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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924923

ABSTRACT

Carbohydrate-restricted diets and intermittent fasting (IF) have been rapidly gaining interest among the general population and patients with cardiometabolic disease, such as overweight or obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. However, there are limited expert recommendations for these dietary regimens. This study aimed to evaluate the level of scientific evidence on the benefits and harms of carbohydrate-restricted diets and IF to make responsible recommendations. A meta-analysis and systematic literature review of 66 articles on 50 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of carbohydrate-restricted diets and 10 articles on eight RCTs of IF was performed. Based on the analysis, the following recommendations are suggested. In adults with overweight or obesity, a moderately-low carbohydrate or low carbohydrate diet (mLCD) can be considered as a dietary regimen for weight reduction. In adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, mLCD can be considered as a dietary regimen for improving glycemic control and reducing body weight. In contrast, a very-low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) and IF are recommended against in patients with diabetes. Furthermore, no recommendations are suggested for VLCD and IF in adults with overweight or obesity, and carbohydrate-restricted diets and IF in patients with hypertension. Here, we describe the results of our analysis and the evidence for these recommendations.

2.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 27-35, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874396

ABSTRACT

Liposomes, with their flexible physicochemical and biophysical properties, continue to be studied as an important potential a critical drug delivery system. Liposomes have overcome the challenges of conventional free drug therapy by encapsulating therapeutic agents, thereby improving in vivo biodistribution and reducing systemic toxicity. New imaging modalities and interpretation techniques, as well as new techniques for targetable system formulation technique, and tumor environmental information, have affected the search for a means of overcoming the difficulties of conventional liposome formulation. In this review, we briefly discuss how liposomal formulation has been applied across the biomedical field, particularly as a therapy, and the role it may play in the future, when paired with new developments in diagnosis and theranostics. The biological challenges that still remain and the translational obstacles are discussed.

3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 555-562, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904248

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to investigate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on the biodistribution and excretion of technetium-99m (Tc-99m)-labeled radiopharmaceuticals. @*Materials and Methods@#Tc-99m hydroxy-methylene-diphosphonate (HDP), Tc-99m pertechnetate, and Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) were injected via the tail vein of rats. After 30 min, the control group was administered saline, and the UDCA group was given UDCA orally. Scintigraphy images were acquired after 30 min and 1, 2, 3, and 4 h. Radioactivity and rate of change were compared. Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) imaging was also performed. @*Results@#In image analysis of Tc-99m HDP, radioactivity of the buttock was lower in the UDCA group at 4 h. Rates of change in the buttock were significantly different at 3 h–30 min and 4 h–30 min, and buttock radioactivity in the UDCA group had decreased more. In analysis of Tc-99m pertechnetate, radioactivity of the buttock was higher in the control group. Rates of change in the thyroid gland and buttock were different at 1 h–30 min, 3 h–30 min, and 4 h–30 min, with radioactivity in the UDCA group decreasing more. In the analysis of Tc-99m DMSA, while the radioactivity of the kidneys in the control group showed little decrease at 1 h–30 min, that in the UDCA group increased. In the analysis of Tc-99m MAG3 images, radioactivity and radioactivity/total body radioactivity (TBA) values for the kidneys were higher in the UDCA group at 2 min. At 5 and 10 min, radioactivity/TBA values for soft tissue in the UDCA group were lower than those in the control group. @*Conclusion@#This study demonstrated that administration of UDCA increases renal excretion and soft tissue clearance of radiopharmaceuticals. This investigation could contribute to the broadening of applications of UDCA.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903940

ABSTRACT

Peptides are short chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. They are widely used as effective and biocompatible active ingredients in cosmetic industry. In this study, we developed novel peptide mixture and identified its anti-pigmentation effect on melanocytes and keratinocytes. Our results revealed that peptide mixture inhibited melanosome biogenesis through the regulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, a key factor of melanogenesis in melanocytes. And we observed that peptide mixture inhibited melanosome uptake through the reduction of protease-activated receptor 2, a phagocytosis-related receptor in keratinocytes. Furthermore, peptide mixture activated autophagy system resulting in degradation of transferred melanosomes in keratinocytes. The anti-pigmentation effect of multi-targeting peptide mixture was assessed in a human skin equivalent model (MelanoDerm). Melanin contents in epidermal layer were significantly decreased by topical treatment of peptide mixture, suggesting that it can be applied as a novel cosmetics material having a whitening function.

5.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 427-436, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903832

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies have been used to treat patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). However, the effect of therapies in cancer patients has yet to be investigated comprehensively. We hypothesized that cyclic thermal therapy would improve blood flow and microcirculation and improve the symptoms driven by CIPN. @*Methods@#The criteria of assessment were blood volume in region of interest (ROI) in the images, and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer–Quality of Life Questionnaire–Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy 20 questionnaire scores. The blood volume was quantified by using red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy. All patients were treated 10 times during 10 days. The thermal stimulations, between 15° and 41°, were repeatedly delivered to the patient’s hands. @*Results@#The total score of the questionnaires, the score of questions related to the upper limbs, the score of questions closely related to the upper limbs, and the score excluding the upper limbs questions was decreased. The blood volume was decreased, and the variance of blood volume was decreased. During cooling stimulation, the blood volume was decreased, and its variance was decreased. During warming stimulation, the blood volume was decreased, and its variance was decreased. @*Conclusions@#We suggest that cyclic thermal therapy is useful to alleviate CIPN symptoms by blood circulation improvement. RBC scintigraphy can provide the quantitative information on blood volume under certain conditions such as stress, as well as rest, in peripheral tissue.

6.
Asian Oncology Nursing ; : 74-87, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897211

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to systematically evaluate literature related to the effects of exercise intervention programs on physical or psychological variables of post-operative breast cancer patients in Korea, and identify the effectiveness of exercise intervention through meta-analysis. @*Methods@#The review question was defined according to PICO-SD (Participants, Intervention, Comparisons, Outcomes, Study Design) to achieve a systematic literature review: “How does exercise intervention affect the physical or psychological outcome in post-operative breast cancer patients compared to the control group?” The subjects were randomized clinical trials (RCTs) studies released in Korea between 2010 and December 2020. Literature searches were conducted using four electronic databases, including Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS), Research Information Sharing Service (RISS), National Assembly Library, and DBpia. The search terms were ‘breast neoplasms’ or ‘breast cancer’ with ‘exercise’ or ‘exercise intervention’ or ‘exercise program.’ A total of 13 RCTs were finally selected. Results: The outcome variables were in the upper extremity range of motion (ROM), shoulder disability, pain and edema. The effect size of exercise intervention on ROM was 0.95(95% CI:0.58, 1.33)( p<.001); shoulder disability was -1.16(95% CI:-1.77, -0.55)(p<.001); pain was -1.24(95% CI:-1.58, -0.89) (p<.001); and edema was -0.03(95% CI:-0.39, 0.33)(p=.858). @*Conclusion@#This result suggests that oncology nurses may apply exercise intervention to improve ROM, shoulder disability, and to alleviate pain in post-op breast cancer patients.

7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 555-562, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896544

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to investigate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on the biodistribution and excretion of technetium-99m (Tc-99m)-labeled radiopharmaceuticals. @*Materials and Methods@#Tc-99m hydroxy-methylene-diphosphonate (HDP), Tc-99m pertechnetate, and Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) were injected via the tail vein of rats. After 30 min, the control group was administered saline, and the UDCA group was given UDCA orally. Scintigraphy images were acquired after 30 min and 1, 2, 3, and 4 h. Radioactivity and rate of change were compared. Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) imaging was also performed. @*Results@#In image analysis of Tc-99m HDP, radioactivity of the buttock was lower in the UDCA group at 4 h. Rates of change in the buttock were significantly different at 3 h–30 min and 4 h–30 min, and buttock radioactivity in the UDCA group had decreased more. In analysis of Tc-99m pertechnetate, radioactivity of the buttock was higher in the control group. Rates of change in the thyroid gland and buttock were different at 1 h–30 min, 3 h–30 min, and 4 h–30 min, with radioactivity in the UDCA group decreasing more. In the analysis of Tc-99m DMSA, while the radioactivity of the kidneys in the control group showed little decrease at 1 h–30 min, that in the UDCA group increased. In the analysis of Tc-99m MAG3 images, radioactivity and radioactivity/total body radioactivity (TBA) values for the kidneys were higher in the UDCA group at 2 min. At 5 and 10 min, radioactivity/TBA values for soft tissue in the UDCA group were lower than those in the control group. @*Conclusion@#This study demonstrated that administration of UDCA increases renal excretion and soft tissue clearance of radiopharmaceuticals. This investigation could contribute to the broadening of applications of UDCA.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896236

ABSTRACT

Peptides are short chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. They are widely used as effective and biocompatible active ingredients in cosmetic industry. In this study, we developed novel peptide mixture and identified its anti-pigmentation effect on melanocytes and keratinocytes. Our results revealed that peptide mixture inhibited melanosome biogenesis through the regulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, a key factor of melanogenesis in melanocytes. And we observed that peptide mixture inhibited melanosome uptake through the reduction of protease-activated receptor 2, a phagocytosis-related receptor in keratinocytes. Furthermore, peptide mixture activated autophagy system resulting in degradation of transferred melanosomes in keratinocytes. The anti-pigmentation effect of multi-targeting peptide mixture was assessed in a human skin equivalent model (MelanoDerm). Melanin contents in epidermal layer were significantly decreased by topical treatment of peptide mixture, suggesting that it can be applied as a novel cosmetics material having a whitening function.

9.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 427-436, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896128

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies have been used to treat patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). However, the effect of therapies in cancer patients has yet to be investigated comprehensively. We hypothesized that cyclic thermal therapy would improve blood flow and microcirculation and improve the symptoms driven by CIPN. @*Methods@#The criteria of assessment were blood volume in region of interest (ROI) in the images, and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer–Quality of Life Questionnaire–Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy 20 questionnaire scores. The blood volume was quantified by using red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy. All patients were treated 10 times during 10 days. The thermal stimulations, between 15° and 41°, were repeatedly delivered to the patient’s hands. @*Results@#The total score of the questionnaires, the score of questions related to the upper limbs, the score of questions closely related to the upper limbs, and the score excluding the upper limbs questions was decreased. The blood volume was decreased, and the variance of blood volume was decreased. During cooling stimulation, the blood volume was decreased, and its variance was decreased. During warming stimulation, the blood volume was decreased, and its variance was decreased. @*Conclusions@#We suggest that cyclic thermal therapy is useful to alleviate CIPN symptoms by blood circulation improvement. RBC scintigraphy can provide the quantitative information on blood volume under certain conditions such as stress, as well as rest, in peripheral tissue.

10.
Asian Oncology Nursing ; : 74-87, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889507

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to systematically evaluate literature related to the effects of exercise intervention programs on physical or psychological variables of post-operative breast cancer patients in Korea, and identify the effectiveness of exercise intervention through meta-analysis. @*Methods@#The review question was defined according to PICO-SD (Participants, Intervention, Comparisons, Outcomes, Study Design) to achieve a systematic literature review: “How does exercise intervention affect the physical or psychological outcome in post-operative breast cancer patients compared to the control group?” The subjects were randomized clinical trials (RCTs) studies released in Korea between 2010 and December 2020. Literature searches were conducted using four electronic databases, including Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS), Research Information Sharing Service (RISS), National Assembly Library, and DBpia. The search terms were ‘breast neoplasms’ or ‘breast cancer’ with ‘exercise’ or ‘exercise intervention’ or ‘exercise program.’ A total of 13 RCTs were finally selected. Results: The outcome variables were in the upper extremity range of motion (ROM), shoulder disability, pain and edema. The effect size of exercise intervention on ROM was 0.95(95% CI:0.58, 1.33)( p<.001); shoulder disability was -1.16(95% CI:-1.77, -0.55)(p<.001); pain was -1.24(95% CI:-1.58, -0.89) (p<.001); and edema was -0.03(95% CI:-0.39, 0.33)(p=.858). @*Conclusion@#This result suggests that oncology nurses may apply exercise intervention to improve ROM, shoulder disability, and to alleviate pain in post-op breast cancer patients.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896837

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to determine the effect of specific working postures on the development of varicose veins (VV). By using Korea's National Health Insurance (NHI) and National Employment Insurance (NEI) data, we analyzed the general characteristic and difference in proportions of VV cases according to occupational working posture. @*Methods@#From the NEI and NHI data, participant demographics, such as gender, age, body mass index, and number of workers in specific occupations or industries were obtained.We classified the 240 occupations into blue-collar (BC) and white-collar (WC) occupations and subdivided them into standing, sitting, and walking groups according to the dominant working posture. @*Results@#The number of VV patients per 100,000 individuals increased with age, with a higher number of women than men and a higher number of patients in the BC than WC groups. For the BC group, the proportion of VV cases was the highest in the standing group, followed by the walking and sitting groups, but there was no significant difference between standing and walking groups in man. For the WC group, the standing group had a higher proportion of VV cases than the sitting group, but there was no significant difference between the standing and sitting group in man. In the BC group, the proportion of VV cases was the highest among medical and welfare-related elementary workers, bakers and cookie makers, automobile assemblers, cleaning and guarding-related elemental workers, and nurses and dental hygienists. In the WC group, the proportion of VV cases was the highest among food/ lodging/tourism/entertainment/sports-related managers, environment/cleaning/protective services-related managers, finance and insurance clerks, accounting book-keeping clerks, and social welfare and counseling professionals. @*Conclusions@#This study was performed to determine the characteristics of VV with different working posture among Korean workers. It is expected to be the basis of further studies on occupational musculoskeletal diseases.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889133

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to determine the effect of specific working postures on the development of varicose veins (VV). By using Korea's National Health Insurance (NHI) and National Employment Insurance (NEI) data, we analyzed the general characteristic and difference in proportions of VV cases according to occupational working posture. @*Methods@#From the NEI and NHI data, participant demographics, such as gender, age, body mass index, and number of workers in specific occupations or industries were obtained.We classified the 240 occupations into blue-collar (BC) and white-collar (WC) occupations and subdivided them into standing, sitting, and walking groups according to the dominant working posture. @*Results@#The number of VV patients per 100,000 individuals increased with age, with a higher number of women than men and a higher number of patients in the BC than WC groups. For the BC group, the proportion of VV cases was the highest in the standing group, followed by the walking and sitting groups, but there was no significant difference between standing and walking groups in man. For the WC group, the standing group had a higher proportion of VV cases than the sitting group, but there was no significant difference between the standing and sitting group in man. In the BC group, the proportion of VV cases was the highest among medical and welfare-related elementary workers, bakers and cookie makers, automobile assemblers, cleaning and guarding-related elemental workers, and nurses and dental hygienists. In the WC group, the proportion of VV cases was the highest among food/ lodging/tourism/entertainment/sports-related managers, environment/cleaning/protective services-related managers, finance and insurance clerks, accounting book-keeping clerks, and social welfare and counseling professionals. @*Conclusions@#This study was performed to determine the characteristics of VV with different working posture among Korean workers. It is expected to be the basis of further studies on occupational musculoskeletal diseases.

15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765990

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study investigated an association between dietary quality and use of convenience foods at convenience stores among high school students. METHODS: A total of 474 high school students (225 boys and 249 girls) residing in Incheon participated in this questionnaire survey in June 2018. The subjects were divided into three groups according to the frequency of consumption of convenience foods at convenience stores; less than once a week, 1 ~ 2 times a week, and more than 3 times a week. Dietary quality was assessed using a nutrient quotient for adolescents (NA-Q). Logistic regression was used to investigate an association between dietary quality and use of convenience foods at convenience stores among high school students. RESULTS: For boys and girls, higher monthly allowance was significantly associated with the higher frequency of consumption of convenience foods at convenience stores, whereas school grade, mother's occupational status, family size, extracurricular study, and eating speed were not significantly associated with the frequency of consumption of convenience foods. Higher intake frequency of cookies or sweet and greasy bread, processed beverage, Ramyon, night-time snack, and street food was significantly associated with the higher frequency of consumption of convenience foods for boys or girls. Boys and girls, who had a higher frequency of consumption of convenience foods at convenience stores had significantly greater odds for being in the low grade of dietary quality, especially in the moderation factor. CONCLUSION: The students who used convenience stores more often appeared to have more monthly allowance and to consume undesirable foods more often. Higher frequency of using convenience foods at convenience stores among high school students was associated with lower dietary quality. These study results can support efforts to provide nutrition education programs and guidelines to students who frequently use convenience foods at convenience stores.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Beverages , Bread , Eating , Education , Employment , Family Characteristics , Fast Foods , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Snacks
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effects of socioeconomic factors and psychosocial factors, both individually and combined, on all-cause mortality risk (mortality risk). METHODS: We conducted an 8-year (2006–2014) longitudinal analysis of 10,247 individuals who took part in the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, a nationwide survey of people aged 45–79 years. Socioeconomic vulnerability (SEV) was assessed with factors such as education, household income, commercial health insurance, and residential area. Mental health (MH) was assessed with factors such as depression, social engagement, and life satisfaction. The covariates were age, gender, marital status, cohabiting, number of chronic diseases, and health behaviors such as regular exercise, smoking, and alcohol intake. We used a Cox proportional hazard analysis to investigate the effects of SEV and MH on mortality risk and also to analyze the superimposed effects of SEV-MH on mortality risk. RESULTS: After the controlling for the covariates, high SEV and negative MH were found to be strong predictors of all-cause mortality. The highest quartile of SEV (vs. lowest) had a 1.70 times greater mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24–2.33) and the highest quartile of MH (vs. lowest) had a 2.13 times greater mortality risk (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.72–2.64). Being in the highest quartile for both SEV and MH (vs. lowest) increased mortality risk more than 3 times (HR, 3.11; 95% CI, 2.20–4.40). CONCLUSION: High SEV and negative MH were independently associated with increased mortality risk, and their superimposed effects were associated with an increased risk of mortality.


Subject(s)
Aging , Chronic Disease , Depression , Education , Family Characteristics , Health Behavior , Insurance, Health , Longitudinal Studies , Marital Status , Mental Health , Mortality , Psychology , Smoke , Smoking , Socioeconomic Factors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate the basic characteristics of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and its differences between occupations using Korea's National Health Insurance (NHI) and National Employment Insurance (NEI). METHODS: The study participants were obtained from the NEI and NHI data from 2008 to 2015, with a diagnosis code of G560 (CTS) as the main or sub-diagnosis. Data about gender, age, diabetes mellitus, smoking, drinking, and length of employment, information about type of occupation, and number of employees according to age and occupation were obtained from NHI and NEI data. In total, 240 occupations were classified into blue-collar (BC) and white-collar (WC) work. In addition, each occupation was classified as high-risk and low-risk groups depending on the degree of wrist usage. RESULTS: The number of patients with CTS per 100,000 individuals increased with advancing age, and it was higher in women (4,572.2) than in men (1,798.5). Furthermore, the number was higher in BC workers (3,247.5) than in WC workers (1,824.1) as well as in the high-risk group than in the low-risk group in both BC workers (3,527.8 vs. 1,908.2) and WC workers (1,829.9 vs. 1,754.4). The number of patients with CTS was higher in the high-risk group than in the low-risk group among male and female BC workers and female WC workers. However, the number was higher in the low-risk group among male WC workers. In the BC category, the number of patients with CTS was highest among food processing-related workers (19,984.5). In the WC category, the number of patients with CTS was highest among social workers and counselors (7,444.1). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study are expected to help identify occupational differences in patterns of CTS. High number of patients with CTS was seen in new jobs, as well as in previous studies.


Subject(s)
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome , Counseling , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Drinking , Employment , Female , Humans , Insurance , Male , National Health Programs , Occupations , Smoke , Smoking , Social Work , Social Workers , Wrist
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788178

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to propose a common scope of practice (SOP) for 13 specialties of Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) in Korea.METHODS: The first draft of a common SOP was extracted from domestic and international laws with a literature review by 17 experts from the Korean Association of Advanced Practice Nurses (KAAPN). Then, the common SOP was finalized after comparing the activities of APNs in clinical settings.RESULTS: A total of 70 duties were identified and six categories were suggested for the common SOP. The SOP proposed by the KAAPN featured the following: 1) identification of and discrimination between health problems; 2) prescription and implementation of diagnostic tests; 3) treatment of injuries and diseases while implementing measures to prevent exacerbation; 4) prescription of medicinal products in line with 1) to 3); 5) referral and consultation; and 6) education and counseling. It was then confirmed that the proposed six categories in the common SOP reflected all the duties performed by APNs in clinical practice, including all 40 activities.CONCLUSION: The results of this study can be used as evidence for the legalization of a common SOP for APNs. Given the increasing multidisciplinary team approach adopted in Korean hospitals, it may be desirable to establish a broader SOP to reflect the diverse duties of APNs.


Subject(s)
Counseling , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Discrimination, Psychological , Education , International Law , Korea , Prescriptions , Professional Practice , Referral and Consultation
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716187

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to test the mediating effect of uncertainty appraisal and coping style in the relation between uncertainty and anxiety in hospitalized pregnant women diagnosed with preterm labor. METHODS: The participants were 105 pregnant women diagnosed with preterm labor in hospitals in Korea. Data were collected from July to October 2017. The measurements included the Uncertainty in Illness Scale, Uncertainty Appraisal Scale, Coping Style Scale, and State Anxiety Inventory. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, an independent t-test, correlation, and multiple regression following the Baron and Kenny method and Sobel test for mediation. RESULTS: The mean score for anxiety was 2.29 out of 4.00 points and for uncertainty it was 2.46 out of 5.00 points. There were significant correlations among uncertainty, uncertainty danger appraisal, uncertainty opportunity appraisal, problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping, and anxiety. Uncertainty danger appraisal (β=.64, p < .001) had a complete mediating effect in the relation between uncertainty and anxiety (Z=4.54, p < .001). Uncertainty opportunity appraisal (β=−.45, p < .001) had a complete mediating effect in the relation between uncertainty and anxiety (Z=3.28, p < .001). Emotion-focused coping (β=−.23, p=.021) had a partial mediating effect in the relation between uncertainty and anxiety (Z=2.02, p=.044). CONCLUSION: Nursing intervention programs focusing on managing uncertainty appraisal and improving emotion-focused coping are highly recommended to decrease anxiety in hospitalized pregnant women diagnosed with preterm labor.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Female , Humans , Korea , Methods , Negotiating , Nursing , Obstetric Labor, Premature , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Uncertainty
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