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1.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 936-940, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805744

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To study the survival time and influencing factors of HIV/AIDS cases who began receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 2005 to 2015 in Tianjin.@*Methods@#Data related to HIV/AIDS cases that receiving ART between 2005 and 2015 in Tianjin, were collected from the Chinese HIV/AIDS Basic Information Management System. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze data of collection. Life table was used to calculate the survival proportion and Cox proportion hazard regression model was used to analyze the factors associated to the time of survival.@*Results@#A total of 2 057 HIV/AIDS cases were involved, including 51 died from AIDS related disease, ending up with the survival rates of 1, 3, 5 and 10 years as 98.4%, 97.8%, 97.4% and 95.8%, respectively. Results from the multivariate Cox proportion hazard regression model showed that when comparing with the cases aged<30 years, aHR (95%CI) of the cases aged 30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50 years or above appeared as 4.506 (1.226-9.059), 5.944 (1.479-13.892) and 15.958 (5.309-27.206) respectively. When comparing with the cases having no loss of follow-up during ART process, the aHR of the cases having lost of follow-up during ART was 5.645 (95%CI: 3.124-10.200). When comparing with the cases diagnosed by other institutions, the aHR of the cases diagnosed by hospitals was 3.823 (95%CI: 1.423-10.274). When compared with the cases had no hepatitis B or hepatitis C before ART, aHR of the cases with hepatitis B or C prior to ART was 2.580 (95%CI:1.210-5.502). Compared with the cases receiving ART at Ⅰ/Ⅱ clinical stages, the aHR of the cases at Ⅲ/Ⅳ clinical stages was 3.947 (95%CI: 2.167-7.188). Compared with the cases with junior high school education or below, the aHR of the cases with high school education or above was 0.440 (95%CI: 0.238-0.810). Compared with the cases diagnosed before operation, aHR of the cases from special investigation and from counseling and testing (VCT) were 0.111 (0.027-0.456) and 0.182 (0.049-0.674) respectively.@*Conclusions@#The survival rate of HIV/AIDS cases that received ART was high in Tianjin. Risk factors related to the survival of cases would include: old age when started receiving ART, loss of follow-up during ART, diagnosed by hospitals, co-infected with hepatitis B or hepatitis C and receiving ART at Ⅲ/Ⅳ clinical stages. Meanwhile, protective factors related to the survival of cases would include: having high school or above education, diagnosis was made through other special programs or from VCT services.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-755361

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the survival and influencing factors of treatment-naive HIV/AIDS patients aged 15 years or above in Tianjin.Methods The data of 973 untreated HIV/AIDS patients aged 15 years or above who were diagnosed during June 28 1996 to May 28 2017 in Tianjin were retrospectively analyzed.The survival rate of patients was calculated by the life table method , and the factors affecting the survival time were analyzed by the Cox proportional hazard model.Results There were 726 HIV carriers (74.6%) and 247 AIDS patients (25.4%).Among them, there were more males (93.7%, 912/973) than females (6.3%, 61/973); Han nationality accounted for 92.5%(900/973); the education level of most patients was high school or below (71畅0%, 691/973); half of the patients were unmarried (50.4%, 490/973); 57.7%(561/973) of the patients were infected by men who have sex with men ( MSM);62畅9%(612/973) were local residents and 37.1%(361/973) were migrants; 36.6%(356/973) cases were detected by pre-transfusion tests, and 74.5%( 725/973) had initial CD4 +T count tests.In this series, the average survival time is 11.03 years after diagnosis (95%CI 10.01-12畅05 years).The 1, 3, 5, and 10-year survival rates after diagnosis were 96.8%, 88.7%, 80.2%and 40.5%.183 cases (18畅8%) died from AIDS.Cox proportional hazard model analysis showed that compared with patients aged 15 to 35 years, patients aged 35-50 years (HR=3.077, 95%CI 1.868-5.070) and >50 years (HR=2.626, 95%CI 1畅553-4.440) had higher risk of AIDS-related deaths; compared with high school education or below , patients with college education or above ( HR=0.562, 95%CI 0.371-0.851) had a lower risk of AIDS death; injection drug user (IDU) (HR=0.751, 95%CI 0.316-0.909) had lower risk of death than MSM. Patients detected by the consultation ( HR=0.463, 95%CI 0.252-0.851), special investigation ( HR=0畅263, 95%CI 0.116-0.593), detainee physical examination ( HR=0.055, 95%CI 0.007-0畅441) and STD clinic visits (HR=0.033, 95%CI 0.005-0.239) had a lower risk of death than those detected by pre-transfusion tests.The initial CD4 +T lymphocyte counts were negatively correlated with the risk of AIDS-related death (P<0.01).Conclusions The average survival time after diagnosis of untreated HIV/AIDS patients aged 15 years or above was 11.03 years in Tianjin.The age, education level, route of infection, detection of HIV infection and the initial CD 4 +T lymphocyte counts are related to the survival time after diagnosis of untreated HIV/AIDS patients.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806657

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the clinical application of a novel HIV-1 DNA reagent.@*Methods@#HIV-1-infected and non-infected human blood samples were selected, as well as weakly positive samples, indeterminate samples, specific samples. Compared the result of HIV-1 DNA reagent with HIV-1 infection status (refer to the National Guideline for Detection of HIV/AIDS (2015)), the accuracy of the HIV-1 DNA reagent was evaluated in clinical application; Meanwhile, the commercially available RNA quantification kit was selected as reference reagent for parallel detection, and then the consistency and differences were evaluated between HIV-1 DNA reagent and RNA quantification reagent.@*Results@#A total of 95 whole blood samples were tested by the HIV-1 DNA reagent. Taking the HIV-1 infection status as the reference standard, the result showed that the positive agreement rate was 100% (95%CI: 93.94%-100%), the negative agreement rate was 100% (95%CI: 90.26%-100%), and the overall agreement rate was 100% (95%CI: 96.19%-100%). The Kappa value was 1 (95%CI: 1.00-1.00). The HIV-1 DNA reagent could detect weakly positive samples and indeterminate samples of early infection, and could effectively distinguish false-positive samples tested by the Ag-Ab reagent. The specific samples had no false-positive result .@*Conclusions@#The result of HIV-1 DNA reagent were consistent with the HIV-1 infection status. It can be considered as equivalent to the HIV-1 detection reagent commercially available in our country. It can effectively identify the indeterminate samples in the early infection. Compared with the RNA quantification reagent, it can effectively detect HIV-1 DNA of virus reservoirs.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269967

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the distribution and proportion of subtypes of pol gene in HIV-1 epidemic strains in Guangxi Autonomous Region.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>152 HIV-1 patients were enrolled from 11 cities in Guangxi Autonomous Region from 2010 to 2012 by convenient sampling. Inclusion criterias were listed as the fdlowing: HIV-1 infection was confirmed by Western blot, HIV-1 viral load >1 000 copies/ml, > 18 year-old, and without any serious illnesses. 5 ml of peripheral blood samples were obtained from each patient. The viral RNA was isolated from plasma and used for amplification of full-length pol gene by nested RT-PCR. The amplified products were sequenced. After editing and modification, all sequences were characterized for preliminary subtyping by genotyping and confirmed with phylogenetic tree constructed by MEGA 5.03 software. The recombinant identification of 2 unknown recombinant strains was determined by RIP and jpHMM at GOBICS.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among 152 patients, 137 full-length pol genes were successfully amplified and 127 HIV-1 subtypes were identified. The distribution and proportion of subtypes was summarized as the following 71 cases of CRF01_AE, accounting for 55.9% (71/127), 38 CRF08_BC, 29.9% (38/127), 13 CRF07_BC, 10.2% (13/127), and 3 B (B'), 2.4% (3/127), 2 unknown recombinant strains, 1.6% (2/127). In 11 cites of Guangxi Autonomous Region, subtype CRF01_AE was the dominant strain. Among heterosexual transmitted patients and drug abusers, the proportions of subtype CRF01_AE were 67.4% (58/86) and 34.1% (14/41), respectively. There was a significance different in the distribution of CRF01_AE in different routes of transmission (χ(2)=15.07, P<0.001). In age 21- 35, age 36- 60 and age>60 groups, the proportions of CRF01_AE was 43.6% (17/39), 57.6% (38/66), 77.3% (17/22), and CRF08_BC was 43.6% (17/39), 28.8% (19/66), 9.1% (2/22), respectively, the difference in proportions was significant(χ(2)=8.48, P= 0.014). The patterns of two unknown recombinant strains were found to be CRF01_AE/B (B') and CRF01_AE/C/B(B'), respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>CRF01_AE was the dominant HIV-1 subtype in Guangxi Autonomous Region from 2010 to 2012, with heterosexual transmission as its main spreading route. The two unknown recombinant strains in Guangxi Autonomous Region were reconstructed by subtype CRF01_AE and CRF_BC.</p>


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , China , Epidemiology , Cities , Drug Users , Genes, pol , Genotype , HIV Infections , Epidemiology , Virology , HIV-1 , Genetics , Humans , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral , Blood , pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus , Genetics
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-483978

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the HIV-1 drug resistance in Guangxi during 2009 to 2012 and to analyze the correlations between drug resistance and HIV-1 subtypes.Methods Patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection or acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( HIV/AIDS) were randomly re-cruited from different areas in Guangxi.HIV-1 RNA was extracted from blood samples of the subjects and converted into complementary DNA ( cDNA) by using reverse transcription.The pol gene was amplified and sequenced.Subtyping analysis was performed by using the online analysis tool of Genotyping in combination with the MEGA 5.03 software.The HIV resistance mutations were determined and scored with the use of Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database.Results A total of 196 pol gene sequences were obtained from 103 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated subjects (52.55%) and 93 ART-na?ve subjects (47.45%).The 196 pol gene sequences were classified into four subtypes including CRF01_AE, CRF08_BC, CRF07_BC and B, accounting for 48.47%, 44.90%, 6.12%and 0.51%, respectively.The HIV drug resistance rates in sub-jects with and without ART were 10.68% and 7.53%, respectively.Among the 196 subjects, 14 cases showed low level of drug resistance, 3 cases showed moderate level of drug resistance and 4 cases showed high level of resistance.Only one case was resistant to both nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors ( NR-TIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors ( NNRTIs) .The resistance rates of the 196 cases to protease inhibitor (PIs), NRTIs, NNRTIs, and integrase inhibitors (INs) were 6.63%, 3.06%, 11.22%and 8.67%, respectively.The frequencies of PIs-related mutations in subtypes CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC were 6.32%, 41.67% and 2.27%, respectively.Most of the PI-related A71V/T mutations were identified in strains belonging to subtype CRF07_BC, accounting for 75% of all A71V/T mutations found in the 196 strains.The NNRTI-related E138A mutations only appeared in strains belonging to subtype CRF08_BC.Conclusion The drug resistance rate among patients with HIV-1/AIDS in Guangxi was higher than the average level in China.The drug resistance rates varied with the subtypes of HIV-1 strains.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-478834

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the phylogenetic evolution and genetic variations of gag gene among the prevalent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV )‐1 strains in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region . Methods Plasma samples of 158 HIV‐1 infected patients in Guangxi area were collected during October 2011 to March 2012 .The gag gene fragments of HIV‐1 were amplified by reverse transcription/nested‐polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced .MEGA 5 .03 was utilized to construct phylogenetic tree and to calculate the genetic distances and selection pressures (globle ω) of gag gene and its coding regions . The comparisons between two groups were tested by Student′s t test ,and the comparisons of multiple groups were tested by one‐way ANOVA .Results A total of 140 amplification products of gag gene were obtained from 158 samples .Four subtypes of HIV‐1 were found ,including CRF01_AE (80 ,57 .1% ) , CRF08_BC (46 ,32 .9% ) ,CRF07_BC (10 ,7 .1% ) ,and subtype B (B′) (4 ,2 .9% ) .The genetic distances of gag gene of the above subtypes were 0 .036 ± 0 .001 ,0 .031 ± 0 .002 ,0 .043 ± 0 .003 and 0 .102 ± 0 .006 ,respectively ,with statistical significance (F=220 .62 ,P<0 .01) .The p17 and p24 coding regions suffered negative selection pressure (globleω<1) .Neither the globle ω in p17 region nor that in p24 region had significant differences among different subtypes (F=0 .761 ,P=0 .469 and F=0 .037 ,P=0 .964 , respectively ) . Conclusion CRF01_AE is the major subtypes of HIV‐1 in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region .The coding regions of gag gene are relatively conserved during evolution .Changes of HIV‐1 prevalence ,however ,may affect the genetic variation of gag gene ,which should be continuously monitored .

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-302572

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the impact of heroin for antiviral treatment, drug resistance, mutation types and frequency in HIV/AIDS patients in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>HIV/AIDS patients were recruited in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Clinics, HIV/AIDS Clinic and HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center Liuzhou and Baise city from April 2008 to October 2009. The patients were grouped by the situation of antiviral treatment and use of heroin. A total of 435 HIV/AIDS patients were recruited, among which 108 cases in antiviral treatment and heroin group, 93 cases in antiviral treatment and never using drug group, 105 cases in no antiviral treatment and using heroin group, 129 cases in no antiviral treatment and never using drug group. The effect of antiviral treatment was evaluated by questionnaire survey, viral load measurement and CD4(+) T lymphocyte count. HIV-1 RNA from plasma was extracted, and then the pol genes were amplified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed for HIV-1 genotype drug-resistance.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>For the patients who received antiviral treatment, the viral load in heroin group was higher than that in never using drug group (lg (2.61 ± 1.24) vs lg (2.08 ± 0.80), t = 3.54, P < 0.05) , and the percentage of viral load lower than 1 000 copies/ml in heroin group was significantly less than that in never using drug group (63.9% vs 86.0%,χ(2) = 12.76, P < 0.05). For the patients who received antiviral treatment, the difference has no significance in CD4(+) T lymphocyte count between heroin group and never using drug group ((337.92 ± 181.66) vs (326.14 ± 254.98), t = 0.38, P = 0.703). For the patients who didn't receive antiviral treatment, the difference also has no significance in CD4(+) T lymphocyte count between heroin group and never using drug group ((373.73 ± 155.97) vs (337.53 ± 209.26), t = 1.47, P = 0.143). For the patients who received antiviral treatment, there was no difference in the percentage of the CD4(+) T lymphocyte count more than 350/ml between heroin group and never using drug group (48.1% vs 43.0%, χ(2) = 0.53, P = 0.466). 319 HIV-1 pol gene sequences were obtained. Among the patients who received antiviral treatment, the mutation frequency of M184V/I, T215Y/F, L210W and T69N/S in heroin abuser group were significantly higher than that in never using drug group (14.9% (11/74) vs 4.4% (3/68), 12.2% (9/74) vs 1.5% (1/68), 12.2% (9/74) vs 1.5% (1/68) and 10.8% (8/74) vs 1.5% (1/68) respectively) (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Using heroin may promote HIV replication, reducing the virological response to antiviral treatment and increasing the frequencies of drug resistance loci among HIV/AIDS patients.Heroin rehabilitation may benefit from the antiviral treatment and obtain better antiviral effect.</p>


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Anti-HIV Agents , Antiviral Agents , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , China , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Viral , Genes, pol , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Heroin , Heroin Dependence , Humans , Mutation , Mutation Rate , Viral Load
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-451359

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of alcohol on hepatitis C virus( HCV) replication and type I interferon signaling pathway in human hepatocytes .Methods Primary hepatocytes were treated with different concentrations of alcohol , and then infected with HCV .The infected cells were collected to measure the level of HCV RNA .The alcohol-treated hepatocytes were also collected to detect the expression of HCV Core, IFN-α, IFN-β, IRF-7, suppressor of cytokine signaling SOCS-2 and SOCS-3 at mRNA and protein levels by real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA or Western blot , respectively .Results Alcohol treatment enhanced HCV infection and replication in primary hepatocytes at concentrations higher than 10 mmol/L in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05).Treatment with 40 mmol/L of alcohol significantly reduced the expression of IFN-α, IFN-βand IRF-7 at mRNA and protein levels , and increased the expression of SOCS-2 and SOCS-3 at mRNA and protein levels .Conclusion Alcohol treatment could damage the host in-nate immunity in human hepatocytes and promote HCV replication by reducing the expression of type Ⅰinter-feron ( IFN-αand IFN-β) and IRF-7 and increasing the expression of negative regulators including SOCS-2 and SOCS-3.These results demonstrated that the impairment of innate immunity in liver of alcohol abusers might contribute to the enhancement of HCV infection and result in poor therapeutic effect of IFN -α.

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