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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 279-290, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966470

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Renal tumors account for approximately 7% of all childhood cancers. These include Wilms tumor (WT), clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK), malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRTK), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN) and other rare tumors. We investigated the epidemiology of pediatric renal tumors in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#From January 2001 to December 2015, data of pediatric patients (0–18 years) newly-diagnosed with renal tumors at 26 hospitals were retrospectively analyzed. @*Results@#Among 439 patients (male, 240), the most common tumor was WT (n=342, 77.9%), followed by RCC (n=36, 8.2%), CCSK (n=24, 5.5%), MRTK (n=16, 3.6%), CMN (n=12, 2.7%), and others (n=9, 2.1%). Median age at diagnosis was 27.1 months (range 0-225.5) and median follow-up duration was 88.5 months (range 0-211.6). Overall, 32 patients died, of whom 17, 11, 1, and 3 died of relapse, progressive disease, second malignant neoplasm, and treatment-related mortality. Five-year overall survival and event free survival were 97.2% and 84.8% in WT, 90.6% and 82.1% in RCC, 81.1% and 63.6% in CCSK, 60.3% and 56.2% in MRTK, and 100% and 91.7% in CMN, respectively (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#The pediatric renal tumor types in Korea are similar to those previously reported in other countries. WT accounted for a large proportion and survival was excellent. Non-Wilms renal tumors included a variety of tumors and showed inferior outcome, especially MRTK. Further efforts are necessary to optimize the treatment and analyze the genetic characteristics of pediatric renal tumors in Korea.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e279-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831549

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hereditary hemolytic anemia (HHA) is a rare disease characterized by premature red blood cell (RBC) destruction due to intrinsic RBC defects. The RBC Disorder Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology established and updated the standard operating procedure for making an accurate diagnosis of HHA since 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate a nationwide epidemiology of Korean HHA. @*Methods@#We collected the data of a newly diagnosed pediatric HHA cohort (2007–2016) and compared this cohort's characteristics with those of a previously surveyed pediatric HHA cohort (1997–2006) in Korea. Each participant's information was retrospectively collected by a questionnaire survey. @*Results@#A total of 369 children with HHA from 38 hospitals distributed in 16 of 17 districts of Korea were investigated. RBC membranopathies, hemoglobinopathies, RBC enzymopathies, and unknown etiologies accounted for 263 (71.3%), 59 (16.0%), 23 (6.2%), and 24 (6.5%) of the cases, respectively. Compared to the cohort from the previous decade, the proportions of hemoglobinopathies and RBC enzymopathies significantly increased (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively). Twenty-three of the 59 hemoglobinopathy patients had immigrant mothers, mostly from South-East Asia. @*Conclusion@#In Korea, thalassemia traits have increased over the past 10 years, reflecting both increased awareness of this disease and increased international marriages. The enhanced recognition of RBC enzymopathies is due to advances in diagnostic technique; however, 6.5% of HHA patients still do not have a clear diagnosis. It is necessary to improve accessibility of diagnosing HHA.

3.
The Ewha Medical Journal ; : 75-81, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717369

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) is characterized by lymphadenopathy and fever, and is usually self-limited. This study analyzed the clinical characteristics of pediatric patients with KFD. METHODS: This retrospective, observational, single-center study was conducted in South Korea from March 2008 to October 2015. KFD was diagnosed based on clinical, radiological or histological findings and excluded when there were any other causes of lymphadenopathy. Medical records were reviewed for clinical and laboratory manifestations. RESULTS: A total of 35 cases were included. The mean patient age was 12.1±2.9 years (range, 5 to 17 years); the male-to-female ratio was 1:0.8. The main clinical manifestations were cervical lymphadenopathy and fever in 34 cases (97%). The mean duration of fever was 12.2±8.3 days (range, 2 to 37 days). We noted enlargement of lymph nodes in the cervical, mesenteric (n=5, 14%), axillary (n=2, 6%), and inguinal (n=1, 3%) regions. Hepatosplenomegaly, loss of appetite, and rash were observed. On laboratory examinations, elevation of ferritin, leukopenia, and positivity for anti-nuclear antibodies were frequently observed. Twelve patients underwent biopsy and 23 cases were diagnosed by radiological findings. The mean duration of hospitalization for all cases was 7.9±2.9 days (range, 3 to 13 days) and steroids were administered in 10 cases. KFD recurrence was observed in 2 cases (5.7%) with the time to relapse of 7 months and 4 years. There were no cases with systemic lupus erythematous or other autoimmune disease. CONCLUSION: KFD should be considered in pediatric patients with lymphadenopathy and prolonged fever. Patients with KFD should be monitored for recurrence and the development of autoimmune disease.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Antibodies , Appetite , Autoimmune Diseases , Biopsy , Exanthema , Ferritins , Fever , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis , Hospitalization , Korea , Leukopenia , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Diseases , Medical Records , Pediatrics , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Steroids
4.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 167-173, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714563

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a hyperinflammatory syndrome with many causes, including Kawasaki disease (KD). The purpose of this study was to identify the laboratory tests needed to easily differentiate KD with HLH from incomplete KD alone. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study on patients diagnosed with incomplete KD and incomplete KD with HLH (HLH-KD) between January 2012 and March 2015. We compared 8 secondary HLH patients who were first diagnosed with incomplete KD with all 247 incomplete KD diagnosed patients during the study period. The complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, platelet count, and serum total protein, albumin, triglyceride, C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and ferritin levels were compared. Clinical characteristics and echocardiography findings were also compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: The total duration of fever was longer in the HLH-KD group than in the KD group. White blood cell and platelet counts were higher in the KD group. Alanine aminotransferase, ferritin, and coronary artery diameter were increased in the HLH-KD group compared with those in the KD group. The median of NT-proBNP was significantly higher in the HLH-KD group than in the KD group at 889.0 (interquartile range [IQR], 384.5–1792.0) pg/mL vs. 233.0 (IQR, 107.0–544.0) pg/mL. CONCLUSION: The NT-proBNP level may be helpful in distinguishing incomplete KD from KD with HLH. The NT-proBNP level should be determined in KD patients with prolonged fever, in addition to the white blood cell count, platelet count, and ferritin level, to evaluate secondary HLH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alanine Transaminase , Blood Cell Count , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , Coronary Vessels , Echocardiography , Ferritins , Fever , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytes , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , Triglycerides
5.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 128-131, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64359

ABSTRACT

Translocations leading to fusions between the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGH) and various partner genes have been reported in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). However, submicroscopic deletions within IGH in B-ALL have not been rigorously assessed. In this study, we investigated characteristics of IGH submicroscopic deletions, by FISH, in B-ALL with IGH rearrangements. FISH was performed by using commercially available IGH dual-color break-apart rearrangement probes (Abbott/Vysis, Downers Grove, IL, USA; Kreatech, Amsterdam, Netherlands). The study group included seven B-ALL patients with IGH rearrangements, observed by FISH. Among them, two exhibited deletion of the 5' variable region of IGH by FISH. The B-ALL in these two patients included two kinds of abnormal cells; one had an IGH rearrangement without any IGH submicroscopic deletion, while the other had an IGH submicroscopic deletion, which showed that one normal fusion signal and one 3' IGH signal were detected. Thus, submicroscopic deletion of the IGH 5' variable region may have occurred in either the native or rearranged chromosome 14. These findings indicate that B-ALL with IGH rearrangements may be accompanied by submicroscopic deletions of the IGH 5' variable region, which can be detected by FISH. The clinical significance of such deletions is unclear, but the loss of part of the IGH gene in B-ALL warrants further study.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Gene Deletion , Gene Rearrangement , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics
6.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 172-176, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788511

ABSTRACT

A 10-year-old boy with severe aplastic anemia was admitted for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. After conditioning chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, and antithymocyte immunoglobulin, he presented with fever and abdominal pain on day 0 of stem cell transplantation. After diagnosis of acute appendicitis with minor perforation, appendectomy was performed just after cell infusion. A week after the procedure, he showed two huge liver abscesses in S4 and S6 segments. We used broad spectrum antibiotics along with antifungal agents. Percutaneous drainage was attempted, but no fluid was removed and no microorganisms were isolated. After 7 weeks of antibiotics and antifungal therapy, liver abscesses showed improvement. We report a case of successfully treated appendicitis with liver abscesses in a severely neutropenic patient during allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Abdominal Pain , Anemia, Aplastic , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antifungal Agents , Appendectomy , Appendicitis , Cyclophosphamide , Diagnosis , Drainage , Drug Therapy , Fever , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Immunoglobulins , Liver Abscess , Stem Cell Transplantation , Typhlitis
7.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 177-180, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788510

ABSTRACT

Malignant salivary gland tumors only represent 0.08% of all childhood tumors and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common histologic type. Although there are many reports describing second malignant neoplasm (SMN) in patients treated for childhood cancer, salivary gland tumors rarely appears. In Korea, there has been no report about MEC that developed in children as a SMN. We report a MEC in a 4 years and 8 months old female child that developed after completing treatment for yolk sac tumor of lower abdomen. The primary tumor presented with metastasis at the time of diagnosis, and therefore, the child underwent high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation along with surgery and radiotherapy. Three years and five months after completing treatment, MEC developed in her submandibular gland. She was treated with surgery and radiotherapy and is in disease free state for 5 months at the time of this writing.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Abdomen , Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Endodermal Sinus Tumor , Korea , Neoplasm Metastasis , Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation , Radiotherapy , Salivary Gland Neoplasms , Salivary Glands , Submandibular Gland , Writing
8.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 278-286, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101627

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the potential utility of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for the detection of primary and metastatic lesions in pediatric neuroblastoma (NBL) patients, and to determine whether 18F-FDG PET is as beneficial as 123I-MIBG imaging. METHODS: We selected 8 NBL patients with significant residual mass after operation and who had paired 123I-MIBG and 18F-FDG PET images that were obtained during the follow-up. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts and the findings of 45 paired scans. RESULTS: Both scans correlated relatively well with the disease status as determined by standard imaging modalities during follow-up; the overall concordance rates were 32/45 (71.1%) for primary tumor sites and 33/45 (73.3%) for bone-bone marrow (BM) metastatic sites. In detecting primary tumor sites, 123I-MIBG might be superior to 18F-FDG PET. The sensitivity of 123I-MIBG and 18F-FDG PET were 96.7% and 70.9%, respectively, and their specificity were 85.7% and 92.8%, respectively. 18F-FDG PET failed to detect 9 true NBL lesions in 45 follow-up scans (false negative rate, 29%) with positive 123I-MIBG. For bone-BM metastatic sites, the sensitivity of 123I-MIBG and 18F-FDG PET were 72.7% and 81.8%, respectively, and the specificity were 79.1% and 100%, respectively. 123I-MIBG scan showed higher false positivity (20.8%) than 18F-FDG PET (0%). CONCLUSION: 123I-MIBG is superior for delineating primary tumor sites, and 18F-FDG PET could aid in discriminating inconclusive findings on bony metastatic NBL. Both scans can be complementarily used to clearly determine discrepancies or inconclusive findings on primary or bone-BM metastatic NBL during follow-up.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , 3-Iodobenzylguanidine , Bone Marrow , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Follow-Up Studies , Neuroblastoma , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radionuclide Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 172-176, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84405

ABSTRACT

A 10-year-old boy with severe aplastic anemia was admitted for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. After conditioning chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, and antithymocyte immunoglobulin, he presented with fever and abdominal pain on day 0 of stem cell transplantation. After diagnosis of acute appendicitis with minor perforation, appendectomy was performed just after cell infusion. A week after the procedure, he showed two huge liver abscesses in S4 and S6 segments. We used broad spectrum antibiotics along with antifungal agents. Percutaneous drainage was attempted, but no fluid was removed and no microorganisms were isolated. After 7 weeks of antibiotics and antifungal therapy, liver abscesses showed improvement. We report a case of successfully treated appendicitis with liver abscesses in a severely neutropenic patient during allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Abdominal Pain , Anemia, Aplastic , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antifungal Agents , Appendectomy , Appendicitis , Cyclophosphamide , Diagnosis , Drainage , Drug Therapy , Fever , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Immunoglobulins , Liver Abscess , Stem Cell Transplantation , Typhlitis
10.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 177-180, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84404

ABSTRACT

Malignant salivary gland tumors only represent 0.08% of all childhood tumors and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common histologic type. Although there are many reports describing second malignant neoplasm (SMN) in patients treated for childhood cancer, salivary gland tumors rarely appears. In Korea, there has been no report about MEC that developed in children as a SMN. We report a MEC in a 4 years and 8 months old female child that developed after completing treatment for yolk sac tumor of lower abdomen. The primary tumor presented with metastasis at the time of diagnosis, and therefore, the child underwent high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation along with surgery and radiotherapy. Three years and five months after completing treatment, MEC developed in her submandibular gland. She was treated with surgery and radiotherapy and is in disease free state for 5 months at the time of this writing.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Abdomen , Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Endodermal Sinus Tumor , Korea , Neoplasm Metastasis , Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation , Radiotherapy , Salivary Gland Neoplasms , Salivary Glands , Submandibular Gland , Writing
11.
Blood Research ; : 254-257, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to investigate the clinical pattern of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis following Kawasaki disease (HLH-KD), to enable differentiation of HLH from recurrent or refractory KD and facilitate early diagnosis. METHODS: We performed a nationwide retrospective survey and reviewed the clinical characteristics of patients with HLH-KD, including the interval between KD and HLH, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment responses, and outcomes, and compared them with historical data for both diseases. RESULTS: Twelve patients with HLH-KD, including 5 previously reported cases, were recruited. The median age was 6.5 years (range, 9 months-14.7 years). Eight patients were male and 4 were female. The median interval between the first episode of KD and the second visit with recurrent fever was 12 days (3-22 days). Of the 12 children, 2 were initially treated with intravenous IgG (IVIG) for recurrent KD when they presented at the hospital with recurrent fever. Eventually, 10 children received chemotherapy under an HLH protocol and 2 received supportive treatment. Two patients died of combined infections during chemotherapy, 1 was lost to follow up, and 9 remain alive. The overall survival rate at 4 years was 81.1% with a median follow up of 45.1 months. CONCLUSION: A diagnosis of HLH-KD should be considered when symptoms similar to recurrent KD develop within 1 month of the first episode of KD. Our findings will help physicians differentiate between HLH and the recurrent form of KD.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Early Diagnosis , Fever , Follow-Up Studies , Immunoglobulin G , Lost to Follow-Up , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
12.
Blood Research ; : 258-265, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare multiorgan disease of toxic immune activation caused by the interaction of cytotoxic T cells and innate immune cells and frequently involves the central nervous system (CNS). Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) might develop during treatment with the HLH-2004 protocol from the Histiocyte Society. The aims of this study were to evaluate clinical outcomes and putative risk factors for prediction of PRES related to HLH. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 28 patients with HLH who were treated between April 2005 and April 2012. We compared various clinical and laboratory parameters in patients without or with PRES to evaluate putative risk factors related to development of PRES. RESULTS: Six (21.4%) of the patients experienced PRES during treatment with the HLH-2004 protocol. Clinical and laboratory manifestations were not different compared with other conditions causing PRES. The main mechanism of PRES may be related to the HLH-2004 protocol and a high pro-inflammatory state. Most patients recovered quickly from neurologic manifestations without significant long-term sequelae. Preceding hypertension, an increase in ferritin level >50% compared with 1 week before development of PRES and hyponatremia were statistically significant factors. CONCLUSION: PRES is clinically reversible and has a favorable outcome in patients with HLH. Awareness of PRES and a differential diagnosis of other causes of neurologic complications, including CNS involvement of HLH, can help avoid unnecessary treatment or delayed management. Patients with preceding hypertension, hyponatremia, and rising ferritin levels during HLH treatment should be closely monitored for PRES.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Central Nervous System , Diagnosis, Differential , Ferritins , Histiocytes , Hypertension , Hyponatremia , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Medical Records , Neurologic Manifestations , Risk Factors , T-Lymphocytes
13.
Korean Journal of Hematology ; : 131-135, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-720184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA), characterized by impaired red cell production, is a rare condition that is usually symptomatic in early infancy. The purpose of this study was to assess nationwide experiences of DBA encountered over a period of 20 years. METHODS: The medical records of 56 patients diagnosed with DBA were retrospectively reviewed from November 1984 to July 2010. Fifteen institutions, including 13 university hospitals, participated in this study. RESULTS: The male-to-female ratio of patients with DBA was 1.67:1. The median age of diagnosis was 4 months, and 74.1% were diagnosed before 1 year of age. From 2000 to 2009, annual incidence was 6.6 cases per million. Excluding growth retardation, 38.2% showed congenital defects: thumb deformities, ptosis, coarctation of aorta, ventricular septal defect, strabismus, etc. The mean hemoglobin concentration was 5.1+/-1.9 g/dL, mean corpuscular volume was 93.4+/-11.6 fL, and mean number of reticulocytes was 19,700/mm3. The mean cellularity of bone marrow was 75%, with myeloid:erythroid ratio of 20.4:1. After remission, 48.9% of patients did not need further steroids. Five patients with DBA who received hematopoietic transplantation have survived. Cancer developed in 2 cases (3.6%). CONCLUSION: The incidence of DBA is similar to data already published, but our study had a male predilection. Although all patients responded to initial treatment with steroids, about half needed further steroids after remission. It is necessary to collect further data, including information regarding management pathways, from nationwide DBA registries, along with data on molecular analyses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Anemia , Anemia, Diamond-Blackfan , Aortic Coarctation , Bone Marrow , Congenital Abnormalities , Diamond , Erythrocyte Indices , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular , Hemoglobins , Hospitals, University , Incidence , Korea , Medical Records , Registries , Reticulocytes , Retrospective Studies , Steroids , Strabismus , Thumb , Transplants
14.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 95-105, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190240

ABSTRACT

Since the successful introduction of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and its combination with anthracycline-containing chemotherapy, the prognosis for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has markedly improved. With ATRA and anthracycline-based-chemotherapy, the complete remission rate is greater than 90%, and the long-term survival rate is 70-89%. Moreover, arsenic trioxide (ATO), which was introduced for APL treatment in 1994, resulted in excellent remission rates in relapsed patients with APL, and more recently, several clinical studies have been designed to explore its role in initial therapy either alone or in combination with ATRA. APL is a rare disease in children and is frequently associated with hyperleukocytosis, which is a marker for higher risk of relapse and an increased incidence of microgranular morphology. The frequency of occurrence of the promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor-alpha (PML/RARalpha) isoforms bcr 2 and bcr 3 is higher in children than in adults. Although recent clinical studies have reported comparable long-term survival rates in patients with APL, therapy for APL in children is challenging because of the risk of early death and the potential long-term cardiac toxicity resulting from the need to use high doses of anthracyclines. Additional prospective, randomized, large clinical trials are needed to address several issues in pediatric APL and to possibly minimize or eliminate the need for chemotherapy by combining ATRA and ATO. In this review article, we discuss the molecular pathogenesis, diagnostic progress, and most recent therapeutic advances in the treatment of children with APL.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Humans , Anthracyclines , Arsenic , Arsenicals , Incidence , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Oxides , Prognosis , Protein Isoforms , Rare Diseases , Recurrence , Survival Rate , Tretinoin
15.
Korean Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition ; : 258-268, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148025

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3)+T cells are the major regulatory T cells controlling all aspects of the immune response. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a suppressive cytokine which mediates the suppressive action of FOXP3+T cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of FOXP3+T cells, TGF-beta in colonic mucosa of children with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: Colonic mucosal biopsies were obtained from 10 children with CD (12~15 years of age) and 11 control (8~15 years of age). Frequencies of FOXP3+T, CD4+T cells and TGF-beta1 expression were examined in the lamina propria (LP) and lymphoid aggregates or follicles (LA/F) by immunohistochemistry, and later evaluated by association with disease activity. RESULTS: In the LP of CD group, frequencies of FOXP3+T, CD4+T cells, proportion of FOXP3/CD4+T cells and TGF-beta1 expression significantly increased compared to the control. In the LA/F of CD group, frequency of FOXP3+T cells, proportion of FOXP3/CD4+T cells and TGF-beta1 expression significantly increased compared to the control (p<0.05). CD4+T cells also increased compared to the control, but this finding was not significant. In the LP and LA/F of CD group, frequency of FOXP3+T cells exhibited positive correlation with CD4+T cells (p<0.05). In the LP and LA/F of CD group, TGF-beta1 expression had positive correlation with CRP, Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index, and negative correlation with hematocrit and albumin (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Increased frequency of FOXP3+T cells and TGF-beta1 expression in colonic mucosa of CD can be interpreted as a compensatory increase towards achieving down-regulation of immune responses.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Biopsy , Colon , Crohn Disease , Down-Regulation , Hematocrit , Immunohistochemistry , Mucous Membrane , T-Lymphocytes , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
16.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 633-642, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163701

ABSTRACT

Neutropenia is defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of <1,500/microliter, and the severity of neutropenia generally can be graded as mild (1,000-1,500/microliter), moderate (500-1,000/microliter), or severe (<500/microliter). This stratification aids in predicting the risk of pyogenic infection because the susceptibility to life-threatening infections is significantly increased in patients with prolonged episodes of severe neutropenia. Especially cancer-related neutropenia carry significant mortality. Neutropenia can develop under various conditions such as decreased bone marrow production, the sequestering of neutrophils, and increased destruction of neutrophils in the peripheral blood. Neutropenia is classified according to the etiology as congenital or acquired, with the latter further defined according to the etiology or pathology. The clinical result is increased risk for infection, which is directly proportional to the severity and duration of the neutropenia. The typical workup of neutropenia starts with a 6-week period in which complete blood counts are measured twice weekly to document the persistence of the neutropenia and whether a cyclic pattern is present. When persistent neutropenia is diagnosed and no spontaneous recovery occurs within 3 months, a more extensive evaluation is advised. Treatment is usually unnecessary for most patients with severe neutropenia, as the majority of patients have a good prognosis. However, for patients who have severe and frequent infections, treatment with filgrastim may prevent infectious complications and improve quality of life.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Blood Cell Count , Bone Marrow , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Neutropenia , Neutrophils , Prognosis , Quality of Life , Recombinant Proteins , Filgrastim
17.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 159-166, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20094

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies in children on a weaning diet. We investigated weaning practices in infants and children, as well as their mothers' knowledge about weaning. METHODS: We investigated 129 children with IDA and 166 without IDA (aged 6-36 months) who had visited 10 university hospitals between March 2006 and July 2007. We investigated the hematologic values of both groups. A questionnaire on weaning was answered by the mothers of these children. RESULTS: The hematologic values in the IDA group showed a significant difference from those in the comparison group (P0.05). Rice gruel, boiled rice, and fruit juice accounted for approximately 8 0% of the starting foods in both groups (P>0.05). Only 40% of the children in the IDA group had a balanced diet within a month, versus 38% in the comparison group. In response to questions about the necessity of iron-fortified foods for breast-fed infants, less than 50% of mothers in both groups answered correctly. In the IDA group, 42% showed serum ferritin less than 10 ng/ mL, while 92% showed serum MCV less than 72 fL. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, collection of information on history should be thorough for feeding and selective examinations for IDA in high-risk groups. Considering the adaptation period, we suggest beginning children on a weaning diet at 45 months. In addition, we need to educate mothers on weaning practice, especially on the necessity of iron-fortified foods for breast-fed infants.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Diet , Ferritins , Fruit , Hospitals, University , Iron , Malnutrition , Mothers , Surveys and Questionnaires , Weaning
18.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 1077-1084, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-154510

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Despite the seriousness of bacterial meningitis in children, there is little information on the incidence, causative organisms, mortality rate and age distribution. We studied the frequency by age group and causal pathogens, and clinical characteristics in children with bacterial meningitis in the private sector in Korea. METHODS: The medical records containing the data on bacterial meningitis patients under 18 years of age confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings were retrospectively analyzed from September, 1993 to August, 2006 at Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital. RESULTS: Eighty-one cases of bacterial meningitis were observed. Overall the most common organism was Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) (30 cases, 37.0%) followed by Haemophilus influenzae (22 cases, 27.2%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (12 cases, 14.8%), Escherichia coli (3 cases, 3.7%), Neisseria meningitidis (1 case, 1.2%) and others (13 cases, 16.0%). In neonates and young infants under 2 months, the most common organism was GBS. In children between 3 months, and 5 years, the most common organism was H. influenzae. S. pneumoniae was the most common organism in children over 5 years of age. Thirty-one patients (38.3%) had complications. Of all ages, the mortality rate of bacterial meningitis markedly decreased compared with the previously reported rate. CONCLUSION: In neonates, GBS meningitis was most common. The frequency of H. influenzae meningitis decreased after the introduction of H. influenzae type b vaccination. A strategy for the prevention of GBS meningitis in neonates should be established. The influence of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on S. pneumoniae meningitis should be studied


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Age Distribution , Escherichia coli , Haemophilus influenzae , Incidence , Influenza, Human , Korea , Medical Records , Meningitis , Meningitis, Bacterial , Neisseria meningitidis , Pneumonia , Private Sector , Retrospective Studies , Streptococcus , Streptococcus agalactiae , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vaccination
19.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 27-32, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65927

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Neuroblastoma is a common tumor in childhood, and generally exhibits heterogeneity and a malignant progression. MYCN expression and amplification profiles frequently correlate with therapeutic prognosis. Although it has been reported that MYCN silencing causes differentiation and apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells, MYCN expression influences the cytotoxic potential of chemotherapeutic drugs via the deregulation of the cell cycle. STI-571 may constitute a promising therapeutic agent against neuroblastoma, particularly in cases in which c-Kit is expressed preferentially in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine whether STI-571 exerts a synergistic effect on cytotoxicity with MYCN expression, we assessed apoptotic cell death and cell cycle distribution after 72 h of exposure to STI-571 with or with out treatment of SK-N-BE(2) neuroblastoma cells with MYCN siRNA. RESULTS: MYCN siRNA-treated SK-N-BE(2) cells did not affect apoptosis and cells were arrested in G0/G1 phase after STI-571 treatment. CONCLUSIONS: siRNA therapy targeted to MYCN may not be effective when administered in combination with STI-571 treatment in cases of neuroblastoma. Therefore, chemotherapeutic drugs that target S or G2-M phase may prove ineffective when applied to cells arrested in the G0/1 phase as the result of MYCN knockdown and STI-571 treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Benzamides , Cell Cycle , Cell Death , Cell Line , Neuroblastoma , Piperazines , Population Characteristics , Prognosis , Pyrimidines , Imatinib Mesylate , RNA, Small Interfering
20.
Korean Journal of Hematology ; : 197-205, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-720794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, clinical and laboratory findings of hereditary hemolytic anemia (HHA) in Korea from 1997 to 2006 and to develop the appropriate diagnostic approach for HHA. METHODS: By the use of questionnaires, information on the clinical and laboratory findings ofHHA diagnosed from 1997 to 2006 in Korea was collected and analyzed retrospectively. A total of 431 cases were enrolled in this study from 46 departments of 35 hospitals. RESULTS: The overall frequency of HHA did not change through the 10-year period for pediatrics but did show an increasing tendency for internal medicine. The overall male to female sex ratio did not show sex predominance (1.17:1), but a significant male predominance with a ratio of 1.49:1 was seen for pediatrics while a significant female predominance with a ratio of 1:1.97 was seen forinternal medicine. Of the total cases, 74.2% (282/431) were diagnosed before the age of 15 years. The etiologies of HHA were classified as red cell membrane defects, hemoglobinopathies, red cell enzyme deficiencies and unknown causes. There were 382 cases (88.6%) of red cell membrane defects with 376 cases (87.2%) of hereditary spherocytosis and 6 cases (1.4%) of hereditary elliptocytosis, 20 cases (4.6%) of hemoglobinopathies with 18 cases (4.2%) of beta-thalassemia, a case (0.2%) of alpha-thalassemia and a case (0.2%) of Hemoglobin Madrid, 7 cases (1.6%) of red cell enzyme deficiencies with 5 cases (1.2%) of glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency, a case (0.2%) of pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency and a case (0.2%) of enolase deficiency, and 22 cases (5.1%) of unknown causes. The most common chief complaint in pediatric patients was pallor and that in adult patients was jaundice. In the red cell membrane defect group of patients, the level of hemoglobin was significantly higher than in adult patients. The mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, corrected reticulocyte count, total and indirect bilirubin level and lactate dehydrogenase levels in the hemoglobinopathy group of patients were significantly lower than the values in the red cell membrane defect group of patients. The mean concentration of G-6-PD was 0.8+/-0.7U/1012RBC in the G-6-PD deficient patients, PK was 1.7U/1010 RBC in the PK deficient patient, and the level of enolase was 0.04U/g of Hb in the enolase deficient patient. CONCLUSION: The most prevalent cause of HHA in Korea during 1997 to 2006 was hereditary spherocytosis, but HHA by other causes such as hemoglobinopathy and red cell enzyme deficiency gradually increased with the development of molecular diagnostic methods and increasing general interest. However, the etiologies of HHA need to be pursued further in 5.1% of the patients. An systematic standard diagnostic approach is needed in a nationwide prospective study for correct diagnoses and appropriate management of HHA.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , alpha-Thalassemia , Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital , beta-Thalassemia , Bilirubin , Cell Membrane , Diagnosis , Elliptocytosis, Hereditary , Erythrocyte Indices , Hemoglobinopathies , Internal Medicine , Jaundice , Korea , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Oxidoreductases , Pallor , Pathology, Molecular , Pediatrics , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase , Prevalence , Pyruvate Kinase , Reticulocyte Count , Retrospective Studies , Sex Ratio , Surveys and Questionnaires
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