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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913876

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of parenting education programs (PEPs) for refugee and migrant parents. @*Methods@#A systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Relevant studies published from 2000 to 2020 were identified through a systematic search of six electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, RISS, KMBASE). A meta-analysis of the studies was then undertaken. @*Results@#Of the 14,996 published works identified, 23 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, and 19 studies were analyzed to estimate the effect sizes (standardized mean differences) of the PEPs using random-effect models. PEPs were effective for parenting efficacy (effect size [ES]=1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-1.66), positive parenting behaviors (ES=0.51; 95% CI: 0.30-0.73), parent-child relationships (ES=0.38; 95% CI: 0.22-0.53), and parenting stress (ES=0.64; 95% CI: 0.50-0.79). There were statistically significant differences in the effect sizes of PEPs that included mothers only (ES=0.93), included children under 7 years of age(ES=0.91), did not include child participation (0.77), continued for 19 or more sessions (ES=0.80), and were analyzed in quasi-experimental studies (ES=0.86). The overall effect of publication bias was robust. @*Conclusion@#PEPs were found to be effective at improving parenting efficacy, positive parenting behaviors, parent-child relationships, and parenting stress.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926843

ABSTRACT

The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2013 to 2017 reported that the average protein consumption of the Korean population is above the current recommended nutrient intake of protein proposed by the Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. Some health professionals and the media often advise consuming diets high in protein for promoting metabolic regulation, weight control, and muscle synthesis. However, due to lack of scientific evidence, the validity and safety of high protein consumption are yet to be fully ascertained. The present review assesses recent evidence published in 2014–2020 from human studies, focusing on adequate protein intake and protein sources for the prevention of chronic diseases, particularly metabolic disorders and sarcopenia.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926143

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Obesity and a high-fat diet (HFD) are risk factors for colorectal cancer. We have previously shown that luteolin (LUT) supplementation in HFD-fed mice markedly inhibits tumor development in chemically induced colon carcinogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the anticancer effect of LUT in the inhibition of cell proliferation in HFD-fed obese mice and HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells grown in an adipocyte-derived medium. @*Methods@#C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND, 11.69% fat out of total calories consumed, n = 10), HFD (40% fat out of total calories consumed, n = 10), HFD with 0.0025% LUT (n = 10), and HFD with 0.005% LUT (n = 10) and were subjected to azoxymethanedextran sulfate sodium chemical colon carcinogenesis. All mice were fed the experimental diet for 11 weeks. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and HT-29 cells were treated with various doses of LUT in an adipocyte-conditioned medium (Ad-CM). @*Results@#The weekly body weight changes in the LUT groups were similar to those in the HFD group; however, the survival rates of the LUT group were higher than those of the HFD group.Impaired crypt integrity of the colonic mucosa in the HFD group was observed to be restored in the LUT group. The colonic expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptors were suppressed by the LUT supplementation in the HFDfed mice. The LUT treatment (10, 20, and 40 μM) inhibited the proliferation and migration of HT-29 cells cultured in Ad-CM in a dose-dependent manner, as well as the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that the anticancer effect of LUT is probably due to the inhibition of IGF-1 signaling and adipogenesis-related cell proliferation in colon cancer cells.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926134

ABSTRACT

This article evaluated levels of Estimated Average Requirements (EARs), Reference Nutrient Intakes (RNIs), and Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) of protein using the recently revised Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Koreans (2020). Dietary protein requirements are based on amounts sufficient to satisfy physiological demands to accomplish nitrogen equilibrium. The same principle was applied to estimate EARs and RNIs, for adults in DRIs conducted in 2015 and 2020 in Koreans. EAR was estimated to be 0.73 g/kg body weight/day, according to data (0.66 g/kg body weight/day) obtained using the nitrogen balance method and adjusted by efficiency of protein use (90%). RNI was calculated as EAR increased by an amount equal to twice the standard deviation of an age group so as to cover 97.5% of the group and was found to be 0.91 g/kg body weight/day. For weaned infants, children, and adolescents, growth requirement was added to estimate EAR. In particular, growth requirement was adjusted by efficiency of protein use in the revised EAR, which led to higher EARs for weaned infants, children, and adolescents of both genders as compared with 2015 DRIs. The AMDR for protein was set at 7%–20% of energy intake, which was the same as 2015 DRIs. Current, average protein intake by the Korean population is almost twice times the EAR, which suggests it might be better to increase the minimal margin for AMDR.However, it was not adjusted in this revision due to lack of evidence.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898225

ABSTRACT

Background@#Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive metabolic disease. Early detection of prediabetes is important to reduce the risk of T2DM. Some cytokines are known to be associated with T2DM. Therefore, we aimed to identify cytokines as novel biomarkers of glucose dysmetabolism. @*Methods@#The first stage of the study included 43 subjects (13 subjects with newly diagnosed T2DM, 13 with prediabetes, and 16 with normoglycemia) for cytokine microarray analysis. Blood samples of the subjects were assessed for 310 cytokines to identify potential indicators of prediabetes. The second stage included 142 subjects (36 subjects with T2DM, 35 with prediabetes, and 71 with normoglycemia) to validate the potential cytokines associated with prediabetes. @*Results@#We identified 41 cytokines that differed by 1.5-fold or more in at least one out of the three comparisons (normoglycemia vs. prediabetes, normoglycemia vs. T2DM, and prediabetes vs. T2DM) among 310 cytokines. Finally, we selected protein Z (PROZ) and validated this finding to determine its association with prediabetes. Plasma PROZ levels were found to be decreased in patients with prediabetes (1,490.32±367.19 pg/mL) and T2DM (1,583.34±465.43 pg/mL) compared to those in subjects with normoglycemia (1,864.07±450.83 pg/mL) (P<0.001). There were significantly negative correlations between PROZ and fasting plasma glucose (P=0.001) and hemoglobin A1c (P=0.010). @*Conclusion@#PROZ levels were associated with prediabetes and T2DM. We suggest that PROZ may be a promising biomarker for the early detection of prediabetes. Further large-scale studies are needed to evaluate the relationship and mechanism between PROZ and prediabetes and T2DM.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890521

ABSTRACT

Background@#Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive metabolic disease. Early detection of prediabetes is important to reduce the risk of T2DM. Some cytokines are known to be associated with T2DM. Therefore, we aimed to identify cytokines as novel biomarkers of glucose dysmetabolism. @*Methods@#The first stage of the study included 43 subjects (13 subjects with newly diagnosed T2DM, 13 with prediabetes, and 16 with normoglycemia) for cytokine microarray analysis. Blood samples of the subjects were assessed for 310 cytokines to identify potential indicators of prediabetes. The second stage included 142 subjects (36 subjects with T2DM, 35 with prediabetes, and 71 with normoglycemia) to validate the potential cytokines associated with prediabetes. @*Results@#We identified 41 cytokines that differed by 1.5-fold or more in at least one out of the three comparisons (normoglycemia vs. prediabetes, normoglycemia vs. T2DM, and prediabetes vs. T2DM) among 310 cytokines. Finally, we selected protein Z (PROZ) and validated this finding to determine its association with prediabetes. Plasma PROZ levels were found to be decreased in patients with prediabetes (1,490.32±367.19 pg/mL) and T2DM (1,583.34±465.43 pg/mL) compared to those in subjects with normoglycemia (1,864.07±450.83 pg/mL) (P<0.001). There were significantly negative correlations between PROZ and fasting plasma glucose (P=0.001) and hemoglobin A1c (P=0.010). @*Conclusion@#PROZ levels were associated with prediabetes and T2DM. We suggest that PROZ may be a promising biomarker for the early detection of prediabetes. Further large-scale studies are needed to evaluate the relationship and mechanism between PROZ and prediabetes and T2DM.

7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1162-1168, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919585

ABSTRACT

The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine has shown excellent clinical effectiveness; however, adverse events of the vaccine remain a concern in Korea. We surveyed adverse events in 2498 healthcare workers vaccinated with the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine at a university hospital. The survey was conducted using a diary card for 7 days following each injection. The questionnaire response rate was 75.1% (1876/2498) for the first dose and 73.8% (1840/2493) for the second dose. Among local reactions, pain was the most commonly reported (84.9% after the first dose and 90.4% after the second dose). After the second dose, two people visited the emergency room due to severe local pain, but no hospitalization or skin necrosis occurred. Among systemic reactions, fatigue was most frequently reported (52.8% after the first dose and 77.0% after the second dose), followed by myalgia (49.0% and 76.1%), headache (28.7% and 59.2%), chills (16.7% and 54.0%), and arthralgia (11.4% and 39.2%). One or more critical adverse events occurred in 0.2% and 0.7% of the vaccinees. Except for urticaria, more adverse events were reported after the second dose than after the first dose. In the future, adverse events should be investigated in older adults, and a future study with a longer observation period should be conducted.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832064

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely produced synthetic chemical used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. We aimed to investigate the association between exposure to BPA and behavioral and cognitive function in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls. @*Methods@#The study included 444 children aged from 6 to 10 years. The ADHD and control groups included 195 and 249 children, respectively. BPA levels were assessed via urinalysis, while behavior was assessed using the Korean version of the ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) and the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC-2). Cognitive function was assessed using the Continuous Performance Test (i.e., ADHD Diagnostic System [ADS]). Participants were categorized into tertile groups based on urinary BPA concentration. @*Results@#Scores on the K-ARS and the hyperactivity, aggression, anxiety, and depression subscales of the BASC-2 were significantly different among tertile groups for urinary BPA levels. Scores on visual omission error, commission error, response time variability, and auditory commission error of the ADS were significantly different among three BPA groups. Subgroup analysis revealed that these differences of behavior and cognition among three BPA groups were observed in only boys and normal controls. @*Conclusion@#Exposure to BPA was associated with unfavorable behavioral and cognitive outcomes. Our study extends the findings of previous studies regarding the association between BPA exposure and behavior/cognitive function by including children with ADHD. Further studies are required to determine the mechanisms underlying sex- and group-based differences in these associations.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900453

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Obesity is a risk factor for various adult diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular disease, and cancer. With an increasing obesity population worldwide, the prevention of obesity with natural components has emerged as an alternative health care strategy. Ramulus mori (Sangzhi, RM) is widely used as a traditional herbal medicine in East Asia. It contains various phytochemicals, including stilbenes and 2-arylbenzofurans. In this study, we compared the anti-obesity effects of RM extracts and its major stilbene components (mulberroside A [MSA] and oxyresveratrol [ORT]) in high fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice. @*Methods@#Five week-old, male C57BL/6J mice were grouped into 7 experimental groups: normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD + 1% RM water extracts (MW), HFD + 0.1% MSA, HFD + 1% RM ethanol extracts (ME), HFD + 0.1% ORT, and HFD + 1% Garcinia cambogia extracts (GC) as a positive control. All mice were fed experimental diet for 13 weeks. @*Results@#Compared to the HFD group, total body weight and weekly body weight gain were significantly decreased in the ME, ORT, and GC groups. Glucose tolerance level was significantly decreased in all experimental groups, whereas plasma insulin level was decreased in MSA, ME, ORT and GC groups. Plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol levels were significantly decreased, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were increased in the MSA, ORT, and GC groups. Hepatic TG accumulation was also significantly decreased in the MSA, ME, ORT, and GC groups. Adipose tissue weight and size of adipocytes were significantly decreased in the MSA, ME and ORT groups, and were comparable to values obtained in the GC group. The levels of adiponectin and SREBP1c mRNA expressions were increased in the ORT and GC groups. @*Conclusion@#These results indicate that ME, ORT and MSA exert significant anti-obesity effect, and have the potential to be developed as a weight control ingredient of functional foods.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892749

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Obesity is a risk factor for various adult diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular disease, and cancer. With an increasing obesity population worldwide, the prevention of obesity with natural components has emerged as an alternative health care strategy. Ramulus mori (Sangzhi, RM) is widely used as a traditional herbal medicine in East Asia. It contains various phytochemicals, including stilbenes and 2-arylbenzofurans. In this study, we compared the anti-obesity effects of RM extracts and its major stilbene components (mulberroside A [MSA] and oxyresveratrol [ORT]) in high fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice. @*Methods@#Five week-old, male C57BL/6J mice were grouped into 7 experimental groups: normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD + 1% RM water extracts (MW), HFD + 0.1% MSA, HFD + 1% RM ethanol extracts (ME), HFD + 0.1% ORT, and HFD + 1% Garcinia cambogia extracts (GC) as a positive control. All mice were fed experimental diet for 13 weeks. @*Results@#Compared to the HFD group, total body weight and weekly body weight gain were significantly decreased in the ME, ORT, and GC groups. Glucose tolerance level was significantly decreased in all experimental groups, whereas plasma insulin level was decreased in MSA, ME, ORT and GC groups. Plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol levels were significantly decreased, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were increased in the MSA, ORT, and GC groups. Hepatic TG accumulation was also significantly decreased in the MSA, ME, ORT, and GC groups. Adipose tissue weight and size of adipocytes were significantly decreased in the MSA, ME and ORT groups, and were comparable to values obtained in the GC group. The levels of adiponectin and SREBP1c mRNA expressions were increased in the ORT and GC groups. @*Conclusion@#These results indicate that ME, ORT and MSA exert significant anti-obesity effect, and have the potential to be developed as a weight control ingredient of functional foods.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785428

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is recently performed in older cancer patients. The complication rate of PD is high. The present study was to compare the postoperative short- and long-term outcomes of PD in between older patients and younger patients.METHODS: Between 2000 and 2014, patients who underwent PD due to periampullary cancers were enrolled. Patients aged 75 years or over were included in the older group.RESULTS: Total 1,249 patients were enrolled in this study and 168 patients (13.5%) were included in the older group. Postoperative complication rates, duration of postoperative hospital stay, and 30-day mortality were comparable between the 2 groups, although the admission rate of intensive care unit postoperatively was higher in the older adult group (20.8% vs. 10.5%, P < 0.001). In terms of long-term outcomes, 5-year overall survival rate was lower in the older group (23.4% vs. 41.8%, P < 0.001), and 5-year cumulative recurrence rate was higher in the older group without statistical significance (63.9% vs. 57.9%, P = 0.095). However, there were no statistical differences of cumulative recurrence in pancreatic cancer patients (81.5% vs. 82.5%, P = 0.805).CONCLUSION: PD for periampullary cancer is a safe and feasible treatment in the older patients. The treatment modality for obtaining better survival outcomes will be investigated.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Mortality , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Pancreaticoduodenectomy , Postoperative Complications , Recurrence , Survival Rate
12.
Gut and Liver ; : 690-697, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated the effect of preoperative malnutrition on postoperative surgical outcomes in elderly patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy for periampullary neoplasms. METHODS: This prospective cohort study enrolled 154 patients aged ≥65 years with periampullary neoplasms. Using the Mini Nutritional Assessment tool, patients were categorized into three groups according to their preoperative nutritional status: well-nourished (13.0%), at-risk-of-malnutrition (59.7%), and malnourished (27.3%). RESULTS: Significant intergroup differences were observed in preoperative body mass index (25.6±2.4 kg/m² [well-nourished] vs 23.4±2.6 kg/m² [at-risk-of-malnutrition] vs 21.1±2.8 kg/m² [malnourished], p<0.001). The overall morbidity significantly differed between the well-nourished and malnourished groups (20% vs 50.0%, p=0.024). The rates of clinically significant postoperative pancreatic fistula were significantly different among groups (p=0.035). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the at-risk-of-malnutrition or malnourished status (hazard ratio [HR], 3.45; p=0.037) and intraoperative blood loss (HR, 1.01; p=0.040) significantly affected the overall postoperative morbidity in elderly patients. CONCLUSIONS: Before surgery, 87.0% of patients were classified into the at-risk-of-malnutrition or malnourished group. Compared with well-nourished patients, patients with nutritional issues showed a higher overall surgical morbidity. Improved preoperative nutritional status leads to favorable surgical outcomes in elderly patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Body Mass Index , Cohort Studies , Humans , Malnutrition , Multivariate Analysis , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Pancreatic Fistula , Pancreaticoduodenectomy , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764381

ABSTRACT

Metabolic abnormalities and catheter-related infections are common complications of parenteral nutrition (PN). Particulate contamination is a catheter-related complication can occur when administering PN: mixing the electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins into the PN, or puncturing a rubber stopper at the PN formulation. In addition, the aggregation of the components of the PN solution by a drug incompatibility reaction could be related to particulate contamination. PN contaminated with precipitates, insoluble particles, and bacteria was reported as the cause of the death of a patient. The Food and Drug Administration recommended that the filters be used during PN administration. In-line filters can retain the bacteria and insoluble particles in PN solutions, and prevent their infusion into the patient. Therefore, in-line filters are recommended to prevent catheter-related complications that can occur during PN infusion. A 0.2µ filter for lipid-free PN and a 1.2µ filter for lipid-containing PN solutions can be used. On the other hand, when a filter is applied, the infusion rate can decrease and the economic burden will increase for patients requiring long-term PN. In addition, small particles, such as viruses, polymers, and proteins cannot be filtered out completely. In conclusion, in-line filers are recommended to prevent catheter-related complications that can occur during PN administration, but there are no international standardized guidelines. Therefore, standardized guidelines will be needed based on evidence accompanied by clinical trials. In addition, in-line filter applications should be considered in the clinical field depending on the patient's condition.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Catheter-Related Infections , Drug Incompatibility , Electrolytes , Filtration , Hand , Humans , Parenteral Nutrition , Polymers , Rubber , Trace Elements , United States Food and Drug Administration , Vitamins
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740544

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer, which is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in developing and developed countries, is highly associated with obesity. The association is largely attributed to changes to western style diets in those countries containing high-fat and high-energy. Luteolin (LUT) is a known potent inhibitor of inflammation, obesity, and cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of LUT on chemical-induced colon carcinogenesis in high fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice. METHODS: Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of azoxymethane (AOM) at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg body weight. Mice were then divided into four groups (n = 10) that received one of the following diets for 11 weeks after the AOM injection: normal diet (ND); HFD; HFD with 0.0025% LUT (HFD LL); HFD with 0.005% LUT (HFD HL). One week after AOM injection, animals received 1~2% dextran sodium sulfate in their drinking water over three cycles consisting of five consecutive days each that were separated by 16 days. RESULTS: Body weight, ratio of colon weight/length, and tumor multiplicity increased significantly in the HFD group compared to the ND group. Luteolin supplementation of the HFD significantly reduced the ratio of colon weight/length and colon tumors, but not body weight. The levels of plasma TNF-α and colonic expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 protein increased in response to HFD, but were suppressed by LUT supplementation. Immunohistochemistry analysis also showed that iNOS expression was decreased by LUT. CONCLUSION: Consumption of LUT may reduce the risk of obesity-associated colorectal cancer by suppression of colonic inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Azoxymethane , Body Weight , Carcinogenesis , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Developed Countries , Dextrans , Diet , Diet, High-Fat , Drinking Water , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Luteolin , Male , Mice , Mice, Obese , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Obesity , Plasma , Sodium
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739617

ABSTRACT

Chronic inflammation is a major etiology of cancer. Accumulating epidemiological and experimental evidences suggest that intake of high protein diet (HPD) is associated with colitis-associated colon cancer, however, most of the studies were confined in colon. Systemic influence of HPD on inflammation indices in different tissues of an organism has never been studied. We therefore investigated the effect of HPD on mouse skin and colonic inflammation using the well characterized inflammation induction protocol in both tissues (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate [TPA] for skin and dextran sodium sulfate [DSS] for colon). ICR mice were grouped to normal diet (ND, 20% casein) or HPD (50% casein) groups. In each diet group, mice were treated with either vehicle (acetone or H₂O), TPA, TPA and DSS, or DSS. Experimental diet was fed for total 4 weeks. After 1 week of diet feeding, 6.5 nmol of TPA was topically applied twice a week for 2 weeks on the shaved mouse dorsal skin. Drinking water containing 2% DSS was administered for 7 days at the final week of experiment. The results showed that TPA-induced skin hyperplasia, epidermal cell proliferation, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression were reduced in HPD group compared to ND group. In contrast, HPD increased DSS-induced colon mucosal hyperplasia, colonocyte proliferation, COX-2 expression, and plasma nitric oxide compared to ND group. This suggests that HPD exerts differential effect on different tissue inflammation which implies efficacy of protein intervention to human also should be monitored more thoroughly.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Proliferation , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Dextrans , Diet , Dietary Proteins , Drinking Water , Humans , Hyperplasia , Inflammation , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Nitric Oxide , Plasma , Skin , Sodium
16.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 470-475, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714477

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate symptom trajectory of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Korean school-age children. METHODS: Four hundred fifty six elementary school children were enrolled when they were in 1st grade and assessed once per year until 4th grade. Symptom severity was assessed by parents using the Korean version of the ADHD rating scale (K-ARS). High-risk was defined as a K-ARS score >18; 377, 325, and 284 children participated in the subsequent assessments. Symptom trajectory was analyzed using a mixed-model approach consistent with the longitudinal nature of the present study including missing data. RESULTS: K-ARS scores demonstrated significant main effects of time (F=35.33; p < 0.001), sex (F=20.77; p < 0.001), and first-year high-risk group (F=240.90; p<0.001). It also demonstrated a significant time×first-year high-risk group interaction effect (F=38.14; p < 0.001), but not a time×sex interaction effect. CONCLUSION: K-ARS scores demonstrated a tendency to decline with aging. Individuals in the high-risk group demonstrated earlier declining tendency than those in the non-high risk group. Although total K-ARS scores differed significantly between the sexes at all assessments, the declining pattern between both sexes did not differ significantly. Further studies including larger sample sizes, diagnostic interviews, and complete data sets are needed to confirm findings of the present study.


Subject(s)
Aging , Child , Dataset , Humans , Parents , Sample Size
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a recently defined entity and its clinical characteristics and classifications have yet to be established. We aimed to clarify the clinical features of IPNB and determine the optimal morphological classification criteria. METHODS: From 2003 to 2016, 112 patients with IPNB who underwent surgery were included in the analysis. After pathologic reexamination by a specialized biliary-pancreas pathologist, previously suggested morphological and anatomical classifications were compared using the clinicopathologic characteristics of IPNB. RESULTS: In terms of histologic subtypes, most patients had the intestinal type (n = 53; 48.6%) or pancreatobiliary type (n = 33; 30.3%). The simple “modified anatomical classification” showed that extrahepatic IPNB comprised more of the intestinal type and tended to be removed by bile duct resection or pancreatoduodenectomy. Intrahepatic IPNB had an equally high proportion of intestinal and pancreatobiliary types and tended to be removed by hepatobiliary resection. Morphologic classifications and histologic subtypes had no effect on survival, whereas a positive resection margin (75.9% vs. 25.7%; P = 0.004) and lymph node metastasis (75.3% vs. 30.0%; P = 0.091) were associated with a poor five-year overall survival rate. In the multivariate analysis, a positive resection margin and perineural invasion were important risk factors for survival. CONCLUSION: IPNB showed better long-term outcomes after optimal surgical resection. The “modified anatomical classification” is simple and intuitive and can help to select a treatment strategy and establish the proper scope of the operation.


Subject(s)
Bile Duct Neoplasms , Bile Ducts , Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Bile , Cholangiocarcinoma , Classification , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pancreaticoduodenectomy , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been attributed to higher intake of fat and protein. However, reports on the relationship between protein intake and CRC are inconsistent, possibly due to the complexity of diet composition. In this study, we addressed a question whether alteration of protein intake is independently associated with colonic inflammation and colon carcinogenesis. MATERIALS/METHODS: Balb/c mice were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups: 20% protein (control, 20P, 20% casein/kg diet), 10% protein (10P, 10% casein/kg diet), 30% protein (30P, 30% casein/kg diet), and 50% protein (50P, 50% casein/kg diet) diet groups and were subjected to azoxymethane-dextran sodium sulfate induced colon carcinogenesis. RESULTS: As the protein content of the diet increased, clinical signs of colitis including loss of body weight, rectal bleeding, change in stool consistency, and shortening of the colon were worsened. This was associated with a significant decrease in the survival rate of the mice, an increase in proinflammatory protein expression in the colon, and an increase in mucosal cell proliferation. Further, colon tumor multiplicity was dramatically increased in the 30P (318%) and 50P (438%) groups compared with the control (20P) group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a high protein diet stimulates colon tumor formation by increasing colonic inflammation and proliferation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Carcinogenesis , Caseins , Cell Proliferation , Colitis , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Diet , Dietary Proteins , Hemorrhage , Incidence , Inflammation , Mice , Sodium , Survival Rate
19.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 612-616, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152294

ABSTRACT

An esophagomediastinal fistula is rare complication of nontuberculous mycobacterium infection. Here, we report the case of a patient with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who presented with a fever, cough, and dyspnea, and was eventually diagnosed with nontuberculous mycobacterium infection. Computed tomography revealed multiple lymphadenopathy with an esophagomediastinal fistula. The patient was treated with anti-mycobacterial medications and endoscopic fistula closure.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Cough , Dyspnea , Esophageal Fistula , Fever , Fistula , HIV , Humans , Lymphatic Diseases , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116180

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop a patient classification system based on nursing care intensity for patients with acute stroke-related symptoms and verify its validity and reliability. METHODS: Data were collected between November, 2013 and February, 2014. The verification for content validity of the patient classification system was conducted by a group of seven professionals. Both interrater reliability and concurrent validity were verified at stroke units in tertiary hospitals. RESULTS: The intensive nursing care for acute stroke patients consisted of 14 classified domains and 56 classified contents by adding 'neurological assessment and observation' and 'respiratory care': 'hygiene', 'nutrition', 'elimination', 'mobility and exercise', 'education or counselling', 'emotional support', 'communication', 'treatment and examination', 'medication', 'assessment and observation', 'neurological assessment and observation', 'respiratory care', 'coordination between departments', and 'discharge or transfer care'. Each domain was classified into four levels such as Class I, Class II, Class III, and ClassIV. CONCLUSION: The results show that this patient classification system has satisfactory validity for content and concurrent and verified reliability and can be used to accurately estimate the demand for nursing care for patients in stroke units.


Subject(s)
Classification , Humans , Nursing Care , Nursing , Reproducibility of Results , Stroke , Tertiary Care Centers
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