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1.
Annals of Dermatology ; : S107-S111, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976673

ABSTRACT

Pyoderma gangrenosum is one of the dermatological extra-intestinal manifestations of ulcerative colitis (UC). We report a case of a 26-year-old male patient suffering from relapsed UC with a newly developed pyoderma gangrenosum. His skin and intestinal symptoms were intractable to treatment with steroids, immunosuppressants, or a single biological agent such as infliximab, golimumab, or vedolizumab. For the first time in Korea, we report a successful treatment experience of pyoderma gangrenosum in UC using dual biological agents, vedolizumab and infliximab. We strategically targeted each of the intestinal and skin symptoms, with a specific biological agent based on the drug’s mechanism of action.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 62-70, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914386

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although mucosal healing (MH) is acknowledged as the treatment target in the treat-to-target era, there are limitations on repeated endoscopic examinations, especially in pediatric patients. We aimed to investigate whether fecal calprotectin (FC) could serve as a surrogate marker for the assessment of MH in pediatric patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) who have achieved sustained clinical remission (CR) while treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents. @*Methods@#This multicenter retrospective cross-sectional study included pediatric CD patients who had sustained a CR for at least 6 months with anti-TNF agents and who simultaneously underwent ileocolonoscopy and FC tests during follow-up. MH was defined as the absence of any ulcer on ileocolonoscopy. @*Results@#A total of 131 patients were included in this study. MH was observed in 87 patients (66.7%). The FC level was significantly lower in patients with MH than in those without MH (median 49.0 mg/kg vs 599.0 mg/kg; p<0.001). According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, FC was the only factor associated with MH (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.73; p<0.001). According to the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the optimal cutoff value for FC for the association with MH was <140 mg/kg (area under the curve 0.890, 95% CI 0.829 to 0.951, sensitivity 78.2%, specificity 88.6%, p<0.001). @*Conclusions@#FC was associated with MH in pediatric patients with CD who had achieved a sustained CR for at least 6 months with anti-TNF agents. In these patients, FC can be used to stratify patients and guide decisions regarding ileocolonoscopy in the treat-to-target era.

3.
Gut and Liver ; : 71-80, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914384

ABSTRACT

Background/aims@#The efficacy of biologics for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) is affected by the drug concentrations. We aimed to evaluate the importance of albumin and globulin which are known to be associated with drug concentrations as prognostic biomarkers in CD. @*Methods@#In total, 121 pediatric patients with CD who had received anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α therapy were retrospectively examined between January 2010 and February 2019. @*Results@#Relapse was observed in 48.8% of patients (59/121). The level of calprotectin (odds ratio, 2.13; p=0.03) and the albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR) at 1 year after anti-TNF-α therapy (odds ratio, 0.0002; p=0.003) were associated with relapse. The AGR at 1 year after anti-TNF-α therapy was the only factor associated with the time-to-relapse (hazard ratio, 0.02; p<0.001). The optimal AGR cutoff value for the prediction of relapse was 1.47 (area under the curve, 0.916; p<0.001). The median infliximab trough level (TL) was lower in patients with AGRs <1.47 than in those with AGRs ≥1.47. Anti-drug antibody (ADA) concentrations were negatively correlated with the AGR at 1 year of anti-TNF-α therapy (r=-0.413, p=0.032). @*Conclusions@#AGR can be used to predict relapse. Patients with AGRs <1.47 at 1 year after anti-TNF-α therapy are more likely to have low drug TLs and develop ADAs, which increase the possibility of relapse than those with AGRs ≥1.47. Therefore, if the AGR at 1 year after anti-TNF-α therapy is less than 1.47, clinicians should monitor disease activity, assess the TLs of the anti-TNF-α agents, test for ADAs and determine the appropriate therapeutic strategies.

4.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 96-104, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968516

ABSTRACT

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an inflammatory bone disorder presenting with sterile osteomyelitis, most often presenting in childhood. Although the etiology is understood incompletely, its association with other auto-inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); psoriasis; Wegener’s disease; arthritis; and synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome suggests that dysregulated innate immunity may play an important role in the pathogenesis. We report a case of a 13-year-old boy with CRMO associated with Crohn’s disease (CD) successfully treated with infliximab after failure of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment. He initially was diagnosed with CRMO based on symmetric and aseptic bone lesions with no fever, lack of response to antibiotic treatment, vertebral involvement, and normal blood cell counts. Despite five months of NSAID treatment, his musculoskeletal symptoms were aggravated, and he developed gastrointestinal symptoms. Finally, he was diagnosed with CRMO associated with CD. Due to the severity of symptoms, infliximab was initiated and produced symptom improvement. This case supports infliximab as another choice for treatment of bowel symptoms in addition to the bone and joint symptoms of CRMO when other first-line treatments are ineffective.

5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 470-473, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904258

ABSTRACT

Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) can cause leakage of lymphatic fluids into the gastrointestinal tract, eventually leading to protein-losing enteropathy. A 15-year-old male patient, whose disease began at the age of 8 years, recently felt worsening general weakness. After diagnosing abnormal lymphatic lesions in the duodenum through endoscopy with biopsy and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphangiography, glue embolization of the leaking duodenal lymphatic channel was successfully performed. This procedure is typically reserved for adult patients, although as shown in this case, it can be properly performed in children. His serum albumin level was initially 1.5 g/dL, but elevated to 5.0 g/dL after two sessions of lymphatic embolization. Accordingly, we suggest that embolization could potentially be considered a first-line treatment for focal lesions of primary intestinal IL.

6.
Intestinal Research ; : 472-477, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914726

ABSTRACT

Crohn’s disease (CD) presenting as gastric outlet obstruction is rare but serious clinical presentation of CD causing severe morbidity. However, there have been few case reports concerning this disorder in East Asian children and adolescents. The current case report describes 2 pediatric patients with CD who had had gastric outlet obstruction as an initial symptom of CD. Two pediatric patients developed postprandial vomiting, bloating, and unintentional weight loss. The upper endoscopy result indicated that there was pyloric obstruction with mucosal edema, inflammation and ulcers. The serologic test and colonoscopy results suggested CD. These patients were treated with infliximab, and endoscopic balloon dilation without surgery and showed remarkable improvement in obstructing symptoms with maintaining clinical and biochemical remission. This case report elucidates the benefits of early intervention using infliximab and endoscopic balloon dilation to improve gastric outlet obstruction and achieve baseline recovery in patients with upper gastrointestinal B2 phenotype of CD.

7.
Clinical Pain ; (2): 74-85, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914054

ABSTRACT

Ultrasound (US) can depict of various anatomical structures, such as muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerve roots, and vessels, around the neck. The usage of US around the neck is increasing due to its quick and easy application for guided injection for nerves, tendons, and joints. This article elaborates the degenerative diseases causing neck pain, sonoanatomy, and the use of US for diagnosis and intervention; for example, small nerves around the neck, cervical root, stellate ganglion, medial branches, greater occipital nerve (GON), and third occipital nerve (TON). The aim of this review article is to lead readers to understand the anatomy around the neck and structural relations, and to get to know about several US-guided intervention of the neck.

8.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 297-307, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875283

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the performance of simulated abbreviated breast MRI (AB-MRI) and full diagnostic (FD)-MRI in distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions detected by MRI and investigate the features of discrepant lesions of the two protocols. @*Materials and Methods@#An AB-MRI set with single first postcontrast images was retrospectively obtained from an FD-MRI cohort of 111 lesions (34 malignant, 77 benign) detected by contralateral breast MRI in 111 women (mean age, 49.8. ± 9.8;range, 28–75 years) with recently diagnosed breast cancer. Five blinded readers independently classified the likelihood of malignancy using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System assessments. McNemar tests and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analyses were performed. The imaging and pathologic features of the discrepant lesions of the two protocols were analyzed. @*Results@#The sensitivity of AB-MRI for lesion characterization tended to be lower than that of FD-MRI for all readers (58.8– 82.4% vs. 79.4–100%), although the findings of only two readers were significantly different (p 0.05). Fifteen percent (5/34) of the cancers were false-negatives on AB-MRI. More suspicious margins or internal enhancement on the delayed phase images were related to the discrepancies. @*Conclusion@#The overall performance of AB-MRI was similar to that of FD-MRI in distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions. AB-MRI showed lower sensitivity and higher specificity than FD-MRI, as 15% of the cancers were misclassified compared to FD-MRI.

9.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 867-879, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902452

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the screening performance of diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI and combined mammography and ultrasound (US) in detecting clinically occult contralateral breast cancer in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#Between January 2017 and July 2018, 1148 women (mean age ± standard deviation, 53.2 ± 10.8 years) with unilateral breast cancer and no clinical abnormalities in the contralateral breast underwent 3T MRI, digital mammography, and radiologist-performed whole-breast US. In this retrospective study, three radiologists independently and blindly reviewed all DW MR images (b = 1000 s/mm2 and apparent diffusion coefficient map) of the contralateral breast and assigned a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category. For combined mammography and US evaluation, prospectively assessed results were used. Using histopathology or 1-year follow-up as the reference standard, cancer detection rate and the patient percentage with cancers detected among all women recommended for tissue diagnosis (positive predictive value; PPV2) were compared. @*Results@#Of the 30 cases of clinically occult contralateral cancers (13 invasive and 17 ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS]), DW MRI detected 23 (76.7%) cases (11 invasive and 12 DCIS), whereas combined mammography and US detected 12 (40.0%, five invasive and seven DCIS) cases. All cancers detected by combined mammography and US, except two DCIS cases, were detected by DW MRI. The cancer detection rate of DW MRI (2.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3%, 3.0%) was higher than that of combined mammography and US (1.0%; 95% CI: 0.5%, 1.8%; p = 0.009). DW MRI showed higher PPV2 (42.1%; 95% CI: 26.3%, 59.2%) than combined mammography and US (18.5%; 95% CI: 9.9%, 30.0%; p = 0.001). @*Conclusion@#In women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, DW MRI detected significantly more contralateral breast cancers with fewer biopsy recommendations than combined mammography and US.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e104-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899858

ABSTRACT

Background@#The temporal changes in the Staphylococcus aureus genotypes causing S. aureusbacteremia (SAB) and the corresponding clinical changes over the last decade in South Korea are rarely investigated. @*Methods@#A longitudinal study of adult SAB patients was conducted in a large referral hospital in Seoul, South Korea. Adult monomicrobial SAB patients were enrolled between August 2008 and December 2018. Genotyping was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing. Trends in changes were identified by linear regression analysis. @*Results@#Of 1782 adult SAB patients, the blood isolates of 1,778 (99.8%) and 1,634 (91.7%) were determined to be MLST and spa type, respectively. ST5 (–2.626%/year) and ST239 (–0.354%/year) decreased during the study period (P < 0.001 for both), but ST72 (2.009%/ yr)-and ST8 (0.567%/yr) increased (P < 0.001 for both). The most common genotype was changed from ST5 in 2008 (44.9%) to ST72 in 2018 (36.3%). Panton-Valentine leukocidinpositive spa-t008-MRSA (USA300) was found in 28.6%. Central venous catheter (CVC)-related SAB (–2.440%/yr) and persistent SAB (–1.016%/yr) decreased, but mortality and recurrence rates were unchanged. @*Conclusion@#Over the last decade, the hospital clones ST5 and ST239 have been replaced by community genotype ST72. This was associated with decreased CVC-related and persistent SAB. Increased USA300 was observed in community and hospital settings. Further research is required to identify the reasons for the ST72 epidemic and predict the impending epidemic of ST8 strains, including USA300.

11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 470-473, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896554

ABSTRACT

Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) can cause leakage of lymphatic fluids into the gastrointestinal tract, eventually leading to protein-losing enteropathy. A 15-year-old male patient, whose disease began at the age of 8 years, recently felt worsening general weakness. After diagnosing abnormal lymphatic lesions in the duodenum through endoscopy with biopsy and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphangiography, glue embolization of the leaking duodenal lymphatic channel was successfully performed. This procedure is typically reserved for adult patients, although as shown in this case, it can be properly performed in children. His serum albumin level was initially 1.5 g/dL, but elevated to 5.0 g/dL after two sessions of lymphatic embolization. Accordingly, we suggest that embolization could potentially be considered a first-line treatment for focal lesions of primary intestinal IL.

12.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 867-879, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894748

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the screening performance of diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI and combined mammography and ultrasound (US) in detecting clinically occult contralateral breast cancer in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#Between January 2017 and July 2018, 1148 women (mean age ± standard deviation, 53.2 ± 10.8 years) with unilateral breast cancer and no clinical abnormalities in the contralateral breast underwent 3T MRI, digital mammography, and radiologist-performed whole-breast US. In this retrospective study, three radiologists independently and blindly reviewed all DW MR images (b = 1000 s/mm2 and apparent diffusion coefficient map) of the contralateral breast and assigned a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category. For combined mammography and US evaluation, prospectively assessed results were used. Using histopathology or 1-year follow-up as the reference standard, cancer detection rate and the patient percentage with cancers detected among all women recommended for tissue diagnosis (positive predictive value; PPV2) were compared. @*Results@#Of the 30 cases of clinically occult contralateral cancers (13 invasive and 17 ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS]), DW MRI detected 23 (76.7%) cases (11 invasive and 12 DCIS), whereas combined mammography and US detected 12 (40.0%, five invasive and seven DCIS) cases. All cancers detected by combined mammography and US, except two DCIS cases, were detected by DW MRI. The cancer detection rate of DW MRI (2.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3%, 3.0%) was higher than that of combined mammography and US (1.0%; 95% CI: 0.5%, 1.8%; p = 0.009). DW MRI showed higher PPV2 (42.1%; 95% CI: 26.3%, 59.2%) than combined mammography and US (18.5%; 95% CI: 9.9%, 30.0%; p = 0.001). @*Conclusion@#In women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, DW MRI detected significantly more contralateral breast cancers with fewer biopsy recommendations than combined mammography and US.

13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e104-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892154

ABSTRACT

Background@#The temporal changes in the Staphylococcus aureus genotypes causing S. aureusbacteremia (SAB) and the corresponding clinical changes over the last decade in South Korea are rarely investigated. @*Methods@#A longitudinal study of adult SAB patients was conducted in a large referral hospital in Seoul, South Korea. Adult monomicrobial SAB patients were enrolled between August 2008 and December 2018. Genotyping was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing. Trends in changes were identified by linear regression analysis. @*Results@#Of 1782 adult SAB patients, the blood isolates of 1,778 (99.8%) and 1,634 (91.7%) were determined to be MLST and spa type, respectively. ST5 (–2.626%/year) and ST239 (–0.354%/year) decreased during the study period (P < 0.001 for both), but ST72 (2.009%/ yr)-and ST8 (0.567%/yr) increased (P < 0.001 for both). The most common genotype was changed from ST5 in 2008 (44.9%) to ST72 in 2018 (36.3%). Panton-Valentine leukocidinpositive spa-t008-MRSA (USA300) was found in 28.6%. Central venous catheter (CVC)-related SAB (–2.440%/yr) and persistent SAB (–1.016%/yr) decreased, but mortality and recurrence rates were unchanged. @*Conclusion@#Over the last decade, the hospital clones ST5 and ST239 have been replaced by community genotype ST72. This was associated with decreased CVC-related and persistent SAB. Increased USA300 was observed in community and hospital settings. Further research is required to identify the reasons for the ST72 epidemic and predict the impending epidemic of ST8 strains, including USA300.

14.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 561-571, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833516

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the clinical utility of ultrafast dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI compared to conventional DCEMRIby studying lesion conspicuity and size according to the level of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE). @*Materials and Methods@#This study included 360 women (median age, 54 years; range, 26–82 years) with 361 who had undergonebreast MRI, including both ultrafast and conventional DCE-MRI before surgery, between January and December 2017. Conspicuitywas evaluated using a five-point score. Size was measured as the single maximal diameter. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test wasused to compare median conspicuity score. To identify factors associated with conspicuity, multivariable logistic regressionwas performed. Absolute agreement between size at MRI and histopathologic examination was assessed using the intraclasscorrelation coefficient (ICC). @*Results@#The median conspicuity scores were 5 at both scans, but the interquartile ranges were significantly different (5-5 atultrafast vs. 4-5 at conventional, p < 0.001). Premenopausal status (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, p = 0.048), non-mass enhancement(OR = 4.1, p = 0.001), moderate to marked BPE (OR = 7.5, p < 0.001), and shorter time to enhancement (OR = 0.9, p =0.043) were independently associated with better conspicuity at ultrafast scans. Tumor size agreement between MRI andhistopathologic examination was similar for both scans (ICC = 0.66 for ultrafast vs. 0.63 for conventional). @*Conclusion@#Ultrafast DCE-MRI could improve lesion conspicuity compared to conventional DCE-MRI, especially in womenwith premenopausal status, non-mass enhancement, moderate to marked BPE or short time to enhancement.

15.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 124-128, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832103

ABSTRACT

In children and adolescents, acute pancreatitis is a rare cause of abdominal pain.The causes of pancreatitis in children are various including infection and drugs, but the overall cause of this condition in a pediatric patient is sometimes unknown. We describe a case of Burkitt lymphoma which showed acute pancreatitis findings as an initial presentation. In this case, a 16-year-old boy presented with abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant that had been present for one month. Pancreatitis was suspected due to high amylase and lipase and the computed tomography findings in the patient, which showed swelling and adjacent infiltration of the pancreas. However, initial treatments did not improve the patient’s symptoms. The following imaging studies showed mass-like lesions involving the pancreas, distal duodenum and jejunum associated with mesenteric lymphadenopathy that suggested a lymphoma in this case. In the final analysis, the patient was diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma which was seen on bone marrow biopsies and also found on the small bowel tissue biopsies.

16.
Brain & Neurorehabilitation ; : e5-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897394

ABSTRACT

Bladder diverticulum can be caused by many varying factors. It is usually asymptomatic in nature and thus often found by chance. In adult males, it can develop as a result of increased intravesicular pressure in the presence of an underlying benign prostatic hyperplasia. We observed a case in which a patient with asymptomatic bladder diverticulum developed new urinary symptoms owing to an underlying neurogenic lower urinary tract disorder which occurred following a cerebral infarction.

17.
Brain & Neurorehabilitation ; : e5-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889690

ABSTRACT

Bladder diverticulum can be caused by many varying factors. It is usually asymptomatic in nature and thus often found by chance. In adult males, it can develop as a result of increased intravesicular pressure in the presence of an underlying benign prostatic hyperplasia. We observed a case in which a patient with asymptomatic bladder diverticulum developed new urinary symptoms owing to an underlying neurogenic lower urinary tract disorder which occurred following a cerebral infarction.

18.
Brain & Neurorehabilitation ; : 5-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785549

ABSTRACT

Bladder diverticulum can be caused by many varying factors. It is usually asymptomatic in nature and thus often found by chance. In adult males, it can develop as a result of increased intravesicular pressure in the presence of an underlying benign prostatic hyperplasia. We observed a case in which a patient with asymptomatic bladder diverticulum developed new urinary symptoms owing to an underlying neurogenic lower urinary tract disorder which occurred following a cerebral infarction.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Cerebral Infarction , Diverticulum , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Stroke , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic , Urinary Tract
19.
Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition ; : 80-85, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719604

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Abernethy malformation is a rare condition, which was first described in 1793 as a congenital extrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (CEPS) directing splanchnic blood flow into the inferior vena cava. Eighty cases have been published so far that reported CEPS, while in Korea, very few cases have been reported. Through this study, we present 6 cases of patients diagnosed with CEPS at Samsung Medical Center and compare these with other such cases published in France and China. METHODS: We reviewed clinical, laboratory, and imaging data of 6 children with CEPS in our pediatric clinic between 2004 and 2017. RESULTS: A total of 6 children with CEPS was included in this study, namely, one with type 1a, two with type 1b, and three with type 2 CEPS. The most common presenting symptom was gastrointestinal bleeding (50.0%). Therapeutic interventions included shunting vessel ligation (16.7%) in type 2 CEPS and liver transplantation (16.7%) in type 2 CEPS patient with suddenly developed hepatic encephalopathy. CONCLUSION: There is no consensus guideline for the optimal management of patients with CEPS. Large-sample studies regarding CEPS are needed to evaluate the characteristics of patients with CEPS and determine the treatment guideline for CEPS.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , China , Consensus , France , Hemorrhage , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Korea , Ligation , Liver Transplantation , Vena Cava, Inferior
20.
Ultrasonography ; : 355-362, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731014

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in patients aged 65 and older in order to predict postoperative recurrence based on the results of ultrasonographic surveillance. METHODS: Among 1,494 patients (200 male and 1,294 female; mean age, 46.6±11.3 years) who underwent surgery for thyroid cancer at our institution between 2006 and 2015, we retrospectively enrolled 150 PTC patients (29 male and 121 female; mean age, 69.4±4.2 years). To identify the risk factors for recurrence, we analyzed age, gender, multiplicity, size, number, extrathyroidal extension (ETE) of the tumor, lymph node metastasis (LNM), type of surgery, and the dose of radioactive ablation using a Cox regression model to identify hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: Among the 115 asymptomatic patients with PTCs detected by screening ultrasonography (n=86), other cross-sectional imaging modalities (computed tomography or positron emission tomography-computed tomography, n=13), or incidentally through a surgical specimen (n=16), 78 patients were confirmed to have papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs). The other 35 patients presented with palpable neck masses (n=25), vocal cord palsy (n=9) or blood-tinged sputum (n=1). During the follow-up period (mean, 43.6 months), 17 patients (12.5%) experienced recurrence in the neck. None of the patients died due to PTC-related recurrence or distant metastasis during the follow-up period. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that tumor size (HR, 2.12; P<0.001) and LNM (central LNM: HR, 9.08; P=0.004; lateral LNM: HR, 14.71; P=0.002; both central and lateral LNM: HR, 58.41; P<0.001) significantly increased the recurrence rate. ETE, LNM, and recurrence were significantly less frequent in PTMCs than in non-PTMC (all P<0.001). CONCLUSION: PTCs of small size and absent LNM showed significantly better prognoses in patients 65 years and older.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Electrons , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Mass Screening , Neck , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sputum , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Ultrasonography , Vocal Cord Paralysis
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