Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 41
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875523

ABSTRACT

Life cycle stages, including daughter sporocysts, cercariae, and metacercariae, of Parvatrema duboisi (Dollfus, 1923) Bartoli, 1974 (Digenea: Gymnophallidae) have been found in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum from Aphaedo (Island), Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea. The daughter sporocysts were elongated sac-like and 307-570 (av. 395) μm long and 101-213 (av. 157) μm wide. Most of the daughter sporocysts contained 15-20 furcocercous cercariae each. The cercariae measured 112-146 (av. 134) μm in total length and 35-46 (av. 40) μm in width, with 69-92 (av. 85) μm long body and 39-54 (av. 49) μm long tail. The metacercariae were 210-250 (av. 231) μm in length and 170-195 (av. 185) μm in width, and characterized by having a large oral sucker, genital pore some distance anterior to the ventral sucker, no ventral pit, and 1 compact or slightly lobed vitellarium, strongly suggesting P. duboisi. The metacercariae were experimentally infected to ICR mice, and adults were recovered at day 7 post-infection. The adult flukes were morphologically similar to the metacercariae except in the presence of up to 20 eggs in the uterus. The daughter sporocysts and metacercariae were molecularly (ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2) analyzed to confirm the species, and the results showed 99.8-99.9% identity with P. duboisi reported from Kyushu, Japan and Gochang, Korea. These results confirmed the presence of various life cycle stages of P. duboisi in the Manila clam, R. philippinarum, playing the role of the first as well as the second intermediate host, on Aphae-do (Island), Shinan-gun, Korea.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903862

ABSTRACT

The computer vision diagnostic approach currently generates several malaria diagnostic tools. It enhances the accessible and straightforward diagnostics that necessary for clinics and health centers in malaria-endemic areas. A new computer malaria diagnostics tool called the malaria scanner was used to investigate living malaria parasites with easy sample preparation, fast and user-friendly. The cultured Plasmodium parasites were used to confirm the sensitivity of this technique then compared to fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis and light microscopic examination. The measured percentage of parasitemia by the malaria scanner revealed higher precision than microscopy and was similar to FACS. The coefficients of variation of this technique were 1.2-6.7% for Plasmodium knowlesi and 0.3-4.8% for P. falciparum. It allowed determining parasitemia levels of 0.1% or higher, with coefficient of variation smaller than 10%. In terms of the precision range of parasitemia, both high and low ranges showed similar precision results. Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate the correlation data coming from all methods. A strong correlation of measured parasitemia (r2=0.99, P<0.05) was observed between each method. The parasitemia analysis using this new diagnostic tool needs technical improvement, particularly in the differentiation of malaria species.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896158

ABSTRACT

The computer vision diagnostic approach currently generates several malaria diagnostic tools. It enhances the accessible and straightforward diagnostics that necessary for clinics and health centers in malaria-endemic areas. A new computer malaria diagnostics tool called the malaria scanner was used to investigate living malaria parasites with easy sample preparation, fast and user-friendly. The cultured Plasmodium parasites were used to confirm the sensitivity of this technique then compared to fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis and light microscopic examination. The measured percentage of parasitemia by the malaria scanner revealed higher precision than microscopy and was similar to FACS. The coefficients of variation of this technique were 1.2-6.7% for Plasmodium knowlesi and 0.3-4.8% for P. falciparum. It allowed determining parasitemia levels of 0.1% or higher, with coefficient of variation smaller than 10%. In terms of the precision range of parasitemia, both high and low ranges showed similar precision results. Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate the correlation data coming from all methods. A strong correlation of measured parasitemia (r2=0.99, P<0.05) was observed between each method. The parasitemia analysis using this new diagnostic tool needs technical improvement, particularly in the differentiation of malaria species.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903850

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium vivax reemerged in 1993. It has been sustained for more than 25 years and become one of the important indigenous parasitic diseases in northern and western parts of the Republic of Korea near the demilitarized zone. In particular, relapse is a significant concern for the control of malaria, as short- and long-term incubation periods vary among those infected in Korea. In this study, the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers was examined among residents of high endemic areas of vivax malaria during nonseasonal transmission of mosquitoes. Blood samples from 3 endemic regions in northwestern Korea were evaluated by microscopic examination, rapid diagnostic testing, and nested PCR to identify asymptomatic patients carrying malaria parasites in the community. However, no positive malaria case among residents of endemic areas was detected. Additionally, serological analysis was carried out to measure antibodies against 3 antigenic recombinant proteins of P. vivax, merozoite surface protein 1-19, circumsporozoite surface protein-VK210, and liver-stage antigen (PvLSA-N), by the protein array method. Interestingly, seropositivity of sera between previous exposure and samples without exposure to malaria was significantly higher using the PvLSA-N antigen than the other antigens, suggesting that PvLSA-N can be used as a serological marker to analyze the degree of exposure for malaria transmission in endemic areas. This indicates a very low asymptomatic carrier prevalence during the nonmalaria season in the endemic areas of Korea.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896146

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium vivax reemerged in 1993. It has been sustained for more than 25 years and become one of the important indigenous parasitic diseases in northern and western parts of the Republic of Korea near the demilitarized zone. In particular, relapse is a significant concern for the control of malaria, as short- and long-term incubation periods vary among those infected in Korea. In this study, the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers was examined among residents of high endemic areas of vivax malaria during nonseasonal transmission of mosquitoes. Blood samples from 3 endemic regions in northwestern Korea were evaluated by microscopic examination, rapid diagnostic testing, and nested PCR to identify asymptomatic patients carrying malaria parasites in the community. However, no positive malaria case among residents of endemic areas was detected. Additionally, serological analysis was carried out to measure antibodies against 3 antigenic recombinant proteins of P. vivax, merozoite surface protein 1-19, circumsporozoite surface protein-VK210, and liver-stage antigen (PvLSA-N), by the protein array method. Interestingly, seropositivity of sera between previous exposure and samples without exposure to malaria was significantly higher using the PvLSA-N antigen than the other antigens, suggesting that PvLSA-N can be used as a serological marker to analyze the degree of exposure for malaria transmission in endemic areas. This indicates a very low asymptomatic carrier prevalence during the nonmalaria season in the endemic areas of Korea.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis involves irreversible alveolar destruction. Although alveolar epithelial type II cells are key functional participants within the lung parenchyma, how epithelial cells are affected upon bleomycin (BLM) exposure remains unknown. In this study, we determined whether BLM could induce cell cycle arrest via regulation of Schlafen (SLFN) family genes, a group of cell cycle regulators known to mediate growth-inhibitory responses and apoptosis in alveolar epithelial type II cells.@*METHODS@#Mouse AE II cell line MLE-12 were exposed to 1–10 µg/mL BLM and 0.01–100 µM baicalein (Bai), a G1/G2 cell cycle inhibitor, for 24 hours. Cell viability and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by MTT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Apoptosis-related gene expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Cellular morphology was determined after DAPI and Hoechst 33258 staining. To verify cell cycle arrest, propidium iodide (PI) staining was performed for MLE-12 after exposure to BLM.@*RESULTS@#BLM decreased the proliferation of MLE-12 cells. However, it significantly increased expression levels of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, and transforming growth factor β1. Based on Hoechst 33258 staining, BLM induced condensation of nuclear and fragmentation. Based on DAPI and PI staining, BLM significantly increased the size of nuclei and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Results of qRT-PCR analysis revealed that BLM increased mRNA levels of BAX but decreased those of Bcl2. In addition, BLM/Bai increased mRNA levels of p53, p21, SLFN1, 2, 4 of Schlafen family.@*CONCLUSION@#BLM exposure affects pulmonary epithelial type II cells, resulting in decreased proliferation possibly through apoptotic and cell cycle arrest associated signaling.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764060

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients suffer from long-term diabetes can result in severe complications in multiple organs through induction of vascular dysfunctions. However, the effects of chronic hyperglycemic conditions on hematopoiesis and the microenvironment in the bone marrow (BM) are not yet well understood. METHODS: BM cells were harvested from femurs of mice and analyzed using flow cytometry. Human PVCs were cultured in serum-free α-MEM. After 24hrs, PVC-CM was collected and filtered through a 0.22 μm filter. RESULTS: In this study, we showed that hyperglycemia alters hematopoietic composition in the BM, which can partially be restored via paracrine mechanisms, including perivascular cells (PVCs) and NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibition in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Prolonged hyperglycemic conditions resulted in an increase in the frequency and number of long-term hematopoietic stem cells as well as the number of total BM cells. The altered hematopoiesis in the BM was partially recovered by treatment with PVC-derived conditioned medium (CM). Long-term diabetes also increased the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the BM, which was partially restored by the administration of PVC-CM and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a NOX inhibitor. We further showed the downregulation of ERK and p38 phosphorylation in BM cells of diabetic mice treated with PVC-CM and DPI. This may be associated with dysfunction of hematopoietic cells and promotion of subsequent diabetic complications. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that alterations in BM hematopoietic composition due to prolonged hyperglycemic conditions might be restored by improvement of the hematopoietic microenvironment and modulation of NOX activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Marrow , Culture Media, Conditioned , Diabetes Complications , Down-Regulation , Femur , Flow Cytometry , Hematopoiesis , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Mice , NADP , NADPH Oxidases , Phosphorylation
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Perivascular stem cells (PVCs) have been identified as precursors of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that offer promising prospects for application in the development of cellular therapies. Although PVCs have been demonstrated to have greater therapeutic potential compared to bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSCs in various diseases, the regulatory role of PVCs on inflammasome activation during macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses has not been investigated.METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we found that the PVC secretome effectively alleviates secretion of both caspase-1 and interleukin-1β in lipopolysaccharide-primed and activated human and murine macrophages by blocking inflammasome activation and attenuating the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). We further showed that the PVC secretome significantly reduces inflammatory responses and endoplasmic reticulum stress in peritoneal macrophages in a mouse model of monosodium urate-induced peritonitis. A cytokine antibody array analysis revealed that the PVC secretome contains high levels of serpin E1 and angiogenin, which may be responsible for the inhibitory effects on mitochondrial ROS generation as well as on inflammasome activation.CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that PVCs may be therapeutically useful for the treatment of macrophage- and inflammation-mediated diseases by paracrine action via the secretion of various biological factors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Factors , Bone Marrow , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Humans , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Macrophages , Macrophages, Peritoneal , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mice , Peritonitis , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 , Reactive Oxygen Species , Stem Cells
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis involves irreversible alveolar destruction. Although alveolar epithelial type II cells are key functional participants within the lung parenchyma, how epithelial cells are affected upon bleomycin (BLM) exposure remains unknown. In this study, we determined whether BLM could induce cell cycle arrest via regulation of Schlafen (SLFN) family genes, a group of cell cycle regulators known to mediate growth-inhibitory responses and apoptosis in alveolar epithelial type II cells. METHODS: Mouse AE II cell line MLE-12 were exposed to 1–10 µg/mL BLM and 0.01–100 µM baicalein (Bai), a G1/G2 cell cycle inhibitor, for 24 hours. Cell viability and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by MTT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Apoptosis-related gene expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Cellular morphology was determined after DAPI and Hoechst 33258 staining. To verify cell cycle arrest, propidium iodide (PI) staining was performed for MLE-12 after exposure to BLM. RESULTS: BLM decreased the proliferation of MLE-12 cells. However, it significantly increased expression levels of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, and transforming growth factor β1. Based on Hoechst 33258 staining, BLM induced condensation of nuclear and fragmentation. Based on DAPI and PI staining, BLM significantly increased the size of nuclei and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Results of qRT-PCR analysis revealed that BLM increased mRNA levels of BAX but decreased those of Bcl2. In addition, BLM/Bai increased mRNA levels of p53, p21, SLFN1, 2, 4 of Schlafen family. CONCLUSION: BLM exposure affects pulmonary epithelial type II cells, resulting in decreased proliferation possibly through apoptotic and cell cycle arrest associated signaling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Bisbenzimidazole , Bleomycin , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epithelial Cells , Gene Expression , Genes, vif , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Interleukin-6 , Lung , Mice , Propidium , RNA, Messenger , Transforming Growth Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110644

ABSTRACT

Malaria, tuberculosis, and hepatitis are common and notorious infectious diseases in Myanmar. Despite intensive efforts to control these diseases, their prevalence remains high. For malaria, which is a vector-borne disease, a remarkable success in the reduction of new cases has been achieved. However, the annual number of tuberculosis cases has increased over the last few decades, and the prevalence of chronic viral hepatitis infection has been high in Myanmar and other nearby countries. Early detection and prompt treatment are crucial to control these diseases. We have devoted our research efforts to understanding the status of these infectious diseases and working towards their eventual elimination for the last four years with the support of the Korea International Cooperation Agency. In the modern era, an infection that develops in one geographical area can spread globally because national borders do not effectively limit disease transmission. Our efforts to understand the status of infectious diseases in Myanmar will benefit not only Myanmar but also neighboring countries such as Korea.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Hepatitis , International Cooperation , Korea , Malaria , Myanmar , Prevalence , Tuberculosis
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728583

ABSTRACT

Understanding the crosstalk mechanisms between perivascular cells (PVCs) and cancer cells might be beneficial in preventing cancer development and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the paracrine influence of PVCs derived from human umbilical cords on the proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549) and erythroleukemia cells (TF-1α and K562) in vitro using Transwell® co-culture systems. PVCs promoted the proliferation of A549 cells without inducing morphological changes, but had no effect on the proliferation of TF-1α and K562 cells. To identify the factors secreted from PVCs, conditioned media harvested from PVC cultures were analyzed by antibody arrays. We identified a set of cytokines, including persephin (PSPN), a neurotrophic factor, and a key regulator of oral squamous cell carcinoma progression. Supplementation with PSPN significantly increased the proliferation of A549 cells. These results suggested that PVCs produced a differential effect on the proliferation of cancer cells in a cell-type dependent manner. Further, secretome analyses of PVCs and the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms could facilitate the discovery of therapeutic target(s) for lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Coculture Techniques , Culture Media, Conditioned , Cytokines , Epithelial Cells , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , K562 Cells , Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute , Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Neoplasm Metastasis , Umbilical Cord
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728576

ABSTRACT

We demonstrated the effect of nortriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant drug and serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on voltage-dependent K⁺ (Kv) channels in freshly isolated rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells using a whole-cell patch clamp technique. Nortriptyline inhibited Kv currents in a concentration-dependent manner, with an apparent IC₅₀ value of 2.86±0.52 µM and a Hill coefficient of 0.77±0.1. Although application of nortriptyline did not change the activation curve, nortriptyline shifted the inactivation current toward a more negative potential. Application of train pulses (1 or 2 Hz) did not change the nortriptyline-induced Kv channel inhibition, suggesting that the effects of nortiprtyline were not use-dependent. Preincubation with the Kv1.5 and Kv2.1/2.2 inhibitors, DPO-1 and guangxitoxin did not affect nortriptyline inhibition of Kv channels. From these results, we concluded that nortriptyline inhibited Kv channels in a concentration-dependent and state-independent manner independently of serotonin reuptake.


Subject(s)
Coronary Vessels , Muscle, Smooth , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Nortriptyline , Serotonin
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727974

ABSTRACT

We investigated the inhibitory effect of escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), on voltage-dependent K⁺ (Kv) channels in freshly separated from rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells. The application of escitalopram rapidly inhibited vascular Kv channels. Kv currents were progressively inhibited by an increase in the concentrations of escitalopram, suggesting that escitalopram inhibited vascular Kv currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC₅₀ value and Hill coefficient for escitalopram-induced inhibition of Kv channels were 9.54±1.33 µM and 0.75±0.10, respectively. Addition of escitalopram did not alter the steady-state activation and inactivation curves, suggesting that the voltage sensors of the channels were not affected. Pretreatment with inhibitors of Kv1.5 and/or Kv2.1 did not affect the inhibitory action of escitalopram on vascular Kv channels. From these results, we concluded that escitalopram decreased the vascular Kv current in a concentration-dependent manner, independent of serotonin reuptake inhibition.


Subject(s)
Citalopram , Coronary Vessels , Muscle, Smooth , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Serotonin
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16098

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) is a strong target antigen for the determination of infection with Plasmodium species specifically. However, a more effective antibody is needed because of the low sensitivity of the current antibody in many immunological diagnostic assays. In this study, recombinant Plasmodium vivax LDH (PvLDH) was experimentally constructed and expressed as a native antigen to develop an effective P. vivax-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb). Two mAbs (2CF5 and 1G10) were tested using ELISA and immunofluorescence assays (IFA), as both demonstrated reactivity against pLDH antigen. Of the 2 antibodies, 2CF5 was not able to detect P. falciparum, suggesting that it might possess P. vivax-specificity. The detection limit for a pair of 2 mAbs-linked sandwich ELISA was 31.3 ng/ml of the recombinant antigen. The P. vivax-specific performance of mAbs-linked ELISA was confirmed by in vitro-cultured P. falciparum and P. vivax-infected patient blood samples. In conclusion, the 2 new antibodies possessed the potential to detect P. vivax and will be useful in immunoassay.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Immunoassay , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Limit of Detection , Plasmodium vivax , Plasmodium
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166333

ABSTRACT

In the era of (pre) elimination setting, the prevalence of malaria has been decreasing in most of the previously endemic areas. Therefore, effective cost- and time-saving validated pooling strategy is needed for detection of malaria in low transmission settings. In this study, optimal pooling numbers and lowest detection limit were assessed using known density samples prepared systematically, followed by genomic DNA extraction and nested PCR. Pooling strategy that composed of 10 samples in 1 pool, 20 µl in 1 sample, was optimal, and the parasite density as low as 2 p/µl for both falciparum and vivax infection was enough for detection of malaria. This pooling method showed effectiveness for handling of a huge number of samples in low transmission settings (<9% positive rate). The results indicated that pooling of the blood samples before DNA extraction followed by usual nested PCR is useful and effective for detection of malaria in screening of hidden cases in low-transmission settings.


Subject(s)
DNA , Limit of Detection , Malaria , Mass Screening , Methods , Parasites , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72761

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium vivax produces numerous caveola-vesicle complex (CVC) structures beneath the membrane of infected erythrocytes. Recently, a member helical interspersed subtelomeric (PHIST) superfamily protein, PcyPHIST/CVC-81₉₅, was identified as CVCs-associated protein in Plasmodium cynomolgi and essential for survival of this parasite. Very little information has been documented to date about PHIST/CVC-81₉₅ protein in P. vivax. In this study, the recombinant PvPHIST/CVC-81₉₅ N and C termini were expressed, and immunoreactivity was assessed using confirmed vivax malaria patients sera by protein microarray. The subcellular localization of PvPHIST/CVC-81₉₅ N and C termini in blood stage parasites was also determined. The antigenicity of recombinant PvPHIST/CVC-81₉₅ N and C terminal proteins were analyzed by using serum samples from the Republic of Korea. The results showed that immunoreactivities to these proteins had 61% and 43% sensitivity and 96.9% and 93.8% specificity, respectively. The N terminal of PvPHIST/CVC-81₉₅ which contains transmembrane domain and export motif (PEXEL; RxLxE/Q/D) produced CVCs location throughout the erythrocytic-stage parasites. However, no fluorescence was detected with antibodies against C terminal fragment of PvPHIST/CVC-81₉₅. These results suggest that the PvPHIST/CVC-81₉₅ is localized on the CVCs and may be immunogenic in natural infection of P. vivax.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Erythrocytes , Fluorescence , Humans , Malaria, Vivax , Membranes , Parasites , Plasmodium cynomolgi , Plasmodium vivax , Plasmodium , Protein Array Analysis , Republic of Korea , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13392

ABSTRACT

The discovery and understanding of antigenic proteins are essential for development of a vaccine against malaria. In Plasmodium falciparum, Pf92 have been characterized as a merozoite surface protein, and this protein is expressed at the late schizont stage, but no study of Pv92, the orthologue of Pf92 in P. vivax, has been reported. Thus, the protein structure of Pv92 was analyzed, and the gene sequence was aligned with that of other Plasmodium spp. using bioinformatics tools. The recombinant Pv92 protein was expressed and purified using bacterial expression system and used for immunization of mice to gain the polyclonal antibody and for evaluation of antigenicity by protein array. Also, the antibody against Pv92 was used for subcellular analysis by immunofluorescence assay. The Pv92 protein has a signal peptide and a sexual stage s48/45 domain, and the cysteine residues at the N-terminal of Pv92 were completely conserved. The N-terminal of Pv92 was successfully expressed as soluble form using a bacterial expression system. The antibody raised against Pv92 recognized the parasites and completely merged with PvMSP1-19, indicating that Pv92 was localized on the merozoite surface. Evaluation of the human humoral immune response to Pv92 indicated moderate antigenicity, with 65% sensitivity and 95% specificity by protein array. Taken together, the merozoite surface localization and antigenicity of Pv92 implicate that it might be involved in attachment and invasion of a merozoite to a new host cell or immune evasion during invasion process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Computational Biology , Cysteine , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization , Malaria , Merozoites , Mice , Parasites , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Plasmodium , Protein Array Analysis , Protein Sorting Signals , Schizonts , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225157

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium falciparum can invade all stages of red blood cells, while Plasmodium vivax can invade only reticulocytes. Although many P. vivax proteins have been discovered, their functions are largely unknown. Among them, P. vivax reticulocyte binding proteins (PvRBP1 and PvRBP2) recognize and bind to reticulocytes. Both proteins possess a C-terminal hydrophobic transmembrane domain, which drives adhesion to reticulocytes. PvRBP1 and PvRBP2 are large (> 326 kDa), which hinders identification of the functional domains. In this study, the complete genome information of the P. vivax RBP family was thoroughly analyzed using a prediction server with bioinformatics data to predict B-cell epitope domains. Eleven pvrbp family genes that included 2 pseudogenes and 9 full or partial length genes were selected and used to express recombinant proteins in a wheat germ cell-free system. The expressed proteins were used to evaluate the humoral immune response with vivax malaria patients and healthy individual serum samples by protein microarray. The recombinant fragments of 9 PvRBP proteins were successfully expressed; the soluble proteins ranged in molecular weight from 16 to 34 kDa. Evaluation of the humoral immune response to each recombinant PvRBP protein indicated a high antigenicity, with 38-88% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Of them, N-terminal parts of PvRBP2c (PVX_090325-1) and PvRBP2 like partial A (PVX_090330-1) elicited high antigenicity. In addition, the PvRBP2-like homologue B (PVX_116930) fragment was newly identified as high antigenicity and may be exploited as a potential antigenic candidate among the PvRBP family. The functional activity of the PvRBP family on merozoite invasion remains unknown.


Subject(s)
Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Female , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Middle Aged , Plasmodium vivax/chemistry , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Reticulocytes/parasitology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121886

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to characterize the properties of a 100 kDa somatic antigen from Metagonimus yokogawai. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced against this 100 kDa antigen, and their immunoreactivity was assessed by western blot analysis with patients' sera. The mAbs against the 100 kDa antigen commonly reacted with various kinds of trematode antigens, including intestinal (Gymnophalloides seoi), lung (Paragonimus westermani), and liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola hepatica). However, this mAb showed no cross-reactions with other helminth parasites, including nematodes and cestodes. To determine the topographic distribution of the 100 kDa antigen in worm sections, indirect immunoperoxidase staining was performed. A strong positive reaction was observed in the tegumental and subtegumental layers of adult M. yokogawai and C. sinensis. The results showed that the 100 kDa somatic protein of M. yokogawai is a common antigen which recognizes a target epitope present over the tegumental layer of different trematode species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Helminth/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antigens, Helminth/immunology , Clonorchis sinensis/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Fasciola hepatica/immunology , Female , Helminth Proteins/immunology , Heterophyidae/immunology , Immunologic Tests , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Paragonimus westermani/immunology , Trematode Infections/diagnosis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7396

ABSTRACT

In recent years, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been widely used for malaria detection, primarily because of their simple operation, fast results, and straightforward interpretation. The Asan EasyTest(TM) Malaria Pf/Pan Ag is one of the most commonly used malaria RDTs in several countries, including Korea and India. In this study, we tested the diagnostic performance of this RDT in Uganda to evaluate its usefulness for field diagnosis of malaria in this country. Microscopic and PCR analyses, and the Asan EasyTest(TM) Malaria Pf/Pan Ag rapid diagnostic test, were performed on blood samples from 185 individuals with suspected malaria in several villages in Uganda. Compared to the microscopic analysis, the sensitivity of the RDT to detect malaria infection was 95.8% and 83.3% for Plasmodium falciparum and non-P. falciparum, respectively. Although the diagnostic sensitivity of the RDT decreased when parasitemia was or =100 parasites/microl. The specificity of the RDT was 97.3% for P. falciparum and 97.3% for non-P. falciparum. These results collectively suggest that the accuracy of the Asan EasyTest(TM) Malaria Pf/Pan Ag makes it an effective point-of-care diagnostic tool for malaria in Uganda.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Antigens, Protozoan/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Parasitemia , Point-of-Care Systems , Predictive Value of Tests , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Sensitivity and Specificity , Uganda/epidemiology , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL