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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250936, 2024. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345557

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Glutamine, as a dipeptide or a free amino acid form, on the progression of burn injuries in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were burned with a comb metal plate heated in boiling water (98 °C) for three minutes, creating four rectangular full-thickness burn areas separated by three unburned interspaces (zone of stasis) in both dorsum sides. The animals were randomized into three groups (n=10): saline solution (G1-Control) and treated groups that orally received Glutamine as dipeptide (G2-Dip) or free amino acid (G3-FreeAA). Two and seven days after burn injury, lesions were photographed for unburned interspaces necrosis evolution assessment. Seven days after injury, glutathione seric was measured and histopathological analysis was performed. By photographs, there was a significant reduction in necrosis progression in G3-Free-AA between days two and seven. Histopathological analysis at day 7 showed a significantly higher stasis zone without necrosis and a higher number of fibroblasts in G2-Dip and G3-FreeAA compared with G1-Control. Also, glutathione serum dosage was higher in G2-Dip. The plasmatic glutathione levels were higher in the G2-Dip than the G1-Control, and there was a trend to higher levels in G3-FreeAA. The reduction in histological lesions, greater production of fibroblasts, and greater amounts of glutathione may have benefited the evolution of burn necrosis, which showed greater preservation of interspaces.


Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da Glutamina, como um dipeptídeo ou forma de aminoácido livre, na progressão de queimaduras em ratos. Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram queimados com um pente de metal aquecido em água fervente (98 °C) por três minutos, criando quatro áreas retangulares queimadas separadas por três interesespaços não queimados (zona de estase) em ambos os lados do dorso. Os animais foram randomizados em três grupos (n = 10): solução salina (G1-Controle) e grupos tratados que receberam glutamina via oral como dipeptídeo (G2-Dip) ou aminoácido livre (G3-FreeAA). Dois e sete dias após a queimadura, as lesões foram fotografadas para avaliação da evolução da necrose entre os espaços não queimados. Sete dias após a lesão, foi dosada a glutationa sérica e realizada análise histopatológica. Pelas fotografias, houve uma redução significativa na progressão da necrose no G3-Free-AA entre os dias dois e sete. A análise histopatológica no dia 7 mostrou uma zona de estase significativamente maior sem necrose e número mais elevado de fibroblastos em G2-Dip e G3-FreeAA em comparação com G1-Controle. Os níveis plasmáticos de glutationa foram maiores no G2-Dip em relação ao G1-Controle, e houve tendência a níveis mais elevados no G3-FreeAA. A redução das lesões histológicas, maior produção de fibroblastos, maior quantidade de glutationa podem ter beneficiado a evolução da necrose da queimadura, que mostrou maior preservação dos interespaços.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Burns/drug therapy , Glutamine , Rats, Wistar , Dipeptides , Disease Models, Animal , Amino Acids
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e8853, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089343

ABSTRACT

Anaphylactic shock can be defined as an acute syndrome, and it is the most severe clinical manifestation of allergic diseases. Anaphylactoid reactions are similar to anaphylactic events but differ in the pathophysiological mechanism. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibitors during anaphylaxis suggest that NO might decrease the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis but exacerbate associated vasodilation. Therefore, blocking the effects of NO on vascular smooth muscle by inhibiting the guanylate cyclase (GC) would be a reasonable strategy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of NO/cGMP pathway inhibitors methylene blue (MB), Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), and indigo carmine (IC) in shock induced by compound 48/80 (C48/80) in rats. The effect was assessed by invasive blood pressure measurement. Shock was initiated by C48/80 intravenous bolus injection 5 min before (prophylactic) or after (treatment) the administration of the inhibitors MB (3 mg/kg), L-NAME (1 mg/kg), and IC (3 mg/kg). Of the groups that received drugs as prophylaxis for shock, only the IC group did not present the final systolic blood pressure (SBP) better than the C48/80 group. Regarding shock treatment with the drugs tested, all groups had the final SBP similar to the C48/80group. Altogether, our results suggested that inhibition of GC and NO synthase in NO production pathway was not sufficient to revert hypotension or significantly improve survival.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cyclic GMP/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Anaphylaxis/drug therapy , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Wistar , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Indigo Carmine/administration & dosage , Methylene Blue/administration & dosage
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(2): e5007, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766980

ABSTRACT

Metabolic acidosis has profound effects on vascular tone. This study investigated the in vivo effects of acute metabolic acidosis (AMA) and chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) on hemodynamic parameters and endothelial function. CMA was induced by ad libitum intake of 1% NH4Cl for 7 days, and AMA was induced by a 3-h infusion of 6 M NH4Cl (1 mL/kg, diluted 1:10). Phenylephrine (Phe) and acetylcholine (Ach) dose-response curves were performed by venous infusion with simultaneous venous and arterial blood pressure monitoring. Plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) was measured by chemiluminescence. The CMA group had a blood pH of 7.15±0.03, which was associated with reduced bicarbonate (13.8±0.98 mmol/L) and no change in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2). The AMA group had a pH of 7.20±0.01, which was associated with decreases in bicarbonate (10.8±0.54 mmol/L) and PaCO2 (47.8±2.54 to 23.2±0.74 mmHg) and accompanied by hyperventilation. Phe or ACh infusion did not affect arterial or venous blood pressure in the CMA group. However, the ACh infusion decreased the arterial blood pressure (ΔBP: -28.0±2.35 mm Hg [AMA] to -4.5±2.89 mmHg [control]) in the AMA group. Plasma NOx was normal after CMA but increased after AMA (25.3±0.88 to 31.3±0.54 μM). These results indicate that AMA, but not CMA, potentiated the Ach-induced decrease in blood pressure and led to an increase in plasma NOx, reinforcing the effect of pH imbalance on vascular tone and blood pressure control.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Acetylcholine/administration & dosage , Acidosis/physiopathology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Hypotension/chemically induced , Acute Disease , Acid-Base Imbalance/metabolism , Acidosis/chemically induced , Acidosis/metabolism , Blood Pressure Determination , Bicarbonates/blood , Blood Pressure/physiology , Chronic Disease , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Hemodynamics/physiology , Hyperventilation/metabolism , Luminescence , Nitrates/blood , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitrites/blood
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 41(6): 439-445, June 2008.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-485854

ABSTRACT

Acid-base homeostasis maintains systemic arterial pH within a narrow range. Whereas the normal range of pH for clinical laboratories is 7.35-7.45, in vivo pH is maintained within a much narrower range. In clinical and experimental settings, blood pH can vary in response to respiratory or renal impairment. This altered pH promotes changes in vascular smooth muscle tone with impact on circulation and blood pressure control. Changes in pH can be divided into those occurring in the extracellular space (pHo) and those occurring within the intracellular space (pHi), although, extracellular and intracellular compartments influence each other. Consistent with the multiple events involved in the changes in tone produced by altered pHo, including type of vascular bed, several factors and mechanisms, in addition to hydrogen ion concentration, have been suggested to be involved. The scientific literature has many reports concerning acid-base balance and endothelium function, but these concepts are not clear about acid-base disorders and their relations with the three known mechanisms of endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity: nitric oxide (NO/cGMP-dependent), prostacyclin (PGI2/cAMP-dependent) and hyperpolarization. During the last decades, many studies have been published and have given rise to confronting data on acid-base disorder and endothelial function. Therefore, the main proposal of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the state of art and incentivate researchers to develop more studies about these issues.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Acid-Base Equilibrium/physiology , Blood Vessels/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/physiopathology , Vasodilation/physiology , Acidosis/metabolism , Acidosis/physiopathology , Alkalosis/metabolism , Alkalosis/physiopathology , Epoprostenol/physiology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/physiology
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(6): 857-865, June 2007. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-452688

ABSTRACT

We investigated whether hepatic artery endothelium may be the earliest site of injury consequent to liver ischemia and reperfusion. Twenty-four heartworm-free mongrel dogs of either sex exposed to liver ischemia/reperfusion in vivo were randomized into four experimental groups (N = 6): a) control, sham-operated dogs, b) dogs subjected to 60 min of ischemia, c) dogs subjected to 30 min of ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion, and d) animals subjected to 45 min of ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. The nitric oxide endothelium-dependent relaxation of hepatic artery rings contracted with prostaglandin F2a and exposed to increasing concentrations of acetylcholine, calcium ionophore A23187, sodium fluoride, phospholipase-C, poly-L-arginine, isoproterenol, and sodium nitroprusside was evaluated in organ-chamber experiments. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by malondialdehyde activity in liver tissue samples and by blood lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. No changes were observed in hepatic artery relaxation for any agonist tested. The group subjected to 45 min of ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion presented marked increases of serum aminotransferases (ALT = 2989 ± 1056 U/L and AST = 1268 ± 371 U/L; P < 0.01), LDH = 2887 ± 1213 IU/L; P < 0.01) and malondialdehyde in liver samples (0.360 ± 0.020 nmol/mgPT; P < 0.05). Under the experimental conditions utilized, no abnormal changes in hepatic arterial vasoreactivity were observed: endothelium-dependent and independent hepatic artery vasodilation were not impaired in this canine model of ischemia/reperfusion injury. In contrast to other vital organs and in the ischemia/reperfusion injury environment, dysfunction of the main artery endothelium is not the first site of reperfusion injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Hepatic Artery/physiopathology , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Liver/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Vasodilation/physiology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Random Allocation , Reperfusion Injury/enzymology
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 37(8): 1215-1224, Aug. 2004. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-362553

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against oxygen radical-mediated coronary artery injury. Vascular contraction and relaxation were determined in canine coronary arteries immersed in Kreb's solution (95 percent O2-5 percent CO2), incubated or not with NAC (10 mM), and exposed to free radicals (FR) generated by xanthine oxidase (100 mU/ml) plus xanthine (0.1 mM). Rings not exposed to FR or NAC were used as controls. The arteries were contracted with 2.5 µM prostaglandin F2alpha. Subsequently, concentration-response curves for acetylcholine, calcium ionophore and sodium fluoride were obtained in the presence of 20 µM indomethacin. Concentration-response curves for bradykinin, calcium ionophore, sodium nitroprusside, and pinacidil were obtained in the presence of indomethacin plus Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (0.2 mM). The oxidative stress reduced the vascular contraction of arteries not exposed to NAC (3.93 ± 3.42 g), compared to control (8.56 ± 3.16 g) and to NAC group (9.07 ± 4.0 g). Additionally, in arteries not exposed to NAC the endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-dependent relaxation promoted by acetylcholine (1 nM to 10 µM) was also reduced (maximal relaxation of 52.1 ± 43.2 percent), compared to control (100 percent) and NAC group (97.0 ± 4.3 percent), as well as the NO/cyclooxygenase-independent receptor-dependent relaxation provoked by bradykinin (1 nM to 10 µM; maximal relaxation of 20.0 ± 21.2 percent), compared to control (100 percent) and NAC group (70.8 ± 20.0 percent). The endothelium-independent relaxation elicited by sodium nitroprusside (1 nM to 1 µM) and pinacidil (1 nM to 10 µM) was not affected. In conclusion, the vascular dysfunction caused by the oxidative stress, expressed as reduction of the endothelium-dependent relaxation and of the vascular smooth muscle contraction, was prevented by NAC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Acetylcysteine , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , Coronary Vessels , Endothelium, Vascular , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 37(2): 259-265, Feb. 2004. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-354185

ABSTRACT

To determine if radiocontrast impairs vascular relaxation of the renal artery, segments (4-5 mm in length) of canine renal artery were suspended in vitro in organ chambers to measure isometric force (95 percent O2/5 percent CO2, at 37ºC). Arterial segments with and without endothelium were placed at the optimal point of their length-tension relation and incubated with 10 æM indomethacin to prevent synthesis of endogenous prostanoids. The presence of nonionic radiocontrast (iohexol, Omnipaque 350, 1 ml in 25 ml control solution, 4 percent (v/v)) did not alter endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine in rings precontracted with both norepinephrine and prostaglandin F2alpha (N = 6). When the rings were precontracted with prostaglandin F2alpha, the presence of ionic contrast did not inhibit the relaxation of the arteries. However, in canine renal arteries contracted with norepinephrine, the presence of ionic radiocontrast (diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium, MD-76, 1 ml in 25 ml control solution, 4 percent (v/v)) inhibited relaxation in response to acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside (N = 6 in each group), and isoproterenol (N = 5; P < 0.05). Rings were relaxed less than 50 percent of norepinephrine contraction. Following removal of the contrast, vascular relaxation in response to the agonists returned to normal. These results indicate that ionic radiocontrast nonspecifically inhibits vasodilation (both cAMP-mediated and cGMP-mediated) of canine renal arteries contracted with norepinephrine. This reversible impairment of vasodilation could inhibit normal renal perfusion and act as a mechanism of renal failure following radiocontrast infusion. In the adopted experimental protocol the isoproterenol-induced relaxation of renal arteries precontracted with norepinephrine was more affected, suggesting a pivotal role of the cAMP system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Acute Kidney Injury , Contrast Media , Diatrizoate , Renal Artery , Vasodilation , Endothelium, Vascular , Vascular Resistance , Vasodilator Agents
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 31(10): 1329-34, Oct. 1998. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-223995

ABSTRACT

Early systemic arterial hypotension is a common clinical feature of Pseudomonas septicemia. To determine if Pseudomonas aeruginosa endotoxin induces the release of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO), an endogenous nitrovasodilator, segments of canine femoral, renal, hepatic, superior mesenteric, and left circumflex coronary arteries were suspended in organ chambers (physiological salt solution, 95 per cent O2/5 per cent CO2, pH 7.4, 37oC) to measure isometric force. In arterial segments contracted with 2 µM prostaglandin F2a, Pseudomonas endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS) serotype 10(Habs) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.05 to 0.50 mg/ml)) induced concentration-dependent relaxation of segments with endothelium (P<0.05) but no significant change in tension of arteries without endothelium. Endothelium-dependent relaxation in response to Pseudomonas LPS occurred in the presence of 1 µM indomethacin, but could be blocked in the coronary artery with 10 µM NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis from L-arginine. The inhibitory effect of L-NMMA on LPS-mediated vasorelaxation of the coronary artery could be reversed by exogenous 100 µM L-arginine but not by 100 µM D-arginine. These experiments indicate that Pseudomonas endotoxin induces synthesis of nitric oxide from L-arginine by the vascular endothelium. LPS-mediated production of EDNO by the endothelium, possibly through the action of constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOSc), may decrease systemic vascular resistance and may be the mechanism of early hypotension characteristic of Pseudomonas septicemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Male , Female , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors , In Vitro Techniques , Lipopolysaccharides , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Vasodilation , Vasodilator Agents , Coronary Vessels , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hypotension , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , omega-N-Methylarginine/pharmacology , Sepsis
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 70(2): 119-23, fev. 1998. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-214058

ABSTRACT

Descrevemos o caso de um paciente masculino de 42 anos, com amiloidose sistêmica, provavelmente primária, comprometendo o coraçäo. Ressaltam-se os aspectos fisiopatológicos, clínicos e a relativa raridade do diagnoóstico in vivo. Discutem-se, ainda que limitados, os aspectos terapêuticos relacionados aos problemas cardíacos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Amyloidosis/complications , Cardiomyopathy, Restrictive/etiology , Amyloidosis/diagnosis , Amyloidosis/pathology , Cardiomyopathy, Restrictive/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathy, Restrictive/pathology
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