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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913833

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare disease in children and there are some different characteristics between children and adult. We aimed to evaluate incidence, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of pediatric APL in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Seventy-nine pediatric APL patients diagnosed from January 2009 to December 2016 in 16 tertiary medical centers in Korea were reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#Of 801 acute myeloid leukemia children, 79 (9.9%) were diagnosed with APL. The median age at diagnosis was 10.6 years (range, 1.3 to 18.0). Male and female ratio was 1:0.93. Thirty patients (38.0%) had white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 10×109/L at diagnosis. All patients received induction therapy consisting of all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy. Five patients (6.6%) died during induction chemotherapy and 66 patients (86.8%) achieved complete remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy. The causes of death were three intracranial hemorrhage, one cerebral infarction, and one sepsis. Five patients (7.1%) suffered a relapse during or after maintenance chemotherapy. The estimated 4-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 82.1%±4.4%, 89.7%±5.1%, respectively. The 4-year OS was significantly higher in patients with initial WBC < 10×109/L than in those with initial WBC ≥ 10×109/L (p=0.020). @*Conclusion@#This study showed that the CR rates and survival outcomes in Korean pediatric APL patients were relatively good. The initial WBC count was the most important prognostic factor and most causes of death were related to serious bleeding in the early stage of treatment.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831569

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes 10%–20% of all malignant lymphomas and has a high cure rate (5-year survival, around 90%). Recently, interest has increased concerning preventing secondary complications (secondary cancer, endocrine disorders) in long-term survivors. We aimed to study the epidemiologic features and therapeutic outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a multicenter, retrospective study of 224 patients aged < 25 years diagnosed with HL at 22 participating institutes in Korea from January 2007 to August 2016. @*Results@#A higher percentage of males was diagnosed at a younger age. Nodular sclerosis histopathological HL subtype was most common, followed by mixed cellularity subtype.Eighty-one (36.2%), 101 (45.1%), and 42 (18.8%) patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine was the most common protocol (n = 102, 45.5%). Event-free survival rate was 86.0% ± 2.4%, while five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.1% ± 1.4%: 98.7% ± 1.3%, 97.7% ± 1.6%, and 86.5% ± 5.6% in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Five-year OS was worse in patients with B-symptoms, stage IV disease, highrisk, splenic involvement, extra-nodal lymphoma, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase level.In multivariate analysis, B-symptoms and extra-nodal involvement were prognostic factors for poor OS. Late complications of endocrine disorders and secondary malignancy were observed in 17 and 6 patients, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study on the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. Future prospective studies are indicated to develop therapies that minimize treatment toxicity while maximizing cure rates in children, adolescents, and young adults with HL.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831549

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hereditary hemolytic anemia (HHA) is a rare disease characterized by premature red blood cell (RBC) destruction due to intrinsic RBC defects. The RBC Disorder Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology established and updated the standard operating procedure for making an accurate diagnosis of HHA since 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate a nationwide epidemiology of Korean HHA. @*Methods@#We collected the data of a newly diagnosed pediatric HHA cohort (2007–2016) and compared this cohort's characteristics with those of a previously surveyed pediatric HHA cohort (1997–2006) in Korea. Each participant's information was retrospectively collected by a questionnaire survey. @*Results@#A total of 369 children with HHA from 38 hospitals distributed in 16 of 17 districts of Korea were investigated. RBC membranopathies, hemoglobinopathies, RBC enzymopathies, and unknown etiologies accounted for 263 (71.3%), 59 (16.0%), 23 (6.2%), and 24 (6.5%) of the cases, respectively. Compared to the cohort from the previous decade, the proportions of hemoglobinopathies and RBC enzymopathies significantly increased (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively). Twenty-three of the 59 hemoglobinopathy patients had immigrant mothers, mostly from South-East Asia. @*Conclusion@#In Korea, thalassemia traits have increased over the past 10 years, reflecting both increased awareness of this disease and increased international marriages. The enhanced recognition of RBC enzymopathies is due to advances in diagnostic technique; however, 6.5% of HHA patients still do not have a clear diagnosis. It is necessary to improve accessibility of diagnosing HHA.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831542

ABSTRACT

Background@#The objective of this study was to examine changes in the prevalence of cytotoxic-associated gene A (CagA) positive Helicobacter pylori infection in Jinju, Korea, over the last 20 years. @*Methods@#Three cross-sectional analyses were conducted concurrently. A total of 1,305 serum samples were collected from 1994–1995, 2004–2005, and 2014–2015, respectively. The presence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA, and IgM antibodies against H. pylori CagA protein was examined by western blotting. @*Results@#Overall, seropositivity for anti-CagA IgG antibody was significantly decreased from 63.2% to 42.5% over the last 20 years (P < 0.001). Anti-CagA IgG seropositivities in children and young adults aged 10–29 years decreased from 1994 (60.0%–85.0%) to 2015 (12.5%– 28.9%). The age when plateau of increasing IgG seropositivity was reached in each study period shifted from the 15–19 year-old group in 1994–1995 (85.0%) to the 40–49 year-old group in 2014–2015 (82.5%). Overall seropositive rates of anti-CagA IgA and IgM antibodies did not change significantly either over the last 20 years. @*Conclusion@#H. pylori infection rate in children and young adults declined over 20 years in Jinju, probably due to improved sanitation, housing, or economy.

5.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 131-137, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831206

ABSTRACT

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disease in which the patient cannot concentrate urine despite appropriate or high secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Congenital nephrogenic DI is caused by the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) or aquaporin 2 (AQP2) gene mutation; the AVPR2 genetic mutation accounts for 90% of the cases. National health screening for infants and children was launched in 2007 in order to prevent accidents and promote public health in infants and children in Korea. The program has been widely used as a primary clinical service in Korea. We treated an infant with faltering growth and delayed development detected by the National health screening program, and diagnosed the problem as nephrogenic DI caused by a rare missense mutation of c.490T>C on the AVPR2 gene. This case can be a good educational nephrogenic DI with a rare AVPR2 mutation, which was well screened and traced by the national health screening program for infants and children in Korea.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: von Willebrand disease (VWD) is one of the most common inherited bleeding disorders. However, the number of patients who register to the Korea Hemophilia Foundation (KHF) is much lower than the expected prevalence rate and only few hospitals perform tests for diagnosis autonomously. Thus, we surveyed practical realities of VWD in Yeungnam region. METHODS: Patients with VWD (N=267) who were diagnosed at eleven university hospitals from March 1995 to March 2018 were enrolled in this study. We evaluated the medical records from each hospital retrospectively. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-eight children and 39 adults met the diagnostic criteria for VWD. Seventy-eight (57.4%) patients had the blood type O. Fifty-eight patients were definite type 1 (21.7%), 151 were possible type 1 (56.6%), and the others were type 2. Abnormal laboratory findings were the most common factor for the diagnosis in children. VWF mutations were detected in 17 patients. Patients with a family history showed age of diagnosis of 9 y, which is higher than in those with no family history (6 yr), and also showed a higher rate of significant bleeding (32.1% vs. 14.2%). VWF:RCo and VWF:Ag tests were performed in-hospital at only 1 of 11 hospitals. Twelve of 267 patients were enrolled at the KHF (4.5%). CONCLUSION: A high rate of out-sourcing studies may result in inaccurate diagnosis. The registration rate to the KHF is still lower than the prevalence rate. A comprehensive nationwide registration system is necessary in order to identify the actual prevalence rate and promote the diagnosis of VWD in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Diagnosis , Hemophilia A , Hemorrhage , Hospitals, University , Humans , Korea , Medical Records , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , von Willebrand Diseases
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: NUP98 has numerous partner genes of which plant homeodomain (PHD) finger protein 23 (PHF23) fusion with NUP98 (NP23) can be detected by RT-PCR in patients with cytogenetically normal acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). In this fusion transcript of NP23 PHD of PHF23 is known to specifically bind H3K4me3 residues and act as a chromatic modifier. Disulfiram (DSF) which inhibits the binding of PHD to H3K4me3 residues selectively killed NP23 myeloblasts in vitro and therefore, we planned to evaluate the efficacy of DSF in vivo. METHODS: Cultured 961C cells (CD45.2), NP23 myeloblast cells were transplanted into B57BL/6 mice (CD45.1). Using limit dilution assay the number of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) could be calculated. A certain amount of 961C cells were transplanted into B57BL/6 mice and DSF was treated after 1 week. The engraftment level was monitored with CD45.2. Kaplan Meier survival curve was used to compare the survival between therapeutic and control group. RESULTS: 961C cells could be transplanted without radiation in recipient mice. Calculated LSC was estimated to be 1 out of 184 cells (95% CI range, 56–609). When treated with DSF of different doses and administration routes in 961C recipient mice no survival advantage of DSF was observed in 961C transplanted immunocompetent mouse, however it was evident that engraftment level was consistent in both groups. CONCLUSION: No survival advantage of DSF in 961C transplanted immunocompetent mouse was observed, however it was evident that 961C cells shared niche with normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We expect that 961C cells and transplanted recipient mice have the potential to be used as in vivo system for new drugs development as well as for research dealing with niche for normal HSCs and LSCs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disulfiram , Fingers , Granulocyte Precursor Cells , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Mice , Plants , Stem Cells
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717638

ABSTRACT

Cytomegalovirus is a common virus that is mostly asymptomatic when infected, but rarely causes life-threatening hemolysis especially in immunocompromised children. We report a case of antiglobulin test negative severe hemolytic anemia caused by cytomegalovirus infection developed in an immune competent 9-year-old girl. The patient's hemoglobin level was 4.8 g/dL on the day of admission. The diagnosis was achieved by exclusion of other causes of hemolytic anemia and serological evidence of recent CMV infection. The patient was successfully treated with anti-viral agents and steroids resulting in recovery from anemia. Clinicians should consider cytomegalovirus infection in the differential diagnosis of hemolytic anemia in pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Anemia, Hemolytic , Child , Coombs Test , Cytomegalovirus , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Hemolysis , Humans , Steroids
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741357

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 12-year-old girl who had mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) associated with acutepyelonephritis caused by Escherichia coli. The patient was admitted with a high fever, and she was diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis based on pyuria and the results of urine culture, which detected cefotaxime-sensitive E. coli. Although intravenous cefotaxime and tobramycin were administered, her fever persisted and her C-reactive protein level increased to 307 mg/L. On day 3 of admission, she demonstrated abnormal neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as delirium, ataxia, and word salad. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain performed on day 4 showed marked hyperintensities in the bilateral corpus callosum and deep white matter on diffusion-weighted images, with corresponding diffusion restriction on apparent diffusion coefficient mapping. No abnormalities or pathogens were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid; however, lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxin) were detected in plasma (41.6 pg/mL), associated with acute neurological deterioration. Her clinical condition gradually improved, and no neurological abnormalities were observed on day 6. Follow-up brain MRI performed 2 weeks later showed near-disappearance of the previously noted hyperintense lesions. In this patient, we first proved endotoxemia in a setting of MERS. The release of LPS following antibiotic administration might be related to the development of MERS in this patient. The possibility of MERS should be considered in patients who present with acute pyelonephritis and demonstrate delirious behavior.


Subject(s)
Ataxia , Brain , Brain Diseases , C-Reactive Protein , Cefotaxime , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Child , Corpus Callosum , Delirium , Diffusion , Endotoxemia , Escherichia coli , Female , Fever , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Plasma , Pyelonephritis , Pyuria , Tobramycin , White Matter
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is rare in pediatric patients compared to adults, but it's incidence is gradually increasing. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis of pediatric patients with VTE in Korea. METHODS: Between January 2000 and July 2017, 249,312 medical records of the patients older than 1 year who were hospitalized in the department of pediatrics of 10 university hospitals in Yeungnam region were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The overall incidence of VTE was 4.9 per 10,000 admissions. Of the total 123 patients, 80 (65.0%) were male and the median age was 10.8 years (range, 1.0–23.5 years). Magnetic resonance imaging was performed most frequently to confirm the diagnosis of VTE (43.1%). Thrombosis occurred in the cerebral vessels (46.3%), lower extremities (23.8%), pulmonary (19.5%), abdomen (9.8%), and upper extremities (4.1%). One hundred and six patients had underlying causes such as cancer (27.6%), infection (26.8%), intravenous catheter insertion (17.9%), and surgery (14.6%). Protein C was evaluated in 39 patients (31.7%), protein S in 40 (32.5%), antithrombin (AT) III in 52 (42.3%), and homocysteine in 21 (17.1%). Among them, one patient with a family history of AT III deficiency had SERPINC gene mutation. Seventy-seven patients (62.6%) started anticoagulation treatment. Most (52.0%) were treated for more than 90 days. CONCLUSION: Healthcare providers must be aware of the potential for VTE development in childhood. In the near future, a nationwide survey should be investigated to determine the incidence rate and the trends in VTE among Korean children.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Adult , Catheters , Child , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Health Personnel , Homocysteine , Hospitals, University , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Lower Extremity , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Medical Records , Pediatrics , Prognosis , Protein C , Protein S , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thrombosis , Upper Extremity , Venous Thromboembolism
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197958

ABSTRACT

During the last three decades childhood cancer survivorship study has extensively developed and now we have much extent of knowledge about survivor's long-term mortality and chronic illness. One of the many challenges that females survivors face includes reproductive health, which involves reproductive and sexual health changes that could later significantly reduce one's quality of life. Alkylating chemotherapy, irradiation of the CNS and/or ovaries, and pelvic and genitourinary surgery can adversely affect the reproductive organs. Increased awareness of the unique needs of female cancer survivors, timely evaluation of gonadal function, and active intervention for fertility preservation before, during, and after therapy is warranted.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease , Drug Therapy , Female , Fertility Preservation , Gonads , Humans , Hypogonadism , Infertility , Mortality , Ovary , Quality of Life , Reproductive Health , Survival Rate , Survivors
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-139269

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Bacterial meningitis score (BMS) has been introduced as a clinical predictive parameter for diagnosing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis in children at very low risk of bacterial meningitis in the postconjugate vaccine era. This study aimed to examine the usefulness of the BMS and to identify an additional index to distinguish between enteroviral meningitis and bacterial meningitis. METHODS: We retrospectively included 289 patients with enteroviral meningitis and 10 patients with bacterial meningitis between the aged 2 months to 16 years. We applied the BMS to all the included patients, and compared the initial laboratory and clinical characteristics between the two groups. RESULTS: Of the 210 patients categorized as having a very low risk of bacterial meningitis based on BMS, 2 (1%) had bacterial meningitis, both of whom were younger than 3 months. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of the BMS for bacterial meningitis were 80%, 72%, and 99%, respectively. Compared with patients with enteroviral meningitis, those with bacterial meningitis were younger (0.3 years vs. 5.0 years, P<0.01), had higher leukocyte count (530/mm³ vs. 43/mm³, P=0.04), neutrophil count (490/mm³ vs. 20/mm³, P<0.01), and protein level (106 mg/dL vs. 30 mg/dL, P<0.01) in the CSF, and increased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level (79 mg/L vs. 4.5 mg/L, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Although the BMS is a useful clinical predictive parameter for identifying children with CSF pleocytosis who are at very low risk of bacterial meningitis, it should be applied with caution in young infants. In addition to applying BMS, clinical parameters such as CSF profiles and serum CRP levels are useful in clinical decision making for the management of children with CSF pleocytosis.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Child , Clinical Decision-Making , Humans , Infant , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytosis , Meningitis , Meningitis, Aseptic , Meningitis, Bacterial , Neutrophils , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-139264

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Bacterial meningitis score (BMS) has been introduced as a clinical predictive parameter for diagnosing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis in children at very low risk of bacterial meningitis in the postconjugate vaccine era. This study aimed to examine the usefulness of the BMS and to identify an additional index to distinguish between enteroviral meningitis and bacterial meningitis. METHODS: We retrospectively included 289 patients with enteroviral meningitis and 10 patients with bacterial meningitis between the aged 2 months to 16 years. We applied the BMS to all the included patients, and compared the initial laboratory and clinical characteristics between the two groups. RESULTS: Of the 210 patients categorized as having a very low risk of bacterial meningitis based on BMS, 2 (1%) had bacterial meningitis, both of whom were younger than 3 months. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of the BMS for bacterial meningitis were 80%, 72%, and 99%, respectively. Compared with patients with enteroviral meningitis, those with bacterial meningitis were younger (0.3 years vs. 5.0 years, P<0.01), had higher leukocyte count (530/mm³ vs. 43/mm³, P=0.04), neutrophil count (490/mm³ vs. 20/mm³, P<0.01), and protein level (106 mg/dL vs. 30 mg/dL, P<0.01) in the CSF, and increased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level (79 mg/L vs. 4.5 mg/L, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Although the BMS is a useful clinical predictive parameter for identifying children with CSF pleocytosis who are at very low risk of bacterial meningitis, it should be applied with caution in young infants. In addition to applying BMS, clinical parameters such as CSF profiles and serum CRP levels are useful in clinical decision making for the management of children with CSF pleocytosis.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Child , Clinical Decision-Making , Humans , Infant , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytosis , Meningitis , Meningitis, Aseptic , Meningitis, Bacterial , Neutrophils , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788598

ABSTRACT

During the last three decades childhood cancer survivorship study has extensively developed and now we have much extent of knowledge about survivor's long-term mortality and chronic illness. One of the many challenges that females survivors face includes reproductive health, which involves reproductive and sexual health changes that could later significantly reduce one's quality of life. Alkylating chemotherapy, irradiation of the CNS and/or ovaries, and pelvic and genitourinary surgery can adversely affect the reproductive organs. Increased awareness of the unique needs of female cancer survivors, timely evaluation of gonadal function, and active intervention for fertility preservation before, during, and after therapy is warranted.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease , Drug Therapy , Female , Fertility Preservation , Gonads , Humans , Hypogonadism , Infertility , Mortality , Ovary , Quality of Life , Reproductive Health , Survival Rate , Survivors
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201258

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The management and clinical course in pediatric patients who had ingested foreign body were investigated retrospectively to evaluate the frequency and factor associated with successful removal of fishbone foreign body. METHODS: Based on the medical records of patients younger than 15 years old who visited emergency room because of foreign body ingestion from January 1999 to December 2012, the authors reviewed clinical characteristics including type of ingested foreign bodies, time to visits, managements and complications. RESULTS: Fishbone (50.1%) was the most common ingested foreign body in children. Among 416 patients with ingested fishbone, 245 (58.9%) were identified and removed using laryngoscope, rigid or flexible endoscope from pharynx or upper esophagus by otolaryngologists and pediatric gastroenterologists. The kind of ingested fish bone in children was diverse. The mean age of identified and removed fishbone group was 7.39 years old, and higher than that of unidentified fishbone group (5.81 years old, p<0.001). Identified and removed fishbone group had shorter time until hospital visit than the unidentified fishbone group (2.03 vs. 6.47 hours, p<0.001). No complication due to ingested fishbone or procedure occurred. CONCLUSION: Older age and shorter time from accident to hospital visit were the different factors between success and failure on removal of ingested fish bone in children.


Subject(s)
Child , Eating , Emergency Service, Hospital , Endoscopes , Esophagus , Foreign Bodies , Humans , Laryngoscopes , Medical Records , Pharynx , Retrospective Studies
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98141

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mumps meningitis is a common complication of mumps infection; however, information on mumps meningitis in the postvaccine era is limited. The purpose of the present study was to determine factors associated with mumps meningitis and to discuss the effect of vaccination on this disease. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients younger than 19 years with mumps, diagnosed at a university hospital in Korea between 2003 and 2013. Patients were divided into groups with and without meningitis, and the clinical features of the 2 groups were compared. RESULTS: The study enrolled 119 patients: 19 patients with meningitis and 100 patients without. Univariate analysis showed that older age (median: 15 years vs. 9.5 years, respectively), a longer interval from last vaccination (median: 10.2 years vs. 4.8 years, respectively), and febrile presentation (94.7% vs. 31.0%, respectively) were significantly associated with mumps meningitis. Sex, number of vaccination doses, bilateral parotitis, and the presence of complications other than meningitis did not differ between the 2 groups. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.89; P=0.04) and fever (odds ratio, 30.46; 95% confidence interval, 3.27-283.61; P<0.01) remained independent factors for mumps meningitis. CONCLUSION: Clinicians in the postvaccine era should be aware of the possibility of mumps meningitis in febrile cases of mumps in adolescents, regardless of the number of vaccination doses. To establish the role of vaccination in mumps meningitis, further studies will be necessary.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Fever , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Meningitis , Meningitis, Viral , Mumps , Parotitis , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-125502

ABSTRACT

We report a human parechovirus-3 (HPeV-3) infection in 2 neonates who had prolonged fever (>5 days) with palmar-plantar erythema. This distinctive rash was observed 4–5 days after fever onset, just before defervescence. Elevated aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ferritin levels were characteristic laboratory findings in the 2 cases, suggesting tissue damage caused by hypercytokinemia. Case 1 was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, considering the possibility of severe systemic inflammatory responses. The initial ferritin level was 385 ng/mL (range, 0–400 ng/mL); however, the level increased to 2,581 ng/dL on day 5 after fever onset. Case 2 presented with milder clinical symptoms, and the patient recovered spontaneously. HPeV-3 was detected in cerebrospinal fluid and/or blood samples, but no other causative agents were detected. The findings from our cases, in accordance with recent studies, suggest that clinical features such as palmar-plantar erythema and/or hyperferritinemia might be indicators of HPeV-3 infection in neonates with sepsis-like illness. In clinical practice, where virology testing is not easily accessible, clinical features such as palmar-plantar erythema and/or hyperferritinemia might be helpful to diagnose HPeV-3 infection.


Subject(s)
Aspartate Aminotransferases , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Erythema , Exanthema , Ferritins , Fever , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Infant, Newborn , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Parechovirus , Virology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160914

ABSTRACT

Tularemia is a potentially severe zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis. A lack of awareness about tularemia can be embarrassing and could result in delayed treatment because of improper diagnosis. The diagnosis of tularemia is difficult, because the infections are rare and the clinical spectrum is broad. As only 1 adult case has been reported in Korea thus far, pediatricians in Korea may be unfamiliar with tularemia. We report our experience with a 14-year-old male adolescent with tularemia who presented with atypical pneumonia and possible infective endocarditis. Although the infectivity and mortality rates for tularemia are very high if left untreated, we did not suspect tularemia in this case until the incidental isolation of F. tularensis. The present case suggests that clinicians in Korea should be more aware of tularemia. This case also suggests that tularemia should be considered in undetermined cases of atypical pneumonia or acute febrile illness without local signs.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Diagnosis , Endocarditis , Francisella tularensis , Humans , Korea , Mortality , Pediatrics , Pneumonia , Tularemia , Zoonoses
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