.2 years). High-resolution T2-prepared 3D steady-state free precession (SSFP) images (2.0 mm slice thickness, 10 contiguous slices) for 3D planimetry (3DP) were acquired with a single breath hold during mid-systole. 2D SSFP cine MR images (6.0 mm slice thickness) for 2D planimetry (2DP) were also obtained at three aortic valve levels. The calculations for the effective AVA based on the MR images were compared with the transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) measurements using the continuity equation. @*Results@#The mean AVA ± SD derived by 3DP, 2DP, and TTE in the AS group were 0.81 ± 0.26 cm2 , 0.82 ± 0.34 cm2 , and 0.80 ± 0.26 cm2 , respectively (p = 0.366). The intra-observer agreement was higher for 3DP than 2DP in one observer: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94–0.97) and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.82–0.91), respectively, for observer 1 and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.96–0.98) and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.97–0.99), respectively, for observer 2. Inter-observer agreement was similar between 3DP and 2DP, with the ICC of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.89–0.94) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.88–0.93), respectively. 3DP-derived AVA showed a slightly higher agreement with AVA measured by TTE than the 2DP-derived AVA, with the ICC of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.82–0.91) vs. 0.85 (95% CI, 0.79–0.89). @*Conclusion@#High-resolution 3D MR image acquisition, with single-breath-hold SSFP sequences, gave AVA measurement with low observer variability that correlated highly with those obtained by TTE.

7.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1225-1239, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902426

ABSTRACT

During the past decade, researchers have investigated the use of computer-aided mammography interpretation. With the application of deep learning technology, artificial intelligence (AI)-based algorithms for mammography have shown promising results in the quantitative assessment of parenchymal density, detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, and prediction of breast cancer risk, enabling more precise patient management. AI-based algorithms may also enhance the efficiency of the interpretation workflow by reducing both the workload and interpretation time. However, more in-depth investigation is required to conclusively prove the effectiveness of AI-based algorithms. This review article discusses how AI algorithms can be applied to mammography interpretation as well as the current challenges in its implementation in real-world practice.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898999

ABSTRACT

Given the recent advances in management and understanding of breast cancer, a standardized pathology report reflecting these changes is critical. To meet this need, the Breast Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a standardized pathology reporting format for breast cancer, consisting of ‘standard data elements,’ ‘conditional data elements,’ and a biomarker report form. The ‘standard data elements’ consist of the basic pathologic features used for prognostication, while other factors related to prognosis or diagnosis are described in the ‘conditional data elements.’ In addition to standard data elements, all recommended issues are also presented. We expect that this standardized pathology report for breast cancer will improve diagnostic concordance and communication between pathologists and clinicians, as well as between pathologists inter-institutionally.

9.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 304-314, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896113

ABSTRACT

Background@#The study investigated virtual reality (VR) immersion in alleviating procedure-related pain in patients with chronic pain undergoing fluoroscopy-guided minimally-invasive intervention in a prone position at an outpatient clinic. @*Methods@#In this prospective randomized controlled study, 38 patients undergoing lumbar sympathetic ganglion block were randomized into either the VR or the control group. In the VR group, procedure-related pain was controlled via infiltration of local anesthetics while watching a 30-minute VR hypnotic program. In the control group, the skin infiltration alone was used, with the VR device switched off. The primary endpoint was an 11-point score on the numerical rating scale, indicating procedure-related pain. Patients’ satisfaction with pain control, anxiety levels, the need for additional local anesthetics during the procedure, hemodynamic stability, and any adverse events were assessed. @*Results@#Procedure-related pain was significantly lower in the VR group (3.7 ± 1.4) than in the control group (5.5 ± 1.7; P = 0.002). Post-procedural anxiety was lower in the VR group than in the control group (P = 0.025), with a significant reduction from pre-procedural anxiety (P < 0.001). Although patients’ satisfaction did not differ significantly (P = 0.158) between the groups, a higher number of patients required additional local anesthetics in the control group (n = 13) than in the VR group (n = 4; P = 0.001). No severe adverse events occurred in either group during the study. @*Conclusions@#VR immersion can be safely used as a novel adjunct to reduce procedural pain and anxiety during fluoroscopic pain intervention.

10.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1266-1278, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894724

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to compare the aortic valve area (AVA) calculated using fast high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) image acquisition with that of the conventional two-dimensional (2D) cine MR technique. @*Materials and Methods@#We included 139 consecutive patients (mean age ± standard deviation [SD], 68.5 ± 9.4 years) with aortic valvular stenosis (AS) and 21 asymptomatic controls (52.3 ± 14.2 years). High-resolution T2-prepared 3D steady-state free precession (SSFP) images (2.0 mm slice thickness, 10 contiguous slices) for 3D planimetry (3DP) were acquired with a single breath hold during mid-systole. 2D SSFP cine MR images (6.0 mm slice thickness) for 2D planimetry (2DP) were also obtained at three aortic valve levels. The calculations for the effective AVA based on the MR images were compared with the transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) measurements using the continuity equation. @*Results@#The mean AVA ± SD derived by 3DP, 2DP, and TTE in the AS group were 0.81 ± 0.26 cm2 , 0.82 ± 0.34 cm2 , and 0.80 ± 0.26 cm2 , respectively (p = 0.366). The intra-observer agreement was higher for 3DP than 2DP in one observer: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94–0.97) and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.82–0.91), respectively, for observer 1 and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.96–0.98) and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.97–0.99), respectively, for observer 2. Inter-observer agreement was similar between 3DP and 2DP, with the ICC of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.89–0.94) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.88–0.93), respectively. 3DP-derived AVA showed a slightly higher agreement with AVA measured by TTE than the 2DP-derived AVA, with the ICC of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.82–0.91) vs. 0.85 (95% CI, 0.79–0.89). @*Conclusion@#High-resolution 3D MR image acquisition, with single-breath-hold SSFP sequences, gave AVA measurement with low observer variability that correlated highly with those obtained by TTE.

11.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1225-1239, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894722

ABSTRACT

During the past decade, researchers have investigated the use of computer-aided mammography interpretation. With the application of deep learning technology, artificial intelligence (AI)-based algorithms for mammography have shown promising results in the quantitative assessment of parenchymal density, detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, and prediction of breast cancer risk, enabling more precise patient management. AI-based algorithms may also enhance the efficiency of the interpretation workflow by reducing both the workload and interpretation time. However, more in-depth investigation is required to conclusively prove the effectiveness of AI-based algorithms. This review article discusses how AI algorithms can be applied to mammography interpretation as well as the current challenges in its implementation in real-world practice.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891295

ABSTRACT

Given the recent advances in management and understanding of breast cancer, a standardized pathology report reflecting these changes is critical. To meet this need, the Breast Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a standardized pathology reporting format for breast cancer, consisting of ‘standard data elements,’ ‘conditional data elements,’ and a biomarker report form. The ‘standard data elements’ consist of the basic pathologic features used for prognostication, while other factors related to prognosis or diagnosis are described in the ‘conditional data elements.’ In addition to standard data elements, all recommended issues are also presented. We expect that this standardized pathology report for breast cancer will improve diagnostic concordance and communication between pathologists and clinicians, as well as between pathologists inter-institutionally.

13.
Ultrasonography ; : 93-102, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919513

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive performance of ultrasonography (US)-based radiomics for axillary lymph node metastasis and to compare it with that of a clinicopathologic model. @*Methods@#A total of 496 patients (mean age, 52.5±10.9 years) who underwent breast cancer surgery between January 2014 and December 2014 were included in this study. Among them, 306 patients who underwent surgery between January 2014 and August 2014 were enrolled as a training cohort, and 190 patients who underwent surgery between September 2014 and December 2014 were enrolled as a validation cohort. To predict axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer, we developed a preoperative clinicopathologic model using multivariable logistic regression and constructed a radiomics model using 23 radiomic features selected via least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression. @*Results@#In the training cohort, the areas under the curve (AUC) were 0.760, 0.812, and 0.858 for the clinicopathologic, radiomics, and combined models, respectively. In the validation cohort, the AUCs were 0.708, 0.831, and 0.810, respectively. The combined model showed significantly better diagnostic performance than the clinicopathologic model. @*Conclusion@#A radiomics model based on the US features of primary breast cancers showed additional value when combined with a clinicopathologic model to predict axillary lymph node metastasis.

14.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 225-237, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918905

ABSTRACT

The accuracy and convenience of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), which efficiently evaluates glycemic variability and hypoglycemia, are improving. There are two types of CGM: professional CGM and personal CGM. Personal CGM is subdivided into real-time CGM (rt-CGM) and intermittently scanned CGM (isCGM). CGM is being emphasized in both domestic and foreign diabetes management guidelines. Regardless of age or type of diabetes, CGM is useful for diabetic patients undergoing multiple insulin injection therapy or using an insulin pump. rt-CGM is recommended for all adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and can also be used in type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatments using multiple insulin injections. In some cases, short-term or intermittent use of CGM may be helpful for patients with T2D who use insulin therapy other than multiple insulin injections and/or oral hypoglycemic agents. CGM can help to achieve A1C targets in diabetes patients during pregnancy. CGM is a safe and cost-effective alternative to self-monitoring blood glucose in T1D and some T2D patients. CGM used in diabetes management works optimally with proper education, training, and follow up. To achieve the activation of CGM and its associated benefits, it is necessary to secure sufficient repetitive training and time for data analysis, management, and education. Various supports such as compensation, insurance coverage expansion, and reimbursement are required to increase the effectiveness of CGM while considering the scale of benefit recipients, policy priorities, and financial requirements.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875125

ABSTRACT

The most common malignant tumors in the colon are adenocarcinomas, while leiomyosarcoma (LMS) are rare. Here, we report a case of LMS of the sigmoid colon in a 73-year-old man who presented with sigmoido-rectal intussusception, which was discovered by abdominal computed tomography. As LMS of the colon is uncommon and is rarely associated with intussusception, we have described the imaging features in this case report.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874885

ABSTRACT

Given the recent advances in management and understanding of breast cancer, a standardized pathology report reflecting these changes is critical. To meet this need, the Breast Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a standardized pathology reporting format for breast cancer, consisting of ‘standard data elements,’ ‘conditional data elements,’ and a biomarker report form. The ‘standard data elements’ consist of the basic pathologic features used for prognostication, while other factors related to prognosis or diagnosis are described in the ‘conditional data elements.’ In addition to standard data elements, all recommended issues are also presented. We expect that this standardized pathology report for breast cancer will improve diagnostic concordance and communication between pathologists and clinicians, as well as between pathologists inter-institutionally.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874786

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#We have been providing psychotherapy training for medical students enrolled in the course of ‘Clinical Practice.’ The aim of this study is to introduce the psychotherapy education developed in this process, conceptualize objective education methods, and check the impact of educational applications of psychotherapy for medical students. @*Methods@#Psychotherapy was applied to the medical students during their clerkship in psychiatry. 221 medical students participated in this program from 2017–2019, which consisted of 2–3 people in a group. One was in charge of clients, and the other was an observer. Their clerkship was based on psychodynamic psychotherapy, especially Taopsychotherapy. Before and after the practice, participants completed a self-reporting questionnaire about ego identity, self-concealment, and professional help-seeking attitudes. Statistical analysis using a two-way repeated measure analysis of variance was conducted. @*Results@#Participants learned of the nuclear feelings associated with the current problem and were surprised to find a connection with past experiences, but accepted the connection. Selfidentity decreased in the client role students (p=0.001), and professional help-seeking attitude increased in both client and observer role students (p=0.001). @*Conclusion@#In the general course of psychotherapy, patients are reminded of their first interpersonal relationships, like parents, and in the beginning, they only think of positive aspects under repressed emotions. However, they gradually recalled negative emotions. The above practical course featured this same pattern. As they recognized negative emotions that were repressed, self-identity decreased in client role students.

19.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1027-1035, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833591

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To assess the appropriate follow-up interval, and rate and timepoint of cancer detection in women with Breast ImagingReporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 3 lesions on screening ultrasonography (US) according to the type of institution. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 1451 asymptomatic women who had negative or benign findings on screening mammogram,BI-RADS 3 assessment on screening US, and at least 6 months of follow-up were included. The median follow-up interval was30.8 months (range, 6.8–52.9 months). The cancer detection rate, cancer detection timepoint, risk factors, and clinicopathologicalcharacteristics were compared between the screening and tertiary centers. Nominal variables were compared using the chisquareor Fisher’s exact test and continuous variables were compared using the independent t test or Mann-Whitney U test. @*Results@#In 1451 women, 19 cancers (1.3%) were detected; two (0.1%) were diagnosed at 6 months and 17 (1.2%) werediagnosed after 12.3 months. The malignancy rates were both 1.3% in the screening (9 of 699) and tertiary (10 of 752) centers.In the screening center, all nine cancers were invasive cancers and diagnosed after 12.3 months. In the tertiary center, twowere ductal carcinomas in situ and eight were invasive cancers. Two of the invasive cancers were diagnosed at 6 months andthe remaining eight cancers newly developed after 13.1 months. @*Conclusion@#One-year follow-up rather than 6-month follow-up may be suitable for BI-RADS 3 lesions on screening US foundin screening centers. However, more caution is needed regarding similar findings in tertiary centers where 6-month follow-upmay be more appropriate.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833531

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings associated with resection margin statusin patients with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) who underwent breast-conserving surgery. @*Materials and Methods@#One hundred and one patients with ILC who underwent preoperative MRI were included. MRI(tumor size, multifocality, type of enhancing lesion, distribution of non-mass enhancement [NME], and degree of backgroundparenchymal enhancement) and clinicopathological features (age, pathologic tumor size, presence of ductal carcinoma in situ[DCIS] or lobular carcinoma in situ, presence of lymph node metastases, and estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor/humanepidermal growth factor receptor type 2 status) were analyzed. A positive resection margin was defined as the presence ofinvasive cancer or DCIS at the inked surface. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine pre- and postoperativevariables associated with positive resection margins. @*Results@#Among the 101 patients, 21 (20.8%) showed positive resection margins. In the univariable analysis, NME,multifocality, axillary lymph node metastasis, and pathologic tumor size were associated with positive resection margins.With respect to preoperative MRI findings, multifocality (odds ratio [OR] = 3.977, p = 0.009) and NME (OR = 2.741, p = 0.063)were associated with positive resection margins in the multivariable analysis, although NME showed borderline significance. @*Conclusion@#In patients with ILC, multifocality and the presence of NME on preoperative breast MRI were associated withpositive resection margins.

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