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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914211

ABSTRACT

Background@#Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is closely associated with the progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated whether urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (u-NAG), an early renal tubular damage biomarker in DKD, could be related to the degree of hepatic fibrosis in patients with T2DM. @*Methods@#A total of 300 patients with T2DM were enrolled in this study. Hepatic steatosis and fibrosis were determined using transient elastography. The levels of urinary biomarkers, including u-NAG, albumin, protein, and creatinine, and glucometabolic parameters were measured. @*Results@#Based on the median value of the u-NAG to creatinine ratio (u-NCR), subjects were divided into low and high u-NCR groups. The high u-NCR group showed a significantly longer duration of diabetes, worsened hyperglycemia, and a more enhanced hepatic fibrosis index. A higher u-NCR was associated with a greater odds ratio for the risk of higher hepatic fibrosis stage (F2: odds ratio, 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 3.82). Also, u-NCR was an independent predictive marker for more advanced hepatic fibrosis, even after adjusting for several confounding factors (β=1.58, P<0.01). @*Conclusion@#The elevation of u-NAG was independently associated with a higher degree of hepatic fibrosis in patients with T2DM. Considering the common metabolic milieu of renal and hepatic fibrosis in T2DM, the potential use of u-NAG as an effective urinary biomarker reflecting hepatic fibrosis in T2DM needs to be validated in the future.

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 539-544, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927145

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To date, no study has compared the effects of adding sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors to the combination of metformin plus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors to the effects of adding other conventional anti-diabetic drugs (ADDs) to the dual therapy. We aimed to compare the effect of adding SGLT-2 inhibitors with that of adding sulfonylurea (SU) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients inadequately controlled with metformin plus DPP-4 inhibitors. @*Materials and Methods@#This study was designed to evaluate the non-inferiority of SGLT-2 inhibitor to SU as an add-on therapy to the dual combination of metformin plus DPP-4 inhibitors. A total of 292 T2D patients who started SU or SGLT-2 inhibitors as an add-on therapy to metformin plus DPP-4 inhibitors due to uncontrolled hyperglycemia, defined as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥7%, were recruited. After propensity score matching, 90 pairs of patients remained, and 12-week changes in HbA1c levels were reviewed to assess glycemic effectiveness. Data from these patients were analyzed retrospectively. @*Results@#After 12 weeks of triple therapy, both groups showed significant changes in HbA1c levels, with a mean of -0.9% in each group. The inter-group difference was 0.01% [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.26–0.27], and the upper limit of the 95% CI was within the limit for non-inferiority (0.40%). There were no inter-group differences in the changes of liver enzyme levels and kidney function. @*Conclusion@#Adding SGLT-2 inhibitors is not inferior to adding SU as a third-line ADD to metformin plus DPP-4 inhibitor combination therapy.

3.
Gut and Liver ; : 290-299, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925008

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity are independently associated with an increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), the leading cause of mortality in patients with NAFLD. Many NAFLD patients are lean, but their ASCVD risk compared to obese subjects with NAFLD is unclear. @*Methods@#Data from the 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveysdatabase were analyzed (n=4,786). NAFLD was defined as a comprehensive NAFLD score ≥40 or a liver fat score ≥–0.640. ASCVD risk was evaluated using the American College of Cardiol-ogy/American Heart Association guidelines. @*Results@#The frequency of subjects without NAFLD, with obese NAFLD, and with lean NAFLD was 62.4% (n=2,987), 26.6% (n=1,274), and 11.0% (n=525), respectively. Subjects with lean NAFLD had a significantly higher ASCVD score and prevalence of a high ASCVD risk (mean 15.6±14.0, 51.6%) than those with obese NAFLD and without NAFLD (mean 11.2±11.4, 39.8%; mean 7.9±10.9, 25.5%; all p<0.001). Subjects with lean NAFLD and significant liver fibrosis showed a significantly higher odds ratio for a high risk for ASCVD than those with obese NAFLD with or without significant liver fibrosis (odds ratio, 2.60 vs 1.93; p=0.023). @*Conclusions@#Subjects with lean NAFLD had a significantly higher ASCVD score and prevalence of high risk for ASCVD than those with obese NAFLD. Similarly, lean subjects with significant liver fibrosis had a higher probability of ASCVD than obese subjects in the subpopulation with NAFLD.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924910

ABSTRACT

Background@#We investigated the antidiabetic effects of DA-1241, a novel G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 119 agonist, in vitro and in vivo. @*Methods@#DA-1241 was administrated to high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice for 12 weeks after hyperglycaemia developed. Oral/intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were performed. Serum insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were measured during oral glucose tolerance test. Insulinoma cell line (INS-1E) cells and mouse islets were used to find whether DA-1241 directly stimulate insulin secretion in beta cell. HepG2 cells were used to evaluate the gluconeogenesis and autophagic process. Autophagic flux was evaluated by transfecting microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-fused to green fluorescent protein and monomeric red fluorescent (mRFP-GFP-LC3) expression vector to HepG2 cells. @*Results@#Although DA-1241 treatment did not affect body weight gain and amount of food intake, fasting blood glucose level decreased along with increase in GLP-1 level. DA-1241 improved only oral glucose tolerance test and showed no effect in intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. No significant effect was observed in insulin tolerance test. DA-1241 did not increase insulin secretion in INS-1E cell and mouse islets. DA-1241 reduced triglyceride content in the liver thereby improved fatty liver. Additionally, DA-1241 reduced gluconeogenic enzyme expression in HepG2 cells and mouse liver. DA-1241 reduced autophagic flow in HepG2 cells. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggested that DA-1241 augmented glucose-dependent insulin release via stimulation of GLP-1 secretion, and reduced hepatic gluconeogenesis, which might be associated with autophagic blockage, leading to improved glycaemic control.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898190

ABSTRACT

Background@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor that accelerates NAFLD progression, leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Thus, here we aimed to develop a simple model to predict the presence of NAFLD based on clinical parameters of patients with T2DM. @*Methods@#A total of 698 patients with T2DM who visited five medical centers were included. NAFLD was evaluated using transient elastography. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify potential contributors to NAFLD, followed by multivariable logistic regression analyses to create the final prediction model for NAFLD. @*Results@#Two NAFLD prediction models were developed, with and without serum biomarker use. The non-laboratory model comprised six variables: age, sex, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), dyslipidemia, and smoking status. For a cutoff value of ≥60, the prediction accuracy was 0.780 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.743 to 0.817). The second comprehensive model showed an improved discrimination ability of up to 0.815 (95% CI, 0.782 to 0.847) and comprised seven variables: age, sex, waist circumference, BMI, glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride, and alanine aminotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase ratio. Our non-laboratory model showed non-inferiority in the prediction of NAFLD versus previously established models, including serum parameters. @*Conclusion@#The new models are simple and user-friendly screening methods that can identify individuals with T2DM who are at high-risk for NAFLD. Additional studies are warranted to validate these new models as useful predictive tools for NAFLD in clinicalpractice.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914195

ABSTRACT

Background@#Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic drugs that exhibit multiple extraglycemic effects. However, there are conflicting results regarding the effects of SGLT2 inhibition on energy expenditure and thermogenesis. Therefore, we investigated the effect of ipragliflozin (a selective SGLT2 inhibitor) on energy metabolism. @*Methods@#Six-week-old male 129S6/Sv mice with a high propensity for adipose tissue browning were randomly assigned to three groups: normal chow control, 60% high-fat diet (HFD)-fed control, and 60% HFD-fed ipragliflozin-treated groups. The administration of diet and medication was continued for 16 weeks. @*Results@#The HFD-fed mice became obese and developed hepatic steatosis and adipose tissue hypertrophy, but their random glucose levels were within the normal ranges; these features are similar to the metabolic features of a prediabetic condition. Ipragliflozin treatment markedly attenuated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and reduced the size of hypertrophied adipocytes to that of smaller adipocytes. In the ipragliflozin treatment group, uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) and other thermogenesis-related genes were significantly upregulated in the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and fatty acid oxidation was increased in the brown adipose tissue. These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio and the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) pathway in the liver and adipose tissue. @*Conclusion@#SGLT2 inhibition by ipragliflozin showed beneficial metabolic effects in 129S6/Sv mice with HFD-induced obesity that mimics prediabetic conditions. Our data suggest that SGLT2 inhibitors, through their upregulation of energy expenditure, may have therapeutic potential in prediabetic obesity.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890486

ABSTRACT

Background@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor that accelerates NAFLD progression, leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Thus, here we aimed to develop a simple model to predict the presence of NAFLD based on clinical parameters of patients with T2DM. @*Methods@#A total of 698 patients with T2DM who visited five medical centers were included. NAFLD was evaluated using transient elastography. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify potential contributors to NAFLD, followed by multivariable logistic regression analyses to create the final prediction model for NAFLD. @*Results@#Two NAFLD prediction models were developed, with and without serum biomarker use. The non-laboratory model comprised six variables: age, sex, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), dyslipidemia, and smoking status. For a cutoff value of ≥60, the prediction accuracy was 0.780 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.743 to 0.817). The second comprehensive model showed an improved discrimination ability of up to 0.815 (95% CI, 0.782 to 0.847) and comprised seven variables: age, sex, waist circumference, BMI, glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride, and alanine aminotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase ratio. Our non-laboratory model showed non-inferiority in the prediction of NAFLD versus previously established models, including serum parameters. @*Conclusion@#The new models are simple and user-friendly screening methods that can identify individuals with T2DM who are at high-risk for NAFLD. Additional studies are warranted to validate these new models as useful predictive tools for NAFLD in clinicalpractice.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832305

ABSTRACT

Background@#Impaired diastolic heart function has been observed in persons with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and/or with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is unclear whether NAFLD fibrotic progression, i.e., non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, poses an independent risk for diastolic dysfunction in T2DM. We investigated the association between liver fibrosis and left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in T2DM. @*Methods@#We analyzed 606 patients with T2DM, aged ≥50 years, who had undergone liver ultrasonography and pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography. Insulin sensitivity was measured by short insulin tolerance test. Presence of NAFLD and/or advanced liver fibrosis was determined by abdominal ultrasonography and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS). LV diastolic dysfunction was defined according to transmitral peak early to late ventricular filling (E/A) ratio and deceleration time, using echocardiography. @*Results@#LV diastolic dysfunction was significantly more prevalent in the NAFLD versus non-NAFLD group (59.7% vs. 49.0%, P=0.011). When NAFLD was stratified by NFS, subjects with advanced liver fibrosis exhibited a higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction (49.0%, 50.7%, 61.8%; none, simple steatosis, advanced fibrosis, respectively; P for trend=0.003). In multivariable logistic regression, liver fibrosis was independently associated with diastolic dysfunction (odds ratio [OR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 2.34; P=0.022) after adjusting for insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors. This association remained significant in patients without insulin resistance (OR, 4.32; 95% CI, 1.73 to 11.51; P=0.002). @*Conclusions@#Liver fibrosis was associated with LV diastolic dysfunction in patients with T2DM and may be an independent risk factor for diastolic dysfunction, especially in patients without systemic insulin resistance.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786071

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether serum bilirubin levels can predict the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).METHODS: This observational study included 1,381 subjects with T2DM in whom serial measurements of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were made at 1- to 2-year intervals for 6–8 years. The progression of carotid atherosclerosis was defined as newly detected plaque lesions on repeat ultrasonography. After dividing total serum bilirubin levels into tertiles, the association between total serum bilirubin at baseline and plaque progression status was analyzed.RESULTS: Among 1,381 T2DM patients, 599 (43.4%) were categorized as having plaque progression in their carotid arteries. Those with plaque progression were significantly older; showed a higher prevalence of hypertension, abdominal obesity, and chronic kidney disease; and had a longer duration of T2DM, higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, and insulin resistance, and lower total bilirubin concentrations than those with no plaque progression. When total serum bilirubin levels were divided into tertiles, the highest tertile group was younger than the lowest tertile group, with higher levels of TC and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that higher serum bilirubin levels were associated with a significantly lower risk of CIMT progression (odds ratio, 0.584; 95% confidence interval, 0.392–0.870; p=0.008). Age (p<0.001), body mass index (p=0.023), and TC (p=0.019) were also associated with the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in T2DM patients.CONCLUSION: Total serum bilirubin is independently associated with progression of atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries in T2DM patients.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Bilirubin , Body Mass Index , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Artery Diseases , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Cholesterol , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Hypertension , Insulin Resistance , Lipoproteins , Logistic Models , Obesity, Abdominal , Observational Study , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Triglycerides , Ultrasonography
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763712

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the overall status of diabetes control and screening for diabetic microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending primary care clinics in Korea. METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational study, 191 primary care clinics were randomly selected across Korea from 2015 to 2016. In total, 3,227 subjects were enrolled in the study. RESULTS: The patients followed at the primary care clinics were relatively young, with a mean age of 61.4±11.7 years, and had a relatively short duration of diabetes (mean duration, 7.6±6.5 years). Approximately 14% of subjects had diabetic microvascular complications. However, the patients treated at the primary care clinics had suboptimal control of hemoglobin A1c levels, blood pressure, and serum lipid levels, along with a metabolic target achievement rate of 5.9% according to the Korean Diabetes Association guidelines. The screening rates for diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy within the past 12 months were 28.4%, 23.3%, and 13.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The overall status of diabetes management, including the frequency of screening for microvascular complications, was suboptimal in the primary care clinics. More efforts should be made and more resources need to be allocated for primary care physicians to promote adequate healthcare delivery, which would result in stricter diabetes control and improved management of diabetic complications.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Humans , Korea , Mass Screening , Observational Study , Physicians, Primary Care , Primary Health Care , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763670

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association revised and updated the 6th Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2019. Targets of glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were updated. The obese and overweight population is increasing steadily in Korea, and half of the Koreans with diabetes are obese. Evidence-based recommendations for weight-loss therapy for obesity management as treatment for hyperglycemia in T2DM were provided. In addition, evidence from large clinical studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes following the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in patients with T2DM were incorporated into the recommendations.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Korea , Obesity , Overweight
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the predictive markers for the therapeutic efficacy and the best combination of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and ipragliflozin) therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: A total of 804 patients with T2DM who had taken SGLT2 inhibitor as monotherapy or an add-on therapy were analyzed. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the predictors of SGLT2 inhibitor response including the classes of baseline anti-diabetic medications. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, sex, baseline body mass index (BMI), diabetes duration, duration of SGLT2 inhibitor use, initial glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and other anti-diabetic agent usage, multivariate analysis revealed that shorter diabetes duration, higher initial HbA1c and eGFR were associated with better glycemic response. However, baseline BMI was inversely correlated with glycemic status; lean subjects with well-controlled diabetes and obese subjects with inadequately controlled diabetes received more benefit from SGLT2 inhibitor treatment. In addition, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor use was related to a greater reduction in HbA1c in patients with higher baseline HbA1c ≥7%. Sulfonylurea users experienced a larger change from baseline HbA1c but the significance was lost after adjustment for covariates and metformin and thiazolidinedione use did not affect the glycemic outcome. CONCLUSION: A better response to SGLT2 inhibitors is expected in Korean T2DM patients who have higher baseline HbA1c and eGFR with a shorter diabetes duration. Moreover, the add-on of an SGLT2 inhibitor to a DPP4 inhibitor is likely to show the greatest glycemic response.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Metformin , Multivariate Analysis
15.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 149-156, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761490

ABSTRACT

According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes guideline for treatment of diabetes, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) is recommended in diabetic patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This recommendation is based on the results of recent cardiovascular outcome trials of this kind of medications. GLP-1 RAs have a glucose lowering effect with weight loss and a lower incidence of hypoglycemia, and can improve cardiovascular outcomes such as three-point major cardiovascular events composed of death from cardiovascular causes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke. Also, several GLP-1 RAs have beneficial effects on renal outcomes, mainly due to improvement in macroalbuminuria. In addition, high-dose liraglutide (3 mg/day subcutaneous injection) showed efficacy for reducing body weight. Therefore GLP-1 RA may be effective in patients with established cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and/or metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Glucose , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Incidence , Kidney Diseases , Liraglutide , Myocardial Infarction , Obesity , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Stroke , Weight Loss
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ezetimibe-statin combination therapy has been found to reduce low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in large trials. We sought to examine the differential effect of ezetimibe on MACEs when added to statins according to the presence of diabetes. METHODS: Randomized clinical trials with a sample size of at least 50 participants and at least 24 weeks of follow-up that compared ezetimibe-statin combination therapy with a statin- or placebo-controlled arm and reported at least one MACE, stratified by diabetes status, were included in the meta-analysis and meta-regression. RESULTS: A total of seven trials with 28,191 enrolled patients (mean age, 63.6 years; 75.1% men; 7,298 with diabetes [25.9%]; mean follow-up, 5 years) were analysed. MACEs stratified by diabetes were obtained from the published data (two trials) or through direct contact (five trials). No significant heterogeneity was observed among studies (I 2=14.7%, P=0.293). Ezetimibe was associated with a greater reduction of MACE risk in subjects with diabetes than in those without diabetes (pooled relative risk, 0.84 vs. 0.93; P heterogeneity=0.012). In the meta-regression analysis, the presence of diabetes was associated with a greater reduction of MACE risk when ezetimibe was added to statins (β=0.87, P=0.038). CONCLUSION: Ezetimibe-statin combination therapy was associated with greater cardiovascular benefits in patients with diabetes than in those without diabetes. Our findings suggest that ezetimibe-statin combination therapy might be a useful strategy in patients with diabetes at a residual risk of MACEs.


Subject(s)
Arm , Cholesterol, LDL , Diabetes Mellitus , Ezetimibe , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Male , Myocardial Infarction , Population Characteristics , Sample Size , Stroke
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714787

ABSTRACT

Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have a significantly higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke. Current anti-diabetic drugs are highly effective for managing hyperglycemia. However, most T2D patients are still at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Over the past decade, many studies have assessed the efficacy of anti-diabetic drugs in regards to cardiovascular disease outcomes in T2D patients. However, despite the effective glycemic control of these drugs, they failed to show significant benefits that impact the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In recent years, anti-diabetic drugs, developed with other mechanisms, have shown significant results for improving the risk of CVD. In addition, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have shown promising results that impact CVD outcomes in several trials. This article will review the cardiovascular outcomes and possible cardioprotective mechanisms of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Glucose , Heart Failure , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction , Sodium , Stroke
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A recent animal study showed that parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is associated with cancer cachexia by promoting adipose tissue browning, and we previously demonstrated that PTHrP predicts weight loss (WL) in patients with cancer. In this study, we investigated whether prediction of WL by PTHrP is influenced by clinical factors such as serum albumin, corrected calcium levels, cancer stage, and performance status (PS). METHODS: A cohort of 219 patients with cancer whose PTHrP level was measured was enrolled and followed for body weight (BW) changes. Subjects were divided into two groups by serum albumin (cutoff value, 3.7 g/dL), corrected calcium (cutoff value, 10.5 mg/dL), cancer stage (stage 1 to 3 or 4), or PS (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0 to 1 or 2 to 4), respectively. Clinically significant WL was defined as either percent of BW change (% BW) <−5% or % BW <−2% plus body mass index (BMI) < 20 kg/m². RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 327 days, 74 patients (33.8%) experienced clinically significant WL. A positive PTHrP level was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of WL after adjusting for age, baseline BMI, serum albumin, corrected calcium level, cancer stage, and PS. The effect of PTHrP on WL remained significant in patients with low serum albumin, stage 4 cancer, and good PS. Regardless of calcium level, the effect of PTHrP on WL was maintained, although there was an additive effect of higher calcium and PTHrP levels. CONCLUSION: Early recognition of patients with advanced cancer who are PTHrP positive with hypercalcemia or hypoalbuminemia is needed for their clinical management.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Animals , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Cachexia , Calcium , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypercalcemia , Hypoalbuminemia , Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein , Serum Albumin , Weight Loss
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This report presents the recent prevalence and comorbidities related to diabetes in Korea by analyzing the nationally representative data. METHODS: Using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2013 to 2014, the percentages and the total number of subjects over the age of 30 years with diabetes and prediabetes were estimated and applied to the National Population Census in 2014. Diagnosis of diabetes was based on fasting plasma glucose (≥126 mg/dL), current taking of antidiabetic medication, history of previous diabetes, or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥6.5%. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was defined by fasting plasma glucose in the range of 100 to 125 mg/dL among those without diabetes. RESULTS: About 4.8 million (13.7%) Korean adults (≥30 years old) had diabetes, and about 8.3 million (24.8%) Korean adults had IFG. However, 29.3% of the subjects with diabetes are not aware of their condition. Of the subjects with diabetes, 48.6% and 54.7% were obese and hypertensive, respectively, and 31.6% had hypercholesterolemia. Although most subjects with diabetes (89.1%) were under medical treatment, and mostly being treated with oral hypoglycemic agents (80.2%), 10.8% have remained untreated. With respect to overall glycemic control, 43.5% reached the target of HbA1c < 7%, whereas 23.3% reached the target when the standard was set to HbA1c < 6.5%, according to the Korean Diabetes Association guideline. CONCLUSION: Diabetes is a major public health threat in Korea, but a significant proportion of adults were not controlling their illness. We need comprehensive approaches to overcome the upcoming diabetes-related disease burden in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Glucose , Censuses , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Fasting , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypercholesterolemia , Hypoglycemic Agents , Korea , Nutrition Surveys , Prediabetic State , Prevalence , Public Health , Republic of Korea
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 312-318, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174331

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Metformin can reduce diabetes-related complications and mortality. However, its use is limited because of potential lactic acidosis-associated adverse effects, particularly in renal impairment patients. We aimed to investigate the association of metformin use with lactic acidosis and hyperlactatemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study from a tertiary university-affiliated medical center. A total of 1954 type 2 diabetes patients were recruited in 2007–2011, and stratified according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate of 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Lactic acidosis was defined as plasma lactate levels >5 mmol/L and arterial pH <7.35. RESULTS: Metformin was used in 61.4% of the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Plasma lactate levels were not different in the patients with and without metformin use. There was no difference in prevalence of hyperlactatemia and lactic acidosis between the patients with and without metformin use (18.9% vs. 18.7%, p=0.905 for hyperlactatemia and 2.8% vs. 3.3%, p=0.544 for lactic acidosis). Similar results were observed in the patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m². Most patients with lactic acidosis had at least one condition related to hypoxia or poor tissue perfusion. Multiple regression analysis indicated no association between metformin use and lactic acidosis, whereas tissue hypoxia was an independent risk factor for lactic acidosis [odds ratio 4.603 (95% confidence interval, 1.327–15.965)]. CONCLUSION: Metformin use was not associated with hyperlactatemia or lactic acidosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Acidosis, Lactic , Hypoxia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hyperlactatemia , Lactic Acid , Metformin , Mortality , Perfusion , Plasma , Prevalence , Risk Factors
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