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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926501

ABSTRACT

An increased pericoronary fat attenuation index (FAI) on computed tomography angiography (CTA) is associated with increased all-cause and cardiac mortality in the general population. However, the ability of pericoronary FAI to predict long-term outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is unknown. Methods: In this single-center retrospective longitudinal cohort study, we assessed the utility of CTA-based pericoronary FAI measurement to predict mortality of CKD patients, including those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Mapping and analysis of pericoronary FAI involved three major proximal coronary arteries. The prognostic value of pericoronary FAI for long-term mortality was assessed with multivariable Cox regression models. Results: Among 268 CKD participants who underwent coronary CTA, 209 participants with left anterior descending artery (LAD) FAI measurements were included. The pericoronary FAI measured at the LAD was not significantly associated with adjusted risk of allcause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94–3.51) in any CKD group. However, ESRD patients with elevated pericoronary FAI values had a greater adjusted risk of all-cause mortality compared with the low-FAI group (HR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.11–4.61). Conclusion: The pericoronary FAI measured at the LAD predicted long-term mortality in patients with ESRD, which could provide an opportunity for early primary intervention in ESRD patients.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926193

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aims to evaluate the change in serum metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) following the management of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and define the relationships between MMP-3 and disease activity indices. @*Methods@#Data from a previously reported a 24-week, randomized controlled trial to investigate efficacy of tocilizumab in active RA refractory to methotrexate were analyzed. The serum level of MMP-3 were measured at week 0, 12, 20, and 24. The changes in MMP-3, and the relationship between MMP-3 and clinical parameters was assessed based on treatment group, methotrexate with or without tocilizumab. @*Results@#A total of 95 patients were included in this study. The serum MMP-3 significantly decreased and showed similar pattern with other disease activity indices during treatment period in both treatment groups (p0.05). @*Conclusion@#Serum MMP-3 showed positive correlation with disease activity indices in active RA patients. Furthermore, serum MMP-3 significantly decreased from baseline to week 20. As there is no single serum marker that can represent the disease activity particularly in tocilizumab treatment, MMP-3 might be a useful adjunct indicator to evaluate the treatment response in active RA patients.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925368

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of medication management as a method of early intervention in dementia. @*Methods@#This study used data of survey and Mini-Mental State Examination for Dementia Screening score of 46 dementia patients given medication management. Participants were separated into three groups based on the duration of medication management. Then we compared the change in cognitive ability and the frequency of community service usage. @*Results@#The decline of Mini-Mental State Examination score that each group reported was -0.93±2.69, -1.38±1.71, and -1.00± 3.52 and there was no significant difference. In terms of the community service, after being given the medication management, the usage of community service increased. @*Conclusion@#Continuous medication management might relieved the decrease of cognitive ability and encourage dementia patients to participate in community service.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924959

ABSTRACT

Background@#Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by albuminuria and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in kidney. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a central role in promoting ECM accumulation. We aimed to examine the effects of EW-7197, an inhibitor of TGF-β type 1 receptor kinase (ALK5), in retarding the progression of DN, both in vivo, using a diabetic mouse model (db/db mice), and in vitro, in podocytes and mesangial cells. @*Methods@#In vivo study: 8-week-old db/db mice were orally administered EW-7197 at a dose of 5 or 20 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks. Metabolic parameters and renal function were monitored. Glomerular histomorphology and renal protein expression were evaluated by histochemical staining and Western blot analyses, respectively. In vitro study: DN was induced by high glucose (30 mM) in podocytes and TGF-β (2 ng/mL) in mesangial cells. Cells were treated with EW-7197 (500 nM) for 24 hours and the mechanism associated with the attenuation of DN was investigated. @*Results@#Enhanced albuminuria and glomerular morphohistological changes were observed in db/db compared to that of the nondiabetic (db/m) mice. These alterations were associated with the activation of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Treatment with EW-7197 significantly inhibited TGF-β signaling, inflammation, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetic mice and renal cells. @*Conclusion@#EW-7197 exhibits renoprotective effect in DN. EW-7197 alleviates renal fibrosis and inflammation in diabetes by inhibiting downstream TGF-β signaling, thereby retarding the progression of DN. Our study supports EW-7197 as a therapeutically beneficial compound to treat DN.

5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891876

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of the study was to identify the influencing factors for job satisfaction among forensic psychiatric nurses. @*Methods@#A descriptive correlational study design was used. Participants were 90 forensic psychiatric nurses from a national forensic psychiatric institution. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, and multiple regression analysis with SPSS statistics 23.0 program. @*Results@#Significant influencing factors for job satisfaction were administration (β=-.29, p @*Conclusion@#These findings indicate that strategies to reduce job stress and burnout should be developed to improve job satisfaction among forensic psychiatric nurses.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891198

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The severity of a patient’s medical condition, changing pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, and variability in medication highlight the importance of pharmacological intervention by intensive care unit (ICU) specialized pharmacists. @*Methods@#Retrospective observations of ICU interventions (omission, changes in medicine, side effects, changes in administration route and dosage, redundancy, and nutritional care) performed between April 2017 and March 2018, determined by an interdisciplinary team (including a specialized ICU pharmacist and a surgical intensivist) on their surgical ICU round, were analyzed. Medicinal prescriptions were screened weekly during the surgical ICU round, and interventions were made if any corrections were necessary. Two days later another team including a surgical intensivist, a pharmacist, and a nutritionist evaluated the patients’ nutritional status (performed weekly). @*Results@#In the 23-bed ICU, the average number of patients whose prescriptions were examined was 22.38 per surgical round. There were 382 interventions made over 1 year, which was 9.68 interventions per day. The interventions were for nutritional care (161 cases, 42.2%), followed by changes in administration route and dosage (94 cases, 24.6%), omission (59 cases, 15.5%), redundancy (40 cases, 10.4%), changes in medicine (15 cases, 3.9%), and side effects (13 cases, 3.4%). @*Conclusion@#The conditions of patients admitted to ICU are typically unstable. Pharmacological interventions suggested by a specialized pharmacist may help control the changing medical condition of patients in ICU. A higher participation of pharmacists specialized in working in an interdisciplinary ICU team-based system could lead to safer treatments.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890487

ABSTRACT

Background@#Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney injury and hypertension. We aimed to investigate the protective effect of tetrahydrocurcumin (THU) on intrarenal RAS expression, kidney injury, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice. @*Methods@#Eight-week-old male mice were fed a regular diet (RD) or HFD for 12 weeks, and THU (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) was intragastrically administered with HFD. Physiological and metabolic changes were monitored and the expression of RAS components and markers of kidney injury were assessed. @*Results@#HFD-fed mice exhibited hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia compared to those in the RD group (P<0.05). Kidney injury in these mice was indicated by an increase in the ratio of albumin to creatinine, glomerular hypertrophy, and the effacement of podocyte foot processes. Expression of intrarenal angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II type I receptor, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-4, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was also markedly increased in HFD-fed mice. HFD-fed mice exhibited elevated SBP that was accompanied by an increase in the wall thickness and vascular cross-sectional area (P<0.05), 12 weeks post-HFD consumption. Treatment with THU (100 mg/kg/day) suppressed intrarenal RAS activation, improved insulin sensitivity, and reduced SBP, thus, attenuating kidney injury in these mice. @*Conclusion@#THU alleviated kidney injury in mice with HFD-induced type 2 diabetes, possibly by blunting the activation of the intrarenal RASicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase IV (NOX4)/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) axis and by lowering the high SBP.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890348

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874539

ABSTRACT

Background@#The microencapsulation is an ideal solution to overcome immune rejection without immunosuppressive treatment. Poor biocompatibility and small molecular antigens secreted from encapsulated islets induce fibrosis infiltration. Therefore, the aims of this study were to improve the biocompatibility of microcapsules by dexamethasone coating and to verify its effect after xenogeneic transplantation in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes mice. @*Methods@#Dexamethasone 21-phosphate (Dexa) was dissolved in 1% chitosan and was cross-linked with the alginate microcapsule surface. Insulin secretion and viability assays were performed 14 days after microencapsulation. Dexa-containing chitosan-coated alginate (Dexa-chitosan) or alginate microencapsulated porcine islets were transplanted into diabetic mice. The fibrosis infiltration score was calculated from the harvested microcapsules. The harvested microcapsules were stained with trichrome and for insulin and macrophages. @*Results@#No significant differences in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and islet viability were noted among naked, alginate, and Dexa-chitosan microencapsulated islets. After transplantation of microencapsulated porcine islets, nonfasting blood glucose were normalized in both the Dexa-chitosan and alginate groups until 231 days. The average glucose after transplantation were lower in the Dexa-chitosan group than the alginate group. Pericapsular fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration of microcapsules were significantly reduced in Dexa-chitosan compared with alginate microcapsules. Dithizone and insulin were positive in Dexa-chitosan capsules. Although fibrosis and macrophage infiltration was noted on the surface, some alginate microcapsules were stained with insulin. @*Conclusion@#Dexa coating on microcapsules significantly suppressed the fibrotic reaction on the capsule surface after transplantation of xenogenic islets containing microcapsules without any harmful effects on the function and survival of the islets.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900589

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The increase in mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is well known. However, there are few studies on serum markers that can evaluate acute exacerbation or prognosis in RA-ILD patients. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between biomarkers and lung lesions in patients with RA-ILD. @*Methods@#We analyzed 153 patients with serum samples in a prospective, multicenter cohort of Korean RA-ILD patients. The serum levels of biomarkers, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-7), surfactant protein-D (SP-D), and Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) were measured and correlated with forced vital capacity (FVC), diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and the results of computed tomography (CT). CT results were interpreted semi-quantitatively according to the extent of lung lesions (grade 1, 0%∼ 25%; grade 2, 26%∼50%; grade 3, 51%∼75%; grade 4, 76%∼100%). @*Results@#MMP-7, SP-D, and KL-6 were negatively correlated with FVC (MMP-7, r=−0.267, p=0.001; SP-D, r=−0.250, p=0.002; KL-6, r=−0.223, p=0.006) and DLCO (MMP-7, r=−0.404, p<0.001; SP-D, r=−0.286, p=0.001; KL-6, r=−0.226, p=0.007). In addition, MMP-7, SP-D, and KL-6 tended to increase with higher grades of lung lesions on CT (MMP-7, p=0.013; SP-D, p<0.001; KL-6, p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#MMP-7, SP-D, and KL-6 can be used to evaluate the functional and anatomical status of lung involvement in the RA-ILD patients.

11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899580

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of the study was to identify the influencing factors for job satisfaction among forensic psychiatric nurses. @*Methods@#A descriptive correlational study design was used. Participants were 90 forensic psychiatric nurses from a national forensic psychiatric institution. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, and multiple regression analysis with SPSS statistics 23.0 program. @*Results@#Significant influencing factors for job satisfaction were administration (β=-.29, p @*Conclusion@#These findings indicate that strategies to reduce job stress and burnout should be developed to improve job satisfaction among forensic psychiatric nurses.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898902

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The severity of a patient’s medical condition, changing pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, and variability in medication highlight the importance of pharmacological intervention by intensive care unit (ICU) specialized pharmacists. @*Methods@#Retrospective observations of ICU interventions (omission, changes in medicine, side effects, changes in administration route and dosage, redundancy, and nutritional care) performed between April 2017 and March 2018, determined by an interdisciplinary team (including a specialized ICU pharmacist and a surgical intensivist) on their surgical ICU round, were analyzed. Medicinal prescriptions were screened weekly during the surgical ICU round, and interventions were made if any corrections were necessary. Two days later another team including a surgical intensivist, a pharmacist, and a nutritionist evaluated the patients’ nutritional status (performed weekly). @*Results@#In the 23-bed ICU, the average number of patients whose prescriptions were examined was 22.38 per surgical round. There were 382 interventions made over 1 year, which was 9.68 interventions per day. The interventions were for nutritional care (161 cases, 42.2%), followed by changes in administration route and dosage (94 cases, 24.6%), omission (59 cases, 15.5%), redundancy (40 cases, 10.4%), changes in medicine (15 cases, 3.9%), and side effects (13 cases, 3.4%). @*Conclusion@#The conditions of patients admitted to ICU are typically unstable. Pharmacological interventions suggested by a specialized pharmacist may help control the changing medical condition of patients in ICU. A higher participation of pharmacists specialized in working in an interdisciplinary ICU team-based system could lead to safer treatments.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898191

ABSTRACT

Background@#Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney injury and hypertension. We aimed to investigate the protective effect of tetrahydrocurcumin (THU) on intrarenal RAS expression, kidney injury, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice. @*Methods@#Eight-week-old male mice were fed a regular diet (RD) or HFD for 12 weeks, and THU (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) was intragastrically administered with HFD. Physiological and metabolic changes were monitored and the expression of RAS components and markers of kidney injury were assessed. @*Results@#HFD-fed mice exhibited hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia compared to those in the RD group (P<0.05). Kidney injury in these mice was indicated by an increase in the ratio of albumin to creatinine, glomerular hypertrophy, and the effacement of podocyte foot processes. Expression of intrarenal angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II type I receptor, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-4, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was also markedly increased in HFD-fed mice. HFD-fed mice exhibited elevated SBP that was accompanied by an increase in the wall thickness and vascular cross-sectional area (P<0.05), 12 weeks post-HFD consumption. Treatment with THU (100 mg/kg/day) suppressed intrarenal RAS activation, improved insulin sensitivity, and reduced SBP, thus, attenuating kidney injury in these mice. @*Conclusion@#THU alleviated kidney injury in mice with HFD-induced type 2 diabetes, possibly by blunting the activation of the intrarenal RASicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase IV (NOX4)/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) axis and by lowering the high SBP.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898052

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892885

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The increase in mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is well known. However, there are few studies on serum markers that can evaluate acute exacerbation or prognosis in RA-ILD patients. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between biomarkers and lung lesions in patients with RA-ILD. @*Methods@#We analyzed 153 patients with serum samples in a prospective, multicenter cohort of Korean RA-ILD patients. The serum levels of biomarkers, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-7), surfactant protein-D (SP-D), and Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) were measured and correlated with forced vital capacity (FVC), diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and the results of computed tomography (CT). CT results were interpreted semi-quantitatively according to the extent of lung lesions (grade 1, 0%∼ 25%; grade 2, 26%∼50%; grade 3, 51%∼75%; grade 4, 76%∼100%). @*Results@#MMP-7, SP-D, and KL-6 were negatively correlated with FVC (MMP-7, r=−0.267, p=0.001; SP-D, r=−0.250, p=0.002; KL-6, r=−0.223, p=0.006) and DLCO (MMP-7, r=−0.404, p<0.001; SP-D, r=−0.286, p=0.001; KL-6, r=−0.226, p=0.007). In addition, MMP-7, SP-D, and KL-6 tended to increase with higher grades of lung lesions on CT (MMP-7, p=0.013; SP-D, p<0.001; KL-6, p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#MMP-7, SP-D, and KL-6 can be used to evaluate the functional and anatomical status of lung involvement in the RA-ILD patients.

16.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 207-219, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918929

ABSTRACT

Background@#Insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation are closely related to each other and share common pathophysiological and metabolic mechanisms. We aimed to investigate the combined effect of IR and inflammation on comorbidities of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#A total 3,758 patients with T2DM were recruited through Huh’s Diabetes Center from January 2003 to June 2009. Insulin sensitivity was measured by a rate constant for plasma glucose disappearance (Kitt , %/min) using short insulin tolerance test. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was used as a surrogate for inflammation. @*Results@#Patients with the lowest tertile of Kitt (IR group) showed worse cardio-metabolic parameters while those with the highest tertile of hs-CRP levels had worse cardio-metabolic parameters. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, fatty liver, albuminuria, and carotid atherosclerosis decreased with Kitt tertile, but increased with hs-CRP tertile. In multiple regression analysis, both Kitt and hs-CRP were independent risk factors for comorbidities of T2DM. In addition, they showed synergistic effects on these comorbidities. @*Conclusion@#Both IR and inflammation were significantly associated with comorbidities of T2DM in a dose dependent manner. In addition, the coexistence of IR and inflammation may synergistically contribute to increased comorbidities of T2DM.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917061

ABSTRACT

Background@#Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor has been reported to have kidney-protective benefits. To elucidate how antidiabetic agents prevent diabetic kidney disease progression, it is important to investigate their effect on the kidney environment in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Herein, we investigated the expression pattern of urinary exosome-derived microRNA (miRNA) in patients taking a combination of DPP-4 inhibitor and metformin (DPP-4 inhibitor group) and compared them with patients taking a combination of sulfonylurea and metformin (sulfonylurea group). @*Methods@#This was a prospective study involving 57 patients with type 2 DM (DPP-4 inhibitor group, n = 34; sulfonylurea group, n = 23) and healthy volunteers (n = 7). We measured urinary exosomal miRNA using the NanoString nCounter miRNA array (NanoString Technologies) across the three groups (n = 4 per each group) and validated findings using real-time polymerase chain reaction. @*Results@#Twenty-one differentially expressed candidate miRNAs were identified, and six (let-7c-5p, miR-23a-3p, miR-26a-3p, miR-30d, miR-205, and miR-200a) were selected for validation. Validation showed no significant difference in miRNA expression between the DPP-4 inhibitor and sulfonylurea groups. Only miR-23a-3p was significantly overexpressed in the diabetes group compared with the control group (DPP-4 inhibitor vs. control, p = 0.01; sulfonylurea vs. control, p = 0.007). This trend was consistent even after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. @*Conclusion@#There was no significant difference in urine exosome miRNA expression between diabetic participants taking DPP-4 inhibitor and those taking sulfonylurea. The miR-23a levels were higher in diabetic participants than in nondiabetic controls.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915783

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed at understanding meal kit purchasing behavior and investigating its relationship with the Nutrition Quotient (NQ) of young adults. @*Methods@#We conducted a survey on adults in their 20s and 30s covering their meal kit purchase experience, satisfaction, recognition, and purchase intention, and examined the relationship between the meal kit purchase and their NQ from February to March 2021. @*Results@#Among the 404 subjects, 37.9% of males and 48.0% of females had experience in purchasing a meal kit (p < 0.001). The highest response indicated that the purchase cost of meal kits was 10,000-20,000 Won at a time, and the frequency of purchase was less than once a month. The convenience of cooking was the main reason for the purchase of meal kits, which were consumed mainly in the evening with family. The satisfaction with the purchase experience of a meal kit was rated 3.6 points for males and 3.7 points for females out of 5 points, and the satisfaction experienced by women was significantly higher than men in terms of freshness of ingredients, packaging design, and adequacy of the quantity of content (p < 0.05). Recognition of the meal kit was rated 3.5 points for males and 3.7 points for females out of 5 points. The purchase intention of the meal kit was rated 3.8 points for those with prior purchase experience, 3.2 points for the non-experienced, 3.3 points for males, and 3.6 points for females out of 5 points each (p < 0.001). The NQ score of dietary behavior in females with experience of meal kit purchases was significantly higher than non-experience (p < 0.05). @*Conclusions@#The dietary behavior of female showed a significant difference by the meal kit purchase experience. It is necessary to understand the consumers' meal kit purchasing behavior to enable the development of various health-oriented meal kit products.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836224

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Ixeris strigosa (IS) is a perennial plant that commonly grows in meadows. The leaves and roots of IS have been used in medicine as a sedative. This study evaluated the antioxidant and carbohydrate-digestive-enzyme inhibitory effects of IS to determine its potential as an essential antioxidant and glycemic inhibitor for type 2 diabetics. @*Methods@#The antioxidative and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were examined using the water extracts (ISW), ethanol extracts (ISE), and solvent fractions from IS. The antioxidative activities were measured using in vitro methods by measuring the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging activity. @*Results@#Investigations of the total polyphenol, flavonoid content, in vitro antioxidant activity, and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the IS extract showed that the ISE had higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents than the ISW, as well as high antioxidant activity. The ethanolic extracts of IS (70%) had an α-amylase inhibitory activity of 78.55%. The ethyl acetate fraction (90.56%) showed higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than the positive control, acarbose (83.01%). @*Conclusion@#Among the ISE fractions, the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions showed the best digestive enzyme inhibitory activity. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the extract and the carbohydrate, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects showed a stronger correlation with the total phenol and flavonoid contents compared to the ISW. As a result, the antioxidant and digestive enzyme inhibitory activities of high ISE are due to the phenolic compounds, particularly the flavonoid compounds. Therefore, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of the 70% ethanol extract are excellent anti-diabetic functional materials.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834969

ABSTRACT

Background@#Proteinuria is a significant risk factor for progression of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and has a positive correlation with severity of foot process effacement (FPE). We evaluated the relationship of FPE with proteinuria and histologic characteristics, including the Oxford classification. @*Methods@#Patients who underwent renal biopsy and were diagnosed with IgAN at a single center were retrospectively reviewed. Patients aged less than 18 years and those with the possibility of secondary causes were excluded from the study. Subsequently, we evaluated the association between degree of proteinuria, severity of FPE, and histologic characteristics, including the Oxford classification and other immunofluorescence stains. @*Results@#A total of 805 cases of renal biopsy was performed at our institution, and 327 patients were diagnosed with IgAN. Among them, 82 patients were excluded. Severity of FPE had an impact on the degree of proteinuria. Notably, the group with diffuse FPE had more than about 1.3 g/day of urine protein compared to those with rare FPE. Among the histologic characteristics, M1 score and immune deposition of IgG affected severity of FPE (hazard ratios [95% confidence interval], 1.90 [1.10 to 3.26], and 3.77 [1.66 to 8.54], respectively). @*Conclusion@#Severity of FPE had an impact on the degree of proteinuria and may be associated with the pathogenesis of IgAN.

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