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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e133-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925957

ABSTRACT

Background@#The potential for a nosocomial outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from a fully vaccinated individual is largely unknown. @*Methods@#In October 2021, during the time when the delta variant was dominant, a nosocomial outbreak of COVID-19 occurred in two wards in a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, Korea. We performed airflow investigations and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the virus. @*Results@#The index patient developed symptoms 1 day after admission, and was diagnosed with COVID-19 on day 4 post-admission. He was fully vaccinated (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) 2 months before the diagnosis. Three inpatients and a caregiver in the same room, two inpatients in an adjacent room, two inpatients in rooms remote from the index room, and one nurse on the ward tested positive. Also, two resident doctors who stayed in an on-call room located on the same ward tested positive (although they had no close contact), as well as a caregiver who stayed on an adjacent ward, and a healthcare worker who had casual contact with this caregiver. Samples from five individuals were available for WGS, and all showed ≤ 1 single-nucleotide polymorphism difference. CCTV footage showed that the index case walked frequently in the corridors of two wards. An airflow study showed that the air from the corridor flowed into the resident on-call room, driven by an air circulator that was always turned on. @*Conclusion@#Transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from a fully vaccinated index occurred rapidly via the wards and on-call room. Care must be taken to not use equipment that can change the airflow.

2.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 378-381, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937680

ABSTRACT

A 64-year old woman who underwent lung transplantation and had T-cannula contracted classic scabies from her daughter. The patient was treated with 5% permethrin 10 times and had two consecutive negative follow-up microscopic examinations. However, the patient had recurrent symptoms and diagnosed with recurrent classic scabies 22 days after the last treatment. Unchanged tie string and unapplied topical agent around the T-cannula skin lesion may be reasons for recurrence. Thus, accurate application of topical treatment and changing the tie string of the t-cannula is needed to prevent a recurrence.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e14-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915531

ABSTRACT

Background@#Preventive measures are needed to reduce the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among healthcare workers (HCWs). Notably, hospital staff are usually exposed when they are unmasked. There are limited data on the risk of transmission during mealtimes at hospital staff cafeterias. We aimed to evaluate the risk of transmission in cafeterias. @*Methods@#From January 2020 through September 2021, we analyzed the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through closed-circuit television and radio-frequency identification tracking and follow-up testing when 33 HCWs, who were eventually diagnosed as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), ate in staff cafeterias during the infectious period. The seats were arranged so the HCWs would sit on either side without facing each other. There were no plastic barriers installed, and HCWs were encouraged not to talk during meals. @*Results@#Three of the 119 individuals who ate at seats next (about 30 cm) to index during the period of transmission and underwent follow-up SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction tests were diagnosed with COVID-19 (2.5%; 95% confidence interval, 0.5–7.4%). Among the 98 HCWs who were investigated about talking during meals, there was a higher attack rate among those who spoke with each other than among those who did not (12.5% [3/24] vs. 0% [0/74], P = 0.013). @*Conclusion@#The risk of transmission in a hospital’s employee cafeterias is not high with sideby-side seating, especially in the absence of conversation.

4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 701-707, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903182

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We investigated which factors in psychological changes positively or negatively affect the quality of life to suggest desirable directions in the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. @*Methods@#Online survey was conducted with 1,011 adults more than 19 years old in Busan, South Korea. Quality of life was measured using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF. Questions regarding the psychological changes were about COVID-19-related concerns, distress in complying with quarantine guidelines, and interest in seeking something to do alone. @*Results@#Quality of life was perceived to be below average (mean±SD, 2.86±0.53). The more economic worries there were, the lower the quality of life in psychological, social relationships and environmental domains. The more distress one experienced when maintaining their personal hygiene, the higher the quality of life related to their physical health. Likewise, the more difficult it was to maintain social distances, the higher the quality of life associated with psychological and social relationships. The more interested someone was in how to spend time alone, the higher the quality of life in all domains significantly. @*Conclusion@#We can minimize the negative impacts of COVID-19 by maintaining economic stability, maintaining prosocial behaviors related to personal hygiene and making good use of personal time.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e153-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900025

ABSTRACT

We conducted a prospective, mobile-based survey on the self-reported adverse reactions in healthcare workers (HCWs) who received both doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Of the 342 HCWs who completed the two-dose vaccination, 265 (77.5%) responded to the survey at least once. Overall, the rates of adverse reactions were higher after the second dose compared with the first dose (89.1% vs. 80.1%, P = 0.006). The most common systemic reactions were muscle ache (69.1%), fatigue (65.7%), headache (48.7%), chills (44.2%), and fever (32.1%), and were notably more common after the second dose vaccine as well. We also noted a sex difference in which the frequency of adverse reactions after the second dose of the vaccine was significantly higher in females, which was not observed after the first dose. The rates of adverse reactions were lower in older age groups, and the rates and severities of the adverse reactions decreased during the 3-day period following vaccination.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e115-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899993

ABSTRACT

Background@#We performed a prospective survey on the adverse reactions following the first dose of two types of vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in healthcare workers (HCWs) in South Korea. @*Methods@#HCWs at a tertiary referral hospital in Seoul, South Korea, received a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) or an mRNA-based vaccine (BNT162b2) between March 5 and March 26, 2021. The HCWs were asked to report adverse reactions through a mobile self-report questionnaire for three days after vaccination. @*Results@#A total of 7,625 HCWs received the first dose of ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 vaccine during the study period. Of them, 5,866 (76.9%) HCWs (ChAdOx1, n = 5,589 [95.3%];BNT162b2, n = 277 [4.7%]) participated at least once in the survey, of whom 77% were female and 86% were younger than 50 years. The overall adverse reaction rate was 93% in the ChAdOx1 group and 80% in the BNT162b2 group (P < 0.001). Both local and systemic reactions were more commonly reported in the ChAdOx1 group, and the difference was larger in systemic reactions such as fever and fatigue. In the ChAdOx1 group, the incidence of adverse reactions was significantly higher in females and those in the younger age groups, while the BNT162b2 group showed such difference according to age. @*Conclusion@#In our prospective survey, vaccine-associated adverse reactions were more commonly reported in the ChAdOx1 group than in the BNT162b2 group. Females and younger age groups experienced vaccine-associated adverse reactions more frequently.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e233-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899880

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission among non-close contacts is not infrequent. We evaluated the proportion and circumstances of individuals to whom SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted without close contact with the index patient in a nosocomial outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Korea. From March 2020 to March 2021, there were 36 secondary cases from 14 SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Of the 36 secondary cases, 26 (72%) had been classified as close contact and the remaining 10 (28%) were classified as non-close contact. Of the 10 non-close contact, 4 had short conversations with both individuals masked, 4 shared a space without any conversation with both masked, and the remaining 2 entered the space after the index had left. At least one quarter of SARSCoV-2 transmissions occurred among non-close contacts. The definition of close contact for SARS-CoV-2 exposure based on the mode of droplet transmission should be revised to reflect the airborne nature of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

8.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 332-341, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898602

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks occur in hospitals in many parts of the world. In hospital settings, the possibility of airborne transmission needs to be investigated thoroughly. @*Materials and Methods@#There was a nosocomial outbreak of COVID-19 in a hematologic ward in a tertiary hospital, Seoul, Korea. We found 11 patients and guardians with COVID-19 through vigorous contact tracing and closed-circuit television monitoring. We found one patient who probably had acquired COVID-19 through airborne-transmission. We performed airflow investigation with simulation software, whole-genome sequencing of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). @*Results@#Of the nine individuals with COVID-19 who had been in the hematologic ward, six stayed in one multi-patient room (Room 36), and other three stayed in different rooms (Room 1, 34, 35). Guardian in room 35 was close contact to cases in room 36, and patient in room 34 used the shared bathroom for teeth brushing 40 minutes after index used.Airflow simulation revealed that air was spread from the bathroom to the adjacent room 1 while patient in room 1 did not used the shared bathroom. Airflow was associated with poor ventilation in shared bathroom due to dysfunctioning air-exhaust, grill on the door of shared bathroom and the unintended negative pressure of adjacent room. @*Conclusion@#Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the hematologic ward occurred rapidly in the multi-patient room and shared bathroom settings. In addition, there was a case of possible airborne transmission due to unexpected airflow.

9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 701-707, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895478

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We investigated which factors in psychological changes positively or negatively affect the quality of life to suggest desirable directions in the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. @*Methods@#Online survey was conducted with 1,011 adults more than 19 years old in Busan, South Korea. Quality of life was measured using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF. Questions regarding the psychological changes were about COVID-19-related concerns, distress in complying with quarantine guidelines, and interest in seeking something to do alone. @*Results@#Quality of life was perceived to be below average (mean±SD, 2.86±0.53). The more economic worries there were, the lower the quality of life in psychological, social relationships and environmental domains. The more distress one experienced when maintaining their personal hygiene, the higher the quality of life related to their physical health. Likewise, the more difficult it was to maintain social distances, the higher the quality of life associated with psychological and social relationships. The more interested someone was in how to spend time alone, the higher the quality of life in all domains significantly. @*Conclusion@#We can minimize the negative impacts of COVID-19 by maintaining economic stability, maintaining prosocial behaviors related to personal hygiene and making good use of personal time.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e153-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892321

ABSTRACT

We conducted a prospective, mobile-based survey on the self-reported adverse reactions in healthcare workers (HCWs) who received both doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Of the 342 HCWs who completed the two-dose vaccination, 265 (77.5%) responded to the survey at least once. Overall, the rates of adverse reactions were higher after the second dose compared with the first dose (89.1% vs. 80.1%, P = 0.006). The most common systemic reactions were muscle ache (69.1%), fatigue (65.7%), headache (48.7%), chills (44.2%), and fever (32.1%), and were notably more common after the second dose vaccine as well. We also noted a sex difference in which the frequency of adverse reactions after the second dose of the vaccine was significantly higher in females, which was not observed after the first dose. The rates of adverse reactions were lower in older age groups, and the rates and severities of the adverse reactions decreased during the 3-day period following vaccination.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e115-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892289

ABSTRACT

Background@#We performed a prospective survey on the adverse reactions following the first dose of two types of vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in healthcare workers (HCWs) in South Korea. @*Methods@#HCWs at a tertiary referral hospital in Seoul, South Korea, received a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) or an mRNA-based vaccine (BNT162b2) between March 5 and March 26, 2021. The HCWs were asked to report adverse reactions through a mobile self-report questionnaire for three days after vaccination. @*Results@#A total of 7,625 HCWs received the first dose of ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 vaccine during the study period. Of them, 5,866 (76.9%) HCWs (ChAdOx1, n = 5,589 [95.3%];BNT162b2, n = 277 [4.7%]) participated at least once in the survey, of whom 77% were female and 86% were younger than 50 years. The overall adverse reaction rate was 93% in the ChAdOx1 group and 80% in the BNT162b2 group (P < 0.001). Both local and systemic reactions were more commonly reported in the ChAdOx1 group, and the difference was larger in systemic reactions such as fever and fatigue. In the ChAdOx1 group, the incidence of adverse reactions was significantly higher in females and those in the younger age groups, while the BNT162b2 group showed such difference according to age. @*Conclusion@#In our prospective survey, vaccine-associated adverse reactions were more commonly reported in the ChAdOx1 group than in the BNT162b2 group. Females and younger age groups experienced vaccine-associated adverse reactions more frequently.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e233-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892176

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission among non-close contacts is not infrequent. We evaluated the proportion and circumstances of individuals to whom SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted without close contact with the index patient in a nosocomial outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Korea. From March 2020 to March 2021, there were 36 secondary cases from 14 SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Of the 36 secondary cases, 26 (72%) had been classified as close contact and the remaining 10 (28%) were classified as non-close contact. Of the 10 non-close contact, 4 had short conversations with both individuals masked, 4 shared a space without any conversation with both masked, and the remaining 2 entered the space after the index had left. At least one quarter of SARSCoV-2 transmissions occurred among non-close contacts. The definition of close contact for SARS-CoV-2 exposure based on the mode of droplet transmission should be revised to reflect the airborne nature of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

13.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 332-341, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890898

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks occur in hospitals in many parts of the world. In hospital settings, the possibility of airborne transmission needs to be investigated thoroughly. @*Materials and Methods@#There was a nosocomial outbreak of COVID-19 in a hematologic ward in a tertiary hospital, Seoul, Korea. We found 11 patients and guardians with COVID-19 through vigorous contact tracing and closed-circuit television monitoring. We found one patient who probably had acquired COVID-19 through airborne-transmission. We performed airflow investigation with simulation software, whole-genome sequencing of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). @*Results@#Of the nine individuals with COVID-19 who had been in the hematologic ward, six stayed in one multi-patient room (Room 36), and other three stayed in different rooms (Room 1, 34, 35). Guardian in room 35 was close contact to cases in room 36, and patient in room 34 used the shared bathroom for teeth brushing 40 minutes after index used.Airflow simulation revealed that air was spread from the bathroom to the adjacent room 1 while patient in room 1 did not used the shared bathroom. Airflow was associated with poor ventilation in shared bathroom due to dysfunctioning air-exhaust, grill on the door of shared bathroom and the unintended negative pressure of adjacent room. @*Conclusion@#Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the hematologic ward occurred rapidly in the multi-patient room and shared bathroom settings. In addition, there was a case of possible airborne transmission due to unexpected airflow.

14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e389-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831679

ABSTRACT

Between August 31st and September 4th 2020 in a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, the fever detection rate by infrared thermoscanning camera at the gates was 0.002% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.001%–0.006%) and that by manual fever check at the outpatient clinics was 0.02% (95% CI, 0.01%–0.03%) (P < 0.001). The difference strongly suggests that sensitivity of the thermoscanning camera in the market must be upgraded.

15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e380-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831665

ABSTRACT

There were two rallies of medical students and trainee doctors, where 9,000 participants gathered. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based universal screening for the participants using pooling at a tertiary care hospital. Around 609 (94%) of 646 participants underwent PCR tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; all of them tested negative. Our data suggested low transmission rates in open air mass gatherings when appropriate personal protective practices were followed.

16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e431-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899737

ABSTRACT

From January to September 2020, we conducted contact-tracing for confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients who visited our outpatient clinic to evaluate the risk of COVID-19 transmission from infected patients to healthcare workers (HCWs). COVID-19 was diagnosed in 8 outpatients. Per the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV-2) polymerase chain reaction test results, none of the 317 HCWs who came in contact had a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis (0.00%; 95% confidence interval, 0.00%–0.01%).This low rate of transmission from infected outpatients to HCWs suggests that standard precaution such as using surgical mask and hand hygiene protects HCWs from SARS-CoV-2 in a low-risk, outpatient clinic setting.

17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e431-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892033

ABSTRACT

From January to September 2020, we conducted contact-tracing for confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients who visited our outpatient clinic to evaluate the risk of COVID-19 transmission from infected patients to healthcare workers (HCWs). COVID-19 was diagnosed in 8 outpatients. Per the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV-2) polymerase chain reaction test results, none of the 317 HCWs who came in contact had a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis (0.00%; 95% confidence interval, 0.00%–0.01%).This low rate of transmission from infected outpatients to HCWs suggests that standard precaution such as using surgical mask and hand hygiene protects HCWs from SARS-CoV-2 in a low-risk, outpatient clinic setting.

18.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 104-108, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45543

ABSTRACT

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection varies in its clinical manifestations and severity. EBV can be a causative agent of hepatitis and may have a role in the pathogenesis of chronic autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel disease. A 24-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital, presenting with fever and elevated liver enzymes. She was diagnosed with acute hepatitis and EBV infection according to serologic tests and liver biopsy. Within two months, she was re-admitted to our hospital, presenting with hematochezia and lower abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. In situ hybridization for EBV was positive in initial liver biopsy and colon biopsy. Here we report an unusual case of acute EBV hepatitis followed at a short interval by ulcerative colitis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Young Adult , Abdominal Pain , Autoimmune Diseases , Biopsy , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colon , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Fever , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hepatitis , Herpesvirus 4, Human , In Situ Hybridization , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Liver , Serologic Tests , Ulcer
19.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 596-602, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-651246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several reports indicated that tinnitus treatment was influenced by several factors including age of patients, concomitant hearing loss, onset and duration of tinnitus, etc. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the duration of tinnitus and the degree of hearing loss on the treatment outcomes. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Seventy-two subjects with tinnitus were divided into several groups according to the duration of tinnitus and the degree of hearing loss. All subjects were treated by cognitive-behavioral treatment program in tinnitus clinic. Treatment effects were studied by Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), which were used to measure the loudness, awareness, and annoyance of tinnitus. RESULTS: THI and VAS scores were decreased significantly after the treatment. Tinnitus of 12 months or shorter duration showed greater improvement than those cases of longer than 12 months. The lower degree of hearing loss also showed greater improvement when compared with the greater degree of hearing loss. CONCLUSION: Tinnitus of shorter duration and milder hearing loss showed better prognosis: the results of this study may help in treatment counseling for tinnitus patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Counseling , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Prognosis , Tinnitus
20.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 130-134, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188673

ABSTRACT

Colorectal polyps of mesenchymal origin are a rare group of colorectal disorders. A "mucosal Schwann-cell hamartoma," which is one type of polypoid lesion that originates from the mesenchyme, is a newly-proposed disease entity to be distinguished from the neurofibromas found in type-1 neurofibromatosis. This lesion is composed of pure Schwann-cell proliferation in the lamina propria and shows diffuse immunoreactivity for the S-100 protein. We report a case of a polypoid lesion of the colon with the features of this recently-proposed disease entity.


Subject(s)
Colon , Hamartoma , Mesoderm , Mucous Membrane , Neurofibroma , Neurofibromatoses , Neuroma , Polyps , S100 Proteins , Schwann Cells , SNARE Proteins
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