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1.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 274-280, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976891

ABSTRACT

Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) in preterm infant is common, life-threatening and the main cause of bad developmental outcomes. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is used as the ultimate treatment for PHH. Low birth weight and low gestational age are the combination of worse prognostic factors while the single most important prognostic factor of VP shunting is age. Aggressive and early intervention have better effect in intraventricular hemorrhage and intracranial pressures control. It reduces infection rate and brain damage resulted in delayed shunt insertion. It is extremely important to let PHH infants get older and gain weight to have internal organs to be matured before undergoing VP shunt. As premature infants undergo shunt after further growth, shunt-related complications would be reduced. So temporary surgical intervention is critical for PHH infants to have them enough time until permanently shunted.

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 191-196, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968892

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to analyze the effect of foramen magnum decompression with C1 laminectomy (C1L) for Chiari malformation type 1 (CM-1) in terms of improving clinical symptoms, expanding posterior fossa volume, and decreasing syrinx volume. @*Materials and Methods@#Between January 2007 and June 2019, 107 patients with CM-1 were included. The median patient age was 13±13 years (range: 9 months–60 years), female-to-male ratio was 1:1, and average length of tonsil herniation was 13±5 mm (range: 5–24 mm). Surgical techniques were divided into four groups based on duraplasty or C1L usage. Among the study subjects, 38 patients underwent duraplasty and had their syrinx volumes measured separately on serial magnetic resonance imaging. A three-dimensional visualization software was used to evaluate the syrinx-volume decrease rate. @*Results@#Bony decompression exhibited a mere 20% volume expansion of the lower-half posterior fossa. C1L offered a 3% additional volume expansion, which rose to 5% when duraplasty was added (p=0.029). There were no significant differences in complication rate when C1L was combined with duraplasty (p=0.526). Syrinx volumes were analyzed in 38 patients who had undergone duraplasty. Among them, 28 patients who had undergone duraplasty without C1L demonstrated a 5.9% monthly decrease in syrinx volume, which was 7.5% in the remaining 10 patients with C1L (p=0.040). @*Conclusion@#C1L was effective in increasing posterior fossa volume expansion, both with and without duraplasty. A more rapid decrease in syrinx volume occurred when C1L was combined with duraplasty.

3.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 405-435, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000785

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is a significant cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide. Early and precise diagnosis is crucial, and clinical outcomes can be markedly enhanced. The rise of artificial intelligence (AI) has ushered in a new era, notably in image analysis, paving the way for major advancements in breast cancer diagnosis and individualized treatment regimens. In the diagnostic workflow for patients with breast cancer, the role of AI encompasses screening, diagnosis, staging, biomarker evaluation, prognostication, and therapeutic response prediction. Although its potential is immense, its complete integration into clinical practice is challenging. Particularly, these challenges include the imperatives for extensive clinical validation, model generalizability, navigating the “black-box” conundrum, and pragmatic considerations of embedding AI into everyday clinical environments. In this review, we comprehensively explored the diverse applications of AI in breast cancer care, underlining its transformative promise and existing impediments. In radiology, we specifically address AI in mammography, tomosynthesis, risk prediction models, and supplementary imaging methods, including magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. In pathology, our focus is on AI applications for pathologic diagnosis, evaluation of biomarkers, and predictions related to genetic alterations, treatment response, and prognosis in the context of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Our discussion underscores the transformative potential of AI in breast cancer management and emphasizes the importance of focused research to realize the full spectrum of benefits of AI in patient care.

4.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 151-157, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888998

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cranioplasty for the treatment of cephalhematomas in small infants with limited blood volume is challenging because of massive bleeding. This study aimed to elucidate the correlation between cephalhematoma size and intraoperative blood loss and identify criteria that can predict large intraoperative blood loss. @*Methods@#We reviewed the medical records of 120 pediatric patients aged less than 24 months who underwent cranioplasty for treatment of a cephalhematoma. The cephalhematoma sizes in preoperative brain computed tomography (CT) were measured using ImageJ. @*Results@#Pearson correlation showed that the cephalhematoma size in the pre-operative brain CT was weakly correlated with intraoperative blood loss (Pearson coefficient = 0.192, P = 0.037). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, a cephalhematoma size greater than 113.5 cm3 was found to be a risk factor for large blood loss. The area under the curve in the receiver operating characteristic plot of the multivariable model was 0.714 (0.619–0.809). @*Conclusions@#A cephalhematoma size cutoff value of 113.5 cm3, as measured in the preoperative CT imaging, can predict intraoperative blood loss exceeding 30% of the total body blood volume. The establishment of a transfusion strategy prior to surgery based on cephalhematoma size could be useful in pediatric cranioplasty.

5.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 151-157, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896702

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cranioplasty for the treatment of cephalhematomas in small infants with limited blood volume is challenging because of massive bleeding. This study aimed to elucidate the correlation between cephalhematoma size and intraoperative blood loss and identify criteria that can predict large intraoperative blood loss. @*Methods@#We reviewed the medical records of 120 pediatric patients aged less than 24 months who underwent cranioplasty for treatment of a cephalhematoma. The cephalhematoma sizes in preoperative brain computed tomography (CT) were measured using ImageJ. @*Results@#Pearson correlation showed that the cephalhematoma size in the pre-operative brain CT was weakly correlated with intraoperative blood loss (Pearson coefficient = 0.192, P = 0.037). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, a cephalhematoma size greater than 113.5 cm3 was found to be a risk factor for large blood loss. The area under the curve in the receiver operating characteristic plot of the multivariable model was 0.714 (0.619–0.809). @*Conclusions@#A cephalhematoma size cutoff value of 113.5 cm3, as measured in the preoperative CT imaging, can predict intraoperative blood loss exceeding 30% of the total body blood volume. The establishment of a transfusion strategy prior to surgery based on cephalhematoma size could be useful in pediatric cranioplasty.

6.
Ultrasonography ; : 367-375, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835350

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal timing for screening spinal cord ultrasonography (US) to detect filum terminale lipoma in infants. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed infants (<12 months old) who underwent repeated spinal cord US between April 2011 and January 2019. We excluded infants if they only had one US examination, or if they had lesions other than filum terminale lipoma. Infants with filum terminale lipoma on magnetic resonance imaging were included in the lipoma group and the others in the control group. A linear mixed model was used to assess differences in the growth pattern of filum terminale thickness by age and group. The cutoff thickness on US and its diagnostic performance were assessed according to age. @*Results@#Among 442 infants with 901 US examinations, 46 were included in the lipoma group and 58 in the control group. Sixty-seven infants had unmeasurable filum terminale thickness on initial US, including 55 neonates (82.1%) before 1 month of age. The lipoma group had significantly greater filum terminale thickness than the control group (P<0.001). Thickness increased with age in the lipoma group (P=0.027). The sensitivity of US was 87.5% and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.949 (95% confidence interval, 0.849 to 0.991) with a cutoff value of 1.1 mm in 4- to 6-month-old infants. @*Conclusion@#Screening spinal cord US could effectively diagnose filum terminale lipoma in 4- to 6-month-old infants with a cutoff thickness of 1.1 mm. Spinal cord US can be used to screen young infants with intraspinal abnormalities.

7.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 624-632, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833667

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare form of intracranial stenoocclusive disease that can be associated with intracranial aneurysms. We evaluated the clinical features and outcomes of MMD-associated aneurysms while focusing on their locations. @*Methods@#Between January 1998 and December 2018 there were 1,302 adult and pediatric patients diagnosed as MMD at a single institution. These patients included 38 with 44 MMD-associated aneurysms. The MMD-associated aneurysms were classified into two groups based on their locations: major-artery aneurysms and non-major-artery aneurysms. The clinical and radiological data for patients with MMD-associated aneurysms were reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#The 44 MMD-associated aneurysms comprised 28 in major arteries and 16 in nonmajor arteries. All of the major-artery aneurysms were initially unruptured lesions, and follow-up angiography showed that 23 (82.1%) had an improved or stable status and 5 (17.9%) had a worse status. The non-major-artery aneurysms comprised 10 ruptured and 6 unruptured lesions, and follow-up angiography showed that 11 (68.8%) had improved or were stable and 5 (31.2%) had worsened. At the latest follow-up, there were four cases of unfavorable outcome: two initial hemorrhagic insults, one treatment-related morbidity, and one repeatedhemorrhage case. @*Conclusions@#MMD-associated aneurysms occurred in 3.3% of the MMD cohort in this study, of which 63.6% were major-artery aneurysms and 36.4% were non-major-artery aneurysms. The major-artery group included 17.9% that became angiographically worse, while 31.2% were growing or hemorrhaging in the non-major-artery group.

8.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 1079-1084, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833304

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#A case of a huge ethmoid sinus and orbital cyst causing ocular deviation initially diagnosed as a mucocele-like cyst and after orbitotomy eventually discovered to be a naso-orbital encephalocele is described.Case summary: A 5-year-old male with no previous medical history presented with a palpable mass in the medial canthus area with left exodeviation of the left eye. His best-corrected visual acuity was 20/25 in the right eye and 6/12 in the left eye with limitation of motion of -4 at adduction in the left eye. Brain magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a 3.0 × 2.5 × 2.5 cm-sized cystic mass suspected as a mucocele or nasolacrimal duct cyst invading the orbital space. The cyst was removed using a Lynch and caruncle incision, and intracystic fluid was aspirated. During the excision, a small defect of the skull base was detected with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and leaking point of dura was sealed. His pathologic result was disorganized glial and fibrous tissue, consistent with encephalocele. Three days later, CSF leakage recurred. On postoperative day 8, duroplasty was performed. A one month later, his best-corrected visual acuity was 6/12 in the left eye with orthotropic eye position. Limitation of motion was improved to -1 at adduction with enophthalmos. No other complications were detected. @*Conclusions@#Congenital naso-orbital encephalocele invading the orbit is rare. However, a cystic mass in the sinuses involving the orbit should be considered, rendering thorough physical and radiologic examinations including computed tomography scans necessary to look for bone defects.

9.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 759-772, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741456

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of ultrasound (US) microflow assessment in distinguishing malignant from benign solid breast masses as well as the association between US parameters and histologic microvessel density (MVD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-eight breast masses (57 benign and 41 malignant) were examined using Superb Microvascular Imaging (SMI) and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) before biopsy. Two radiologists evaluated the quantitative and qualitative vascular parameters on SMI (vascular index, morphology, distribution, and penetration) and CEUS (time-intensity curve analysis and enhancement characteristics). US parameters were compared between benign and malignant masses and the diagnostic performance was compared between SMI and CEUS. Subgroup analysis was performed according to lesion size. The effect of vascular parameters on downgrading Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 4A masses was evaluated. The association between histologic MVD and US parameters was analyzed. RESULTS: Malignant masses were associated with a higher vascular index (15.1 ± 7.3 vs. 5.9 ± 5.6), complex vessel morphology (82.9% vs. 42.1%), central vascularity (95.1% vs. 59.6%), penetrating vessels (80.5% vs. 31.6%) on SMI (all, p < 0.001), as well as higher peak intensity (37.1 ± 25.7 vs. 17.0 ± 15.8, p < 0.001), slope (10.6 ± 11.2 vs. 3.9 ± 4.2, p = 0.001), area (1035.7 ± 726.9 vs. 458.2 ± 410.2, p < 0.001), hyperenhancement (95.1% vs. 70.2%, p = 0.005), centripetal enhancement (70.7% vs. 45.6%, p = 0.023), penetrating vessels (65.9% vs. 22.8%, p < 0.001), and perfusion defects (31.7% vs. 3.5%, p < 0.001) on CEUS (p ≤ 0.023). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) of SMI and CEUS were 0.853 and 0.841, respectively (p = 0.803). In 19 masses measuring < 10 mm, central vascularity on SMI was associated with malignancy (100% vs. 38.5%, p = 0.018). Considering all benign SMI parameters on the BI-RADS assessment, unnecessary biopsies could be avoided in 12 category 4A masses with improved AUCs (0.500 vs. 0.605, p < 0.001). US vascular parameters associated with malignancy showed higher MVD (p ≤ 0.016). MVD was higher in malignant masses than in benign masses, and malignant masses negative for estrogen receptor or positive for Ki67 had higher MVD (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: US microflow assessment using SMI and CEUS is valuable in distinguishing malignant from benign solid breast masses, and US vascular parameters are associated with histologic MVD.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Estrogens , Information Systems , Microvessels , Perfusion , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Ultrasonography
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 864-869, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762120

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) surgery using an angiocatheter needle in patients with huge ovarian cysts (diameter ≥15 cm). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with huge ovarian cysts underwent LESS surgery using an angiocatheter needle between March 2011 and August 2016. An intra-umbilical vertical incision (1.5–2.0 cm) was made in the midline. After the cyst wall was punctured using an angiocatheter needle, the fluid contents were aspirated with a connected vacuum aspirator. After placing a Glove port in the umbilical incision, LESS surgery was performed using a rigid 0-degree, 5-mm laparoscope and conventional, rigid, straight laparoscopic instruments. Knife-in-bag morcellation was instituted for specimen collection. RESULTS: The median maximal diameter of ovarian cysts was 18 cm (range, 15–30 cm), the median operation time was 150 minutes (range, 80–520 minutes), and the median volume of blood loss was 100 mL (range, 20–800 mL). Three patients (9.7%) were diagnosed with malignant ovarian cancer using intraoperative frozen examination, and 1 patient was converted to laparotomy due to advanced disease. Thirty patients underwent LESS, and there was no need for an additional laparoscopic port. CONCLUSION: LESS surgery using an angiocatheter needle, with leaving only a small postoperative scar, was deemed feasible for the management of huge ovarian cysts.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Cicatrix , Laparoscopes , Laparotomy , Morcellation , Needles , Ovarian Cysts , Ovarian Neoplasms , Specimen Handling , Vacuum
11.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 203-206, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715822

ABSTRACT

Raynaud syndrome is a medical condition that causes pain, numbness, and changes in skin color at the distal extremities. Raynaud syndrome can be subdivided into primary Raynaud's and secondary Raynaud's. The former is diagnosed when the cause is unknown and the latter is caused by an underlying condition, such as connective tissue diseases, injury, smoking, or certain medications. Both cancer chemotherapy and β-blockers are relatively common causes of Raynaud syndrome but there are no reports of its association with methimazole administration. The authors encountered a 43-year old woman with hyperthyroidism who developed digital ulcers associated with Raynaud syndrome after a methimazole treatment. Her digital ulcers and Raynaud syndrome were improved after methimazole was replaced with propylthiouracil and conventional therapy. This paper reports this case along with a review of the relevant literature.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Connective Tissue Diseases , Drug Therapy , Extremities , Hyperthyroidism , Hypesthesia , Methimazole , Propylthiouracil , Skin Pigmentation , Smoke , Smoking , Ulcer
12.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 170-174, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741713

ABSTRACT

Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma (BMPM) is rare and difficult to diagnose before surgery. We report a case of BMPM incidentally discovered during laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS) for treatment of a pelvic mass. A 47-year-old Korean menopaused woman presented to our outpatient clinic with a pelvic mass. She had a history of right ovary cystectomy with adhesiolysis at a local hospital in 2010. Imaging study of the pelvis revealed a multilocular cystic mass. LESS was performed and multiple grapelike clusters of cysts were seen in the uterus, cul-de-sac, both adnexa, pelvic wall, and omentum. The appendix was grossly free. Frozen biopsy confirmed BMPM. Excision of multiple cyst clusters of cysts, resection of the uterus with both adnexa, appendectomy, omentectomy, and adhesiolysis were performed with LESS. She is well for 2 years with no recurrence. BMPM should be included in the differential diagnosis when small multichamber cystic mass is found on ultrasonography.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Appendectomy , Appendix , Biopsy , Cystectomy , Diagnosis, Differential , Mesothelioma , Omentum , Ovary , Pelvis , Recurrence , Ultrasonography , Uterus
13.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 477-488, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715706

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the factors affecting pathologic discrepancy and final diagnosis between colposcopic biopsy and pathology by loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). METHODS: Between 2004 and 2016, 1,200 patients who underwent LEEP were enrolled for this study. 667 underwent cervical cytology, human papillomavirus (HPV) test, colposcopic biopsy, and LEEP. We analyzed patient's age, menopausal status, number of delivery, abortion times, cervical cytology, number of punch biopsies, HPV type, LEEP, and interval between colposcopic biopsy and LEEP. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis of the final diagnosis showed that age 30–39 years and other high HPV group types were associated with cancer diagnosis, whereas atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and HPV type 16 affected the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2. The overall concordance rate of histopathology between punch biopsy and LEEP was 43.3%. The rates of detecting a more severe lesion by LEEP than those by biopsy were 23.1%. The rates of a less severe lesion detected by LEEP than those by biopsy were 33.6%. Factors related with biopsy underestimation were as follows: < 1 vaginal delivery, HSIL, number of punch biopsies and HPV type. Punch biopsy number is a unique factor of biopsy overestimation. CONCLUSION: Patients with ASC-H, HSIL, and HPV type 16 may undergo conization immediately without colposcopic biopsy. We suggest that colposcopically directed 3 to 5 punch biopsies may be used to determine the need for conization.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Atypical Squamous Cells of the Cervix , Biopsy , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia , Cervix Uteri , Conization , Diagnosis , Logistic Models , Papanicolaou Test , Pathology , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix
14.
Archives of Craniofacial Surgery ; : 21-24, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In evaluation of craniosynostosis patients in terms of neurodevelopmental delay, positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) scan can be used to assess brain abnormalities through glucose metabolism. We aimed to determine the unnecessity of PET-CT in this study. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients diagnosed with craniosynostosis who underwent distraction osteogenesis from October, 2010 to November, 2013 were reviewed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and PET-CT scan were carried out for evaluation of the brain structure and function, whereas X-ray and CT scan were taken for evaluation of the skull. RESULTS: Nine patients reported abnormal MRI findings which were not significant, and five patients showed local problem on brain on PET-CT scan. No correlation was found among them. CONCLUSION: PET-CT evaluation of possible abnormal brain findings do not affect surgical planning or require additional therapy. Preoperative PET-CT scan is not the essential study to get any etiologic information of the disease consequences or to establish the treatment plan.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain , Craniosynostoses , Electrons , Glucose , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Metabolism , Osteogenesis, Distraction , Positron-Emission Tomography , Skull , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Korean Journal of Schizophrenia Research ; : 69-76, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-139821

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Relapse prevention is a major therapeutic goal in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, many patients experience multiple functional impairments and treatment resistance due to recurrence. This study was designed to investigate the follow-up of patients with using antipsychotic drugs and to compare the total treatment failure rate, withdrawal reasons, and duration period of antipsychotic drugs. METHODS: The subjects were 1963 patients who taking antipsychotic drugs under the diagnosis of schizophrenia. We selected 1836 patients using 10 antipsychotic drugs according to frequency of using. The rate of total treatment failure of them was divided into 6-month, 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, and 5-year according to the time of drug withdrawal. We compared the total treatment failure rate at 1 and 3-year between 10 antipsychotic drugs. RESULTS: The total treatment failure rate of clozapine was lowest compared with the other 9 antipsychotic drugs in all the surveyed periods. When evaluating actual number of subjects, olanzapine, sulpiride, risperidone, aripiprazole, amisulpride, and haloperidol were lower significantly compared with ziprasidone at 1-year in the total treatment failure rate, but there was no significant difference between them except clozapine at 3-year. The results of the analysis based on the number of prescriptions showed that the total treatment failure rate of the atypical antipsychotic drug was lower than that of the typical antipsychotic drug at 1-year, but the difference was decreased over time except quetiapine and ziprasidone. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, although there is some controversy about which drug to prescribe to the patient, the clinician needs a proper prescription considering various factors such as efficacy, side effects, price, and formulations of each drug.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipsychotic Agents , Aripiprazole , Clozapine , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Haloperidol , Prescriptions , Quetiapine Fumarate , Recurrence , Risperidone , Schizophrenia , Secondary Prevention , Sulpiride , Treatment Failure
16.
Korean Journal of Schizophrenia Research ; : 69-76, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-139820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Relapse prevention is a major therapeutic goal in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, many patients experience multiple functional impairments and treatment resistance due to recurrence. This study was designed to investigate the follow-up of patients with using antipsychotic drugs and to compare the total treatment failure rate, withdrawal reasons, and duration period of antipsychotic drugs. METHODS: The subjects were 1963 patients who taking antipsychotic drugs under the diagnosis of schizophrenia. We selected 1836 patients using 10 antipsychotic drugs according to frequency of using. The rate of total treatment failure of them was divided into 6-month, 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, and 5-year according to the time of drug withdrawal. We compared the total treatment failure rate at 1 and 3-year between 10 antipsychotic drugs. RESULTS: The total treatment failure rate of clozapine was lowest compared with the other 9 antipsychotic drugs in all the surveyed periods. When evaluating actual number of subjects, olanzapine, sulpiride, risperidone, aripiprazole, amisulpride, and haloperidol were lower significantly compared with ziprasidone at 1-year in the total treatment failure rate, but there was no significant difference between them except clozapine at 3-year. The results of the analysis based on the number of prescriptions showed that the total treatment failure rate of the atypical antipsychotic drug was lower than that of the typical antipsychotic drug at 1-year, but the difference was decreased over time except quetiapine and ziprasidone. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, although there is some controversy about which drug to prescribe to the patient, the clinician needs a proper prescription considering various factors such as efficacy, side effects, price, and formulations of each drug.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipsychotic Agents , Aripiprazole , Clozapine , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Haloperidol , Prescriptions , Quetiapine Fumarate , Recurrence , Risperidone , Schizophrenia , Secondary Prevention , Sulpiride , Treatment Failure
17.
Korean Journal of Schizophrenia Research ; : 5-14, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36774

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Pharmacological treatment is critical on relapse prevention in patients with schizophrenia. However, atypical antipsychotic agents are known to cause weight gain more than typical agents despite their various effects. In addition, they are known to affect blood sugar, blood pressure, cholesterol, cardiac function, and sexual function. This study was designed to examine the effects on metabolic parameters when schizophrenic patients have been taken atypical antipsychotic agents. METHODS: This was a trial in 137 patients with DSM-IV-TR schizophrenia who were admitted or treated in mental hospital. Anthropometric measurement and blood testing were conducted at baseline, 12 month, 36 month, and sociodemographic and treatment history were collected from medical records. We conducted height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, FBS, total cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride, and QTc interval. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed by ATPIIIa criteria. RESULTS: Aripiprazole showed the significant difference in the impact on weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, total cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride than paliperidone and olanzapine at 1-year and 3-year period. Olanzapine showed the significant increase of weight and triglyceride than paliperidone at 3-year period. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased in paliperidone at 1-year and in olanzapine at 3-year period compared to aripiprazole significantly. CONCLUSION: We concluded that aripiprazole has less impact on the abdominal obesity, FBS, blood pressure, and cholesterol than paliperidone and olanzapine. Olanzapine showed the increase of long-term metabolic risk than other agents. There was needed the routine screening and multidisciplinary management of medical problems in schizophrenic patients for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipsychotic Agents , Aripiprazole , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, HDL , Follow-Up Studies , Hematologic Tests , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Mass Screening , Medical Records , Obesity, Abdominal , Paliperidone Palmitate , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Schizophrenia , Secondary Prevention , Triglycerides , Waist Circumference , Weight Gain
18.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 25-35, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149284

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The role of rheumatoid factor (RF) in vascular stiffness and cardiovascular risk in subjects without joint symptoms remains unclear. We investigated vascular stiffness in subjects without joint symptoms using pulse wave velocity (PWV), calculated Framingham risk scores (FRS), an estimator of cardiovascular risk, and analyzed whether vascular stiffness and FRS were affected by RF. METHODS: Two hundred forty-two subjects were included in this population-based study. RF was quantified with turbid immunometry using a cut-off of RF > 15 IU/ml to denote RF positivity. Information was then obtained on joint symptoms. Brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) was measured using an automated device. RESULTS: Of the 242 subjects, 15 were RF-positive. RF-positive subjects without joint symptoms had a higher baPWV and FRS than RF-negative subjects without joint symptoms, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. However, when we stratified the subjects into two groups (group A – high RF: RF ≥ 40 IU/ml; group B – low RF: RF < 40 IU/ml), group A showed significantly higher baPWV (1640.7 ± 179.6 ㎝/s vs. 1405.7 ± 225.7 ㎝/s, P = 0.008) and FRS (25.7 ± 4.87 vs. 11.8 ± 9.6, P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine potential confounders, and RF exhibited significant but modest effects on baPWV (adjusted R-squared = 0.038, P = 0.030). CONCLUSIONS: In a sample of the general population without joint symptoms, higher levels of RF were associated with increased vascular stiffness, suggesting a pathophysiologic link between RF and endothelial dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Joints , Pulse Wave Analysis , Rheumatoid Factor , Vascular Stiffness
19.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 294-300, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56969

ABSTRACT

Hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) is a benign indolent lesion despite the presentation of refractory epilepsy. Behavioral disturbances and endocrine problems are additional critical symptoms that arise along with HHs. Due to its nature of generating epileptiform discharge and spreading to cortical region, various management strategies have been proposed and combined. Surgical approaches with open craniotomy or endoscopy, stereotactic approaches with radiosurgery and gamma knife surgery or radiofrequency thermos-coagulation, and laser ablation have been introduced. Topographical dimension and the surgeon’s preference are key factors for treatment modalities. Endoscopic disconnection has been one of the most favorable options performed in treating HHs. Here we discuss presurgical evaluation, patient selection, surgical procedures, and complications.


Subject(s)
Craniotomy , Endoscopes , Endoscopy , Epilepsy , Hamartoma , Laser Therapy , Patient Selection , Radiosurgery
20.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 322-326, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56965

ABSTRACT

Neuroendoscopic surgery is performed because it causes minimal damage to normal structures, carries a lower rate of complications, and achieves excellent outcomes. Surgeons using an endoscope and related instruments can perform complex operations through very small incisions, which is especially useful for minimally invasive procedures for the brain and spine. Neuroendoscopic surgery is now performed in cases of obstructive hydrocephalus, various intraventricular lesions, hypothalamic hamartomas, craniosynostosis, skull base tumors, and spinal lesions. This review discusses the brief history of neuroendoscopy and the current state and future perspectives of endoscopic surgery.


Subject(s)
Brain , Craniosynostoses , Endoscopes , Hamartoma , Hydrocephalus , Neuroendoscopy , Skull Base , Spine , Surgeons , Ventriculostomy
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