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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879045


To investigate the effects of six common drying methods on the quality of different specifications of Sophorae Flos, in order to select their suitable drying methods. According to appearance and morphology, Sophorae Flos was divided into the following three specifications: flower bud type(HL), half-open type(BK) and blooming type(SK). All specifications of samples were treated with shade-drying method(25 ℃, natural temperature), sun-drying method, hot-air-drying method(60, 105 ℃), and drying method(60 ℃) after steaming. The contents of total flavonoids, rutin, narcissus, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and Fe~(3+) reducing ability, DPPH free radical scavenging ability, ABTS free radical scavenging ability and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching(FRAP) were detected by UV, HPLC and colorimetry, respectively. Principal component analysis(PCA), cluster analysis(CA) and correlation analysis were used to comprehensively evaluate the quality of samples. According to the results, there were significant differences in the effect of drying methods on different specifications of samples. The drying method(60 ℃) after steaming was suitable for HL and BK, while the hot-air-drying method(60 ℃) was suitable for SK. When the fresh medicinal materials could not be treated in time, they should be spread out in a cool and ventilated place. Under high and low temperature conditions, the quality of three specifications of Sophorae Flos would be reduced. The hot-air-drying method(105 ℃) and shade-drying method(25 ℃) were not suitable for the treatment of fresh flowers and flower buds of Sophora japonicus. There were obviously differences of chemical compositions and antioxidant activities among the three specifications of samples. Therefore, the specifications of medicinal materials should be controlled to ensure the uniform quality. The study provided the abundant data reference for the selection of appropriate drying methods for the three specifications of Sophorae Flos, and useful exploration for the classification and processing of medicinal materials of flowers.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flavonoids/analysis , Flowers/chemistry , Rutin , Sophora
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846232


Objective: To optimize the water extracting and refining procession of Sijunzi Decoction Granules (SDG). Methods: The orthogonal test method was used to study the four factors including the soak time, amount of water added, extraction time and frequency by taking the dry extract yield of the medicinal materials and contents of ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, glycyrrhizic acid, and liquiritin as indicators to optimize the water extracting process of SDG. To optimize the alcohol precipitation process of SDG, the factors including the concentration of the medicinal materials, alcohol content, and time of alcohol precipitation were investigated. The extracts before and after alcohol precipitation were compared by intervening spleen deficiency syndrome pharmacodynamics experiment. Results: The best water extracting procession of SDG was soaked for 60 min with 10 times of water, decocted three times, 30 min for each time. The optimal water extraction by alcohol sedimentation process was to concentrate the filtrate of water extraction to 1 mL, which was equivalent to 0.5 g of the original medicinal materials, with 80% alcohol content and 12 h alcohol precipitation time. Compared with the model group, the activity of salivary amylase and the conent of serum gastrin in the water extracting group and water extracting by alcohol sedimentation group of SDG were significantly increased and could improve the absorption function of xylose in small intestine of rats with spleen deficiency syndrome (P 0.05). Conclusion: The alcohol precipitation process is not suitable for refining of SDG. So the water extracting process is finally selected as the best extraction process of SDG.

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1101-1107, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780176


This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Jiawei Foshou San capsule (JWFSSC) on CYP1A2, CYP2C6, CYP2D2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A1/2 enzyme activities in rat liver microsomes in vitro and in vivo, and to provide pharmacokinetic data for its combined use with other medicines. After incubating liver microsomes with a cocktail of probe drugs, the metabolites were quantitated with LC-MS/MS to assess the CYP enzyme activity. The hepatic pathological changes were evaluated by histology after hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. With the dose range up to 3 200 mg·L-1, the IC50 of JWFSSC for CYP2D2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A1/2 in vitro was 229.3 mg·L-1, 361.9 mg·L-1 and 274.6 mg·L-1 respectively. Compared with the vehicle control group, the enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2C6 and CYP3A1/2 showed a significant increase in animals given JWFSSC 180 mg·kg-1·d-1 (P<0.01). Based on histology, several pathological changes were observed in JWFSSC groups: there was less inflammatory infiltration compared to the tetrahydropalmatine (THP) group. These results of inhibition in vitro and induction in vivo suggest a strengthened efficacy and a prolonged effective time of drugs metabolized by CYP2D2 and CYP2E1 enzymes when combined with JWFSSC in use. The dosage of parent drugs should be appropriately reduced when used in combination with JWFSSC. However, if a drug is metabolized by CYP1A2 and CYP2C6 when used in combination with JWFSSC, the effect of the drug is likely reduced and the dosage should be increased appropriately. In addition, the combination of ferulic acid (FA), ligustrazine (LZ) and THP can significantly reduce the toxicity of THP in rat livers. In this study, the program of animal testing had been approved by Committee on the management and usage of experimental animal in the College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University.

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 926-2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779258


This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of Jiawei Foshou San (JWFSS) capsule in vitro on five major human liver microsomes CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, as well as on rat liver microsomes CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D2, CYP2E1, CYP3A1/2. The test groups included a negative control group, an inhibitor positive control group, an ferulic acid (FA) group, a ligustrazine (LZ) group, a tetrahydropalmatine (THP) group, and an JWFSS capsule group. After incubating the liver microsomes with a cocktail of probe drugs, the metabolites were quantitated with LC-MS/MS, and IC 50 values were calculated to assess the inhibitory effect of JWFSS capsule and its components on five rat/human CYP450 enzymes. All of the IC50 values for the FA and the LZ for the five CYPs could not be determined. The IC50 of the THP for rat CYP3A1/2 and for human CYP2D6 was 7.46 and 9.24 μmol·L-1, respectively. The IC50 of the JWFSS capsule for rat CYP2D2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A1/2 was 241.3, 369.8 and 293.0 mg ·L-1, for human CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 was 123.9, 189.9 and 171.3 mg·L-1 respectively. The results indicated there were little probability that FA and LZ inhibited the activity of rat and human liver five CYPs; THP was identified as moderate-intensity inhibitor of rat liver CYP3A1/2 and human liver CYP2D6; JWFSS capsule might have a inhibitory effect on the activity of rat and human liver CYP2D, CYP2E1 and CYP3A in vitro, showing that there was a strengthened efficacy and a prolonged effective time for drugs metabolized by CYP2D, CYP2E1, CYP3A and combined with JWFSS capsule.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351219


To investigate the effect of Jiawei Foshou San and its various combined administration on hepatic P450 enzyme activity and hepatocyte morphology in rats. Rats were orally administered with drugs for four weeks and then sacrificed to prepare liver microsomes. The liver microsomes were incubated with the cocktail method; The metabolites were determined with the rapid liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to investigate the hepatocyte P450 enzyme activity. In addition, the hepatic pathological changes were observed by using the hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Compared with the control group, the enzyme activity of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in the Jiawei Foshou san group showed a significant rise (P < 0.05); the enzyme activity of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in the ferulic acid + ligustrazine group and the ligustrazine + tetrahydropalmatine group showed a significant rise (P < 0.05) ; the enzyme activity of CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP2E1 in the ligustrazine group showed a significant rise (P < 0.05); the enzyme activity of CYP3A4 in the ferulic acid group showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05). After the administration with various drugs, the hepatocyte morphologies in the ferulic acid group and the ligustrazine group were normal. The pathological changes were observed in the tetrahydropalmatine group, such as unclear boundary of hepatic lobules, disordered hepatic cell arrangement, blurred edge, anisokaryosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The ferulic acid + tetrahydropalmatine group, the ligustrazine + tetrahydropalmatine group and the Jiawei Foshou San group also showed inflammatory infiltration, but with less pathological changes, particularly the Jiawei Foshou San group. The study result shows that Jiawei Foshou San can induce the enzyme activity of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, and ligustrazine may be the effective substance for inducing CYP1A2. Its combination with ferulic acid and ligustrazine can significantly reduce the liver toxicity of tetrahydropalmatine.

Animals , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Hepatocytes , Microsomes, Liver , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley