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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933340

ABSTRACT

Objective:To determine the median effective dose (ED 50) of esketamine for preoperative sedation in different aged pediatric patients. Methods:Pediatric patients, aged 1-6 yr, of American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status Ⅰ, with the preoperative parental Separation Anxiety Scale (PSAS) score ≥3, undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia, were selected.According to the age, the children were divided into 1 yr≤age<4 yr low-age group (group L) and 4 yr≤age< 6 yr high-age group (group H). Esketamine 0.5 mg/kg was intravenously injected in the first child in each group.The dose in the next child was determined according to PSAS scores, and the two consecutive dose gradient was 0.1 mg/kg; when the PSAS score in the previous child was ≥3, the dose in the next child was increased; when the PSAS score in the previous child was< 3, the dose in the next child was decreased until appearance of 7 turning points, and then the experiment was terminated.The ED 50 and 95% confidence interval of esketamine for preoperative sedation were calculated by probit analysis. Results:A total of 54 children were enrolled in this study, including 26 cases in group L and 28 cases in group H. The ED 50 and 95% confidence interval of esketamine were 0.413 (0.314-0.530) mg/kg and 0.282 (0.252-0.318) mg/kg in group L and group H, respectively.Compared with group L, ED 50 of esketamine was significantly decreased in group H ( P<0.05). Conclusions:The ED 50 of esketamine for preoperative sedation is 0.413 mg/kg in pediatric patients of 1 yr≤age<4 yr old and 0.282 mg/kg in those of 4 yr≤age<6 yr old, and the efficacy of esketamine for preoperative sedation increases with age.

2.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1451-1453, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933270

ABSTRACT

Objective:To determine the potency of remimazolam in inhibiting ventilatory function during sedation in the patients undergoing internal jugular vein puncture.Methods:American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ patients of either sex, aged 18-64 yr, with body mass index<30 kg/m 2, undergoing elective internal jugular vein puncture under local anesthesia, were enrolled in this study.Remimazolam was intravenously injected, and the dose was determined by up-and-down sequential allocation.The initial dose was 0.07 mg/kg and was increased/decreased in the next patient depending on whether the patients showed inhibition of ventilatory function, and the ratio between the 2 successive doses was 1.2.The criterion for inhibition of ventilatory function was defined as Integrated Pulmonary Index < 5.The median effective dose (ED 50) and 95% confidence interval of remimazolam in inhibiting ventilatory function were calculated by Dixon-Massey method. Results:Thirty-six patients were enrolled in this study.The ED 50 (95% confidence interval) was 0.106 (0.097-0.115) mg/kg. Conclusion:The ED 50 of remimazolam in inhibiting ventilatory function during sedation in internal jugular vein puncture is 0.106 mg/kg.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-745674

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of lidocaine on Ras homologue (Rho)/Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway during endotoxin-induced lung injury (LI) in rats.Methods Forty SPF male Wistar rats,aged 5-8 weeks,weighing 200-250 g,were divided into 5 groups (n=8 each) using a random number table method:control group (group C),lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group (group LPS)and lidocaine at 3 different doses groups (L1-3 groups).LI was induced by intraperitoneal LPS 5 mg/kg (0.1 ml).The equal volume of normal saline was given intraperitoneally in group C.Lidocaine 2,4 and 8 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected at 1 h before LPS administration in L1-3 groups,respectively.The animals were sacrificed at 6 h after LPS or normal saline administration.Broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for determination of concentrations of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β),IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay).The lung tissues were obtained for examination of the pathological changes which were scored and for measurement of the wet/dry weight ratio (W/D ratio) and activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and for determination of the expression of Rho,ROCK1,ROCK2,myosin phosphatase target protein 1 (MYPT1),phosphorylated MYPT1 (p-MYPT1)and ZO-1 (by Western blot).The phosphorylation of MYPT1 was calculated.Results Compared with group C,the activity of MPO,lung injury score,W/D ratio and concentrations of IL-1β,IL-6 and TNF-αin BALF were significantly increased,the expression of Rho,ROCK1 and ROCK2 was up-regulated,the phosphorylation of MYPT-1 was increased,and the expression of ZO-1 was down-regulated in the other four groups (P<0.05).Compared with group LPS,the activity of MPO,lung injury score,W/D ratio and concentrations of IL-1β,IL-6 and TNF-α in BALF were significantly decreased,the expression of Rho,ROCK1 and ROCK2 was down-regulated,the phosphorylation of MYPT-1 was decreased,and the expression of ZO-1 was up-regulated in L1-L3 groups (P<0.05).Conclusion Lidocaine can inhibit activation of Rho/ROCK signaling pathway during endotoxin-induced LI in rats,and the effect may be related to the antiinflammatory mechanism of lidocaine.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-735016

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the independent risk factors and complications for perioperative hyperbilirubinemia in Stanford type A aortic dissection undergoing operation and investigate the management strategy of perioperative hyperbilirubi-nemia. Methods Between January 2013 and January 2018 from the department of great vessel surgery of heart centre of,290 cases of patients with Stanford type A aortic dissection undergoing operation were collected consecutively,male 210 cases,fe-male 80 cases. The related data and perioperative peak hyperbilirubinemia were recorded. According to the perioperative peak hyperbilirubinemia,patients were divided into 2 groups:≥51. 3 μmol/ L group and < 51. 3 μmol/ L group. Univariate and lo-gistic regression analysis were used to identify the independent risk factors. The perioperative complications were also recorded. Results Preoperative total bilirubin ≥ 17. 1 μmol/ L(OR = 2. 105,95% CI: 1. 153 - 3. 125,P = 0. 016),cardiopulmonary bypass time > 3. 5 h(OR = 1. 103,95% CI: 1. 316 - 6. 151,P = 0. 031),a large number of hemolysis(OR = 1. 503,95%CI: 1. 506 - 6. 651,P = 0. 029),the input amount of 24 h allogeneic red blood cell > 2000 ml(OR = 1. 381,95% CI:0. 956 - 2. 552,P = 0. 036)were the independent risk factors for perioperative hyperbilirubinemia. The incidence rate of post-operative acute hepatic failure(2. 5% vs. 0,P = 0. 021)and artificial liver therapy(2. 5% vs. 0,P = 0. 021)in≥51. 3μmol/ L group were significantly increased. The incidence rate of postoperative acute lung injury(37. 5% vs. 25. 2%,P =0. 039)and acute kidney injury(38. 7% vs. 19. 5%,P = 0. 035)in 51. 3 μmol/ L group were also significantly increased. The duration of mechanical ventilation[(4. 1 ± 1. 6)days vs. (2. 8 ± 1. 3)days,P < 0. 05]and ICU stay time[(5. 1 ± 2. 3)days vs. (3. 9 ± 1. 8)days,P = 0. 035]and hospitalization time[( 19. 3 ± 3. 1)days vs. ( 17. 3 ± 2. 5)days,P = 0. 035]were sig-nificantly prolonged. Temporary nerve dysfunction(52. 5% vs. 32. 6%,P = 0. 002)and in-hospital mortality( 17. 5% vs. 8. 1%,P = 0. 037)were significantly increased. Conclusion Preoperative total bilirubin ≥ 17. 1 μmol/ L,cardiopulmonary bypass time > 3. 5 h,a large number of hemolysis,the input amount of 24 h allogeneic red blood cell > 2000 ml were the in-dependent risk factors for perioperative hyperbilirubinemia in Stanford type A aortic dissection. The perioperative complications in≥51. 3 μmol/ L group were significantly increased. Therefore,more attention should be paid to the independent risk factors for perioperative hyperbilirubinemia in Stanford type A aortic dissection,hyperbilirubinemia and its clearance should be moni-tored more actively and dynamically,the cause should be found more precisely,the treatment be more comprehensive to achieve to control the level of bilirubinemia and improve the prognosis.

5.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1049-1052, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-734618

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of multimodal analgesia with diclofenac sodium on cognitive function following radical resection for colon cancer in elderly patients. Methods Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical statusⅠorⅡpatients of either sex, aged 65-80 yr, weighing 45-85 kg, scheduled for elective open sigmoidectomy under general anesthesia, were divided into control group and test group by a random number table method with 30 patients in each group. In test group, diclofenac sodium suppository was administrated rectally before surgery and placed at about 2 to 3 cm above the anal dentate line, diclofenac sodium suppository 50 mg was given at 2 h before surgery and 4 h after surgery, followed by administration once every 12 h until 2 days after surgery. Patient-controlled intravenous analge-sia was performed after operation, dezocine 5 mg was intravenously injected when VAS score was more than 4 points within 48 h after surgery. The concentrations of serum interleukin-6 ( IL-6) , IL-8 and tumor nec-rosis factor-alpha ( TNF-α) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before surgery ( T0 ) and at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after surgery ( T1-5 ) . The postoperative requirement for rescue analgesia, post-operative analgesia satisfaction score, time of passing the first flatus and first postoperative off-bed time were recorded. Cognitive function was assessed at 1 day before surgery and 7 days after surgery, and the occur-rence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction was recorded. Results Compared with control group, the ser-um concentrations of IL-6 at T2-5 , IL-8 at T1-5 and TNF-αat T2-4 were significantly decreased, the require-ment for rescue analgesia and incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction were decreased, and the timeof passing the first flatus and first postoperative off-bed time were shortened in test group ( P<0. 05) . Con-clusion Diclofenac sodium for multimodal analgesia can improve cognitive function following radical resec-tion for colon cancer in elderly patients.

6.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1530-1534, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-745649

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the relationship between the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) in pulmonary vascular remodeling and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4) in rats with pulmonary hypertension.Methods Thirty-two healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats,aged 2 months,weighing 200-250 g,were divided into 4 groups (n =8 each) using a random number table method:control group (group C),pulmonary arterial hypertension group (group PH),PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone treatment group (group R),and PPARγ antagonist GW9662 treatment group (group G).In group PH,monocrotaline 60 mg/kg was injected subcutaneously in the neck and back to induce pulmonary hypertension.The suspension of rosiglitazone and normal saline 5 mg · kg-1 · d-1 and GW9662 solution 2 mg · kg-1 · d-1 were administered by intragastric gavage after injecting monocrotaline,in group R and group G,respectively,for 4 consecutive weeks.The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) was measured at 4 weeks after establishing the model.The animals were then sacrificed,and the lungs were removed for microscopic examination of the pathological changes (with a light microscope) and for determination of the expression of PPARγ and NOX-4 protein and mRNA in lung tissues (by real-time polymerase chain reaction or Western blot).The percentage of media thickness of pulmonary arterioles was calculated.Results Compared with group C,the mPAP and percentage of media thickness of pulmonary arterioles were significantly increased,the expression of PPARγ protein and mRNA was down-regulated,and the expression of NOX-4 protein and mRNA was up-regulated in PH,R and G groups (P<0.05).Compared with group PH,the mPAP and percentage of media thickness of pulmonary arterioles were significantly decreased,the expression of PPARγ protein and mRNA was up-regulated,and the expression of NOX-4 protein and mRNA was down-regulated in group R,and the mPAP and percentage of media thickness of pulmonary arterioles were significantly increased,the expression of PPARγ protein and mRNA was down-regulated,and the expression of NOX-4 protein and mRNA was up-regulated in group G (P<0.05).Conclusion The mechanism of endogenous protective effect of PPARγ in the development of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular remodeling may be related to down-regulating the expression of NOX-4 in rats.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-709866

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on nerve regeneration following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (Ⅰ/R) in mice and the role of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) in brain tissues.Methods Sixty healthy SPF male C57BL/6J mice,weighing 23-25 g,aged 8-10 weeks,were divided into 5 groups (n =12 each) using a random number table method:sham operation group (group Sham),Ⅰ/R group,dexmedetomidine group (group D),dexmedetomidine plus IgG1 isotype control monoclonal antibody group (group DI) and dexmedetomidine plus TGF-β1 neutralizing monoclonal antibody group (group DA).Cerebral Ⅰ/R was induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery followed by reperfusion.Dexmedetomidine 50 μg/kg was intraperitoneally injected every 24 h for 14 days starting from 14 days of reperfusion in group D.TGF-β1 neutralizing monoclonal antibody 20 μg and IgG1 isotype control monoclonal antibody 20 μg were intraperitoneally injected at 30 min prior to dexmedetomidine injection in group DA and group DI,respectively.5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) 100 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected and injected again at an 8-h interval on 27 days of reperfusion.Forced swimming test (FST),sucrose consumption test (SCT) and open field test (OFT) were performed at 16 h after the second administration of BrdU.After the end of behavior testing,the number of Ki67,BrdU and BrdU/DCX positive cells in the subventricular zone on ischemic side was measured by immunohistochemistry,and the expression of TGF-β1 protein and mRNA in brain tissues in ischemic area was detected using Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction,respectively.Results Compared with group Sham,the time spent floating in FST was significantly prolonged,the percent of time spent in the central region in OFT and sucrose solution intake in SCT were decreased,the number of Ki67,BrdU and BrdU/DCX positive cells in the subventricular zone was increased,and the expression of TGF-β1 protein and mRNA was up-regulated in group Ⅰ/R (P<0.05 or 0.01).Compared with group Ⅰ/R,the time spent floating in FST was significantly shortened,the percent of time spent in the central region in OFT and sucrose solution intake in SCT were increased,the number of Ki67,BrdU and BrdU/DCX positive cells in the subventricular zone was increased,and the expression of TGF-β1 protein and mRNA was up-regulated in group D (P<0.05 or 0.01).Compared with group D,the time spent floating in FST was significantly prolonged,the percent of time spent in the central region in OFT and sucrose solution intake in SCT were decreased,the number of Ki67,BrdU and BrdU/DCX positive cells in the subventricular zone was decreased in group DA (P < 0.05),and no significant change was found in the parameters mentioned above in group DI (P>0.05).Conclusion Dexmedetomidine can relieve depression and anxiety following cerebral Ⅰ/R,thus promotes nerve regeneration and the mechanism is related to up-regulating the expression of TGF-β1 in brain tissues of mice.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-709732

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1)/Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling pathway during lung injury in septic rats.Methods Twenty-four SPF healthy adult male Wistar rats,aged 15-18 weeks,weighing 200-250 g,were divided into 3 groups (n =8 each) using a random number table:sham operation group (group S),sepsis group (group Sep) and dexmedetomidine group (group D).Dexmedetomidine 25 μg/kg was intraperitoneally injected in D group,while the equal volume of normal saline was given instead in S and Sep groups.Sepsis was produced by cecal ligation and puncture in Sep and D groups.The rats were sacrificed at 24 h after operation,and the right lung was removed for examination of the pathological changes which were scored and for determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity,content of interleukin-1β (IL-1β),IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lung tissues (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay),wet to dry weight ratio (W/D ratio) and expression of HMGB1,TLR2 and TLR4 in lung tissues (by Western blot).Results Compared with group S,the MPO activity,lung injury score,W/D ratio,content of IL-1β,IL-6,TNF-α and expression of HMGB1,TLR2 and TLR4 were significantly increased in Sep and D groups (P<0.05).Compared with group Sep,the MPO activity,lung injury score,W/D ratio,content of IL-1β,IL-6,TNF-α and expression of HMGB1,TLR2 and TLR4 were significantly decreased in group D (P<0.05).Conclusion Dexmedetomidine reduces lung injury through inhibiting HMGB1/TLRs signaling pathway in septic rats.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-510943

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the clinical effect of intranasal dexmedetomidine as premedication on sedation and analgesia during painless electronic colonoscopy in children, and to investigate its optimal dose. Methods Ninety children scheduled for painless electronic colonoscopy were divided into three groups by using a computer?generated randomization schedule, 30 per group. Children were pretreated with 0. 2 mg/kg midazolam ( group A) , 1. 0μg/kg dexmedetomidine ( group B) or 2. 0μg/kg dexmedetomidine ( group C) by nasal drip 30 min before operation. The anesthesia protocol was programmed by propofol in the three groups. After eyelash reflex disappeared, the examination was performed. Mean artery blood pressure ( MAP ) , heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and oxygen saturation (SPO2) of children were recorded at 10 min before intranasal administration ( T0 ) , 30 min after intranasal administration ( T1 ) , at the onset of eyelash reflex disappearance ( T2 ) and the onset of examination initiating( T3 ) , at lens passing through splenic flexure ( T4 ) , or through hepatic flexure ( T5 ) , at the end of examination ( T6 ) and when patients were fully awake ( T7 ) , respectively. Bispectral index ( BIS) and the observer's assessment of alertness/sedation scale ( OAA/S) were performed at 10 min before intranasal administration ( T0 ) , 10 min, 20 min and 30 min after intranasal administration in the three groups. Mood score at parent?children separation and venipuncture acceptance score were also recorded. The adverse reactions during examination were analyzed. The above observed indices were compared among the three groups. If there was statistical difference ( P<0. 05 ) , pairwise comparison was performed ( P<0. 017) . Results The children's haemodynamics were all stable in the three groups. Compared with group A and group B at the same time point, BIS and OAA/S were all lower ( P<0. 017) in 10 to 30 min after intranasal administration in group C. Compared with group A and group B, mood score at parent?children separation and venipuncture acceptance score were both higher ( P<0. 017) in group C. Compared with group A and B, anesthetic revival time and consumption of propofol were shorter or lower in group C (P<0. 017). Compared with group A and group B, the incidences of intraoperative adverse reactions including hypertension, sinus tachycardia, restless moving and postoperative restlessness were all lower in group C(P<0. 017). The rate of intranasal stimulus in group B and group C were both lower than that of group A( P<0. 017) . The rate of injection pain of group C was lower ( P<0. 017 ) than that of group A and B. Conclusion Intranasal administration of dexmedetomidine can be safely applied to children receiving painless electronic colonoscopy, and it can improve children's compliance effectively and yield to satisfactory anesthetic effect. Moreover, the administering efficacy of dexmedetomidine with the dose of 2. 0μg/kg was superior to 1. 0μg/kg.

10.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1070-1073, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-665079

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effects of processing banked suspended red blood cells (RBCs) with cell saver before priming on perioperative systemic inflammatory responses of infants undergoing cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).Methods Forty pediatric patients of both sexes,aged 3 months-2 yr,weighing 5-13 kg,of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Ⅱ-Ⅳ,undergoing repair of atrial or ventricular septal defect under CPB,were divided into control group (group C,n =20) and processing group (group P,n =20) using a random number table.Banked suspended RBCs were primed directly after being added to CPB circuit in group C.Banked suspended RBCs were washed with cell saver and then primed after being added to CPB circuit in group P.At 5 min before skin incision,at 30 min after the start of CPB,at 10 min after aortic unclamping,immediately after the end of CPB and at 6,12 and 24 h after the end of CPB (T1.7),blood samples were collected from the radial artery for determination of the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor,interleukin-1β (IL-1β),IL-6,IL-8,IL-10 and neutrophil elastase in plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Blood samples were taken from the radial artery at T1 and T4.7 for measurement of blood routine and plasma acute phase reactive protein concentrations.Results Compared with group C,the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor,IL-1β,IL-6,IL-8 and neutrophil elastase in plasma were significantly decreased at T6,7,the total number of white blood cells,neutrophil count and concentration of plasma acute phase reactive protein were decreased at T7,and duration of stay in intensive care unit was shortened in group P (P<0.05).Conclusion Processing banked suspended RBCs with cell saver before priming can reduce perioperative systcmic inflammatory responses of infants undergoing cardiac surgery under CPB.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-620907

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the relationship between the anesthesia factor and myocardial injury in the patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).Methods Eightyeight patients of both sexes,aged 42-71 yr,weighing 59-83 kg,of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Ⅱ or Ⅲ (New York Heart Association Ⅱ or Ⅲ),scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB,were divided into 4 groups (n =22 each) using a random number table:routine anesthesia control group (group C),dexmedetomidine-based anesthesia group (group D),sevofluranebased anesthesia group (group S) and dexmedetomidine combined with sevoflurane anesthesia group (group DS).After tracheal intubation,0.2%-2.1% sevoflurane was inhaled until the beginning of CPB in S and DS groups.In D and DS groups,dexmedetomidine was intravenously infused as a loading dose of 1 μg/kg over 10 min before induction of anesthesia,followed by an infusion of 0.4 μg · kg-1 · h-1 until the end of surgery.Before induction of anesthesia,before CPB,after the end of CPB,immediately after the end of surgery and at 24 h after surgery,venous blood samples were collected for determination of plasma creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations by immunofluorescence.The restoration of spontaneous heart beat and adverse events such as hypotension,malignant arrhythmia,cardiac arrest and respiratory depression during surgery and within 24 h after surgery were recorded.Results Compared with group C,the plasma concentrations of CK-MB and cTnI were significantly decreased in the other three groups (P<0.05).The plasma eoncentrations of CK-MB and eTnl were significantly lower in group DS than in S and D groups (P<0.05).There were no significant differences in the rate of restoration of spontaneous heart beat among the four groups (P> 0.05).No adverse events were found during surgery and within 24 h after surgery in the four groups.Conclusion Dexmedetomidine combined with sevoflurane anesthesia is helpful in reducing myocardial injury and provides better efficacy than either alone in the patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB and is more suitable for cardiac surgery with CPB.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-620900

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of hydrogen on the postoperative cognitive function in aged mice.Methods Sixty aged male Kunming mice,aged 12-14 months,weighing 35-45 g,were assigned into 3 groups (n=20 each) using a random number table:sham operation group (group Sham),partial hepatectomy group (group PH) and partial hepatectomy plus hydrogen-enriched saline group (group PH-H).On preoperative day 3,during operation and on postoperative day 3,hydrogen-enriched saline 10 ml/kg was intraperitoneally injected once a day in group PH-H,and the equal volume of normal saline was intraperitoneally injected once a day in S and PH groups.The spatial probe test was performed on postoperative day 7 to evaluate the cognitive function.Ten mice were selected on postoperative days 3 and 7 (after the end of the spatial probe test),and blood samples were collected for determination of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α),interleukin-lbeta (IL-1β) and high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.The animals were sacrificed after blood sampling,brains were removed and hippocampi were isolated for detection of the expression of TNF-α,IL-1β and HMGB1 by Western blot.Results Compared with group S,the percentage of time of staying at the target quadrant and the number of crossing the platform within 1 min were significantly decreased,the serum concentrations of TNF-α,IL-1β and HMGB1 were increased,and the expression of hippocampal TNF-α,IL-1β and HMGB1 was up-regulated in group PH (P<0.05),and no significant change was found in the variables mentioned above in group PH-H (P>0.05).Compared with group PH,the percentage of time of staying at the target quadrant and the number of crossing the platform within 1 min were significantly increased,the serum concentrations of TNF-α,IL-1β and HMGB1 were decreased,and the expression of hippocampal TNF-α,IL-1β and HMGB1 was down-regulated in group PH-H (P<0.05).Conclusion Hydrogen can improve the postoperative cognitive function in aged inice.

13.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1304-1307, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-709625

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of multimodal warming regimen on the postoperative outcomes and cost-effectiveness in the patients undergoing resection of liver cancer.Methods Sixty Ameri-can Society of Anesthesiologists physical status ⅠorⅡ patients of both sexes, aged 35-64 yr, with body mass index of 18-24 kg∕m2, of liver function Child-Pugh grade A, scheduled for elective resection of liver cancer, were divided into 2 groups(n=30 each)using a random number table: routine warming group (group R)and multimodal warming group(group M). Quilts were covered on the body exposed before in-duction of anesthesia, and the abdominal cavity was washed with the room-temperature peritoneal lavage flu-id during operation in group R.In group M, the lower body was covered using the forced-air warming system at 30 min before induction of anesthesia, and the temperature was maintained at 38℃ until the end of oper-ation; the solution used for infusion was warmed to 42 ℃ using a fluid-warming device during operation;the abdominal cavity was washed with 0.9% sodium chloride injection which was prewarmed to 37℃ during operation.The rectal temperature was recorded after anesthesia induction and before tracheal intubation (T1), at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min after anesthesia and at the end of operation(T2-7). The parame-ters of thrombelastogram were measured before induction of anesthesia(T0), at T7and at 12 h after opera-tion(T8).At T0, T7, T8and 24 and 48 h after operation(T9,10), blood samples were taken from the in-ternal jugular vein for determination of plasma interleukin-6 concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.The extubation time, duration of post-anesthesia care unit stay, intraoperative blood loss, blood transfusion, requirement for allogeneic blood transfusion, length of hospitalization, occurrence of postoper-ative shivering, occurrence of hypothermia, volume of drainage on 1st and 3rd days after operation, neu-trophil count, cost of general anesthesia and total cost of hospitalization were recorded.Results Compared with group R, the extubation time and duration of post-anesthesia care unit stay were significantly short-ened, the intraoperative blood loss, volume of blood transfused, and volume of drainage on 1st day after operation were reduced, length of hospitalization was shortened, the requirement for allogeneic blood trans-fusion and incidence of postoperative shivering and hypothermia were decreased, the body temperature was increased at T2-7, R and K were shortened at T7, α angle was enlarged, the neutrophil count on 1st day af-ter operation was reduced, the concentration of plasma interleukin-6 was decreased at T8and T9, the cost of anesthesia was increased, and the total cost of hospitalization was reduced in group M(P<0.05). Con-clusion Multimodal warming regimen can not only promote postoperative outcomes but also improve the cost-effectiveness in the patients undergoing resection of liver cancer.

14.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1291-1295, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-709622

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of ulinastatin on endoplasmic reticulum stress in car-diomyocytes of patients undergoing beating heart mitral valve replacement(MVR). Methods A total of 80 patients of both sexes with rheumatic heart disease complicated with mitral valve stenosis, aged 38-59 yr, weighing 43-73 kg, with American Society of Anesthesiology physical statusⅡorⅢ, scheduled for elective MVR, were divided into ulinastatin group(UTI group, n=40)and normal saline group(NS group, n=40) using a random number table. Immediately after opening the right atrium(T0), at 30 min of cardiopulmonary bypass(T1)and while suturing the right atrium(T2), blood samples from the radial artery were collected to determine the concentrations of plasma creatine kinase-MB and cardiac troponin T by enzyme-linked immu-nosorbent assay, and the right auricle specimens were collected for determination of the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78, CCAAT∕enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK)protein and mRNA(by real-time polymerase chain reaction or Western blot)and phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK)expression(by Western blot). The apoptosis in cardiomyocytes was detected by TUNEL at T0,2, and the apoptosis rate was calculated. Results Compared with group NS, the concentrations of plasma crea-tine kinase-MB and cardiac troponin T at T1,2and the apoptosis rate of cardiomyocytes were significantly de-creased at T2, and the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78, CCAAT∕enhancer-binding protein homolo-gous protein and JNK protein and mRNA and p-JNK was down-regulated at T1,2in group UTI(P<0.05). Conclusion The mechanism by which ulinastatin reduces myocardial damage is related to inhibiting endo-plasmic reticulum stress in cardiomyocytes of patients undergoing beating heart MVR.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-489366

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the role of Na+-K+-2Cl-cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1) in neurons in sevoflurane-induced epileptiform electroencephalogram (EEG) activity in the cortex of neonatal rats.Methods Twenty-four neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats,aged 4-6 days,weighing 8-15 g,were randomly divided into 3 groups (n =8 each) using a random number table:control group (group C),sevoflurane group (group S),and NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide + sevoflurane group (group B).After electrodes were placed correctly,EEG was monitored continuously.At 30 min of monitoring,normal saline 3 μl/g was injected intraperitoneally in D and S groups,and bumetanide 10 μg/g was injected intraperitoneally in group B.At 60 min after the end of intraperitoneal administration,anesthesia was induced with inhalation of 6% sevoflurane for 3 min and maintained with inhalation of 2.1% sevoflurane for 1 h in group S and group B.The total duration of seizures,the duration of a single episode,the number of episodes of electroencephalographic seizures,and the amplitude and frequency of spike-and-wave were recorded.Results Seizures were not detected in group C,and no spike-and-wave was found in group B.Compared with group C,the incidence of seizures in S and B groups (75% and 25%,respectively) and incidence of spike-and-wave in group S (100%) were significantly increased (P<0.05).Compared with group S,the incidence of seizures and spike-and-wave was significantly decreased,the total duration of seizures,and duration of a single episode were significantly shortened,and the number of episodes of electroencephalographic seizures was significantly decreased in group B (P<0.05).Conclusion NKCC1 in neurons may be involved in the formation of sevoflurane-induced epileptiform EEG activity in the cortex of neonatal rats.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-496993

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of creatine phosphate on the myocardial injury induced by lung ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in rats.Methods Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats,aged 8-10 weeks,weighing 250-350 g,were randomly divided into 3 groups (n =8 each) using a random number table:sham operation group (group S),I/R group,and I/R+creatine phosphate group (group CP).Lung I/R was induced by clamping the left hilum of lung for 0.5 h with a non-invasive microvascular clip followed by mechanical ventilation and 2.0 h of reperfusion.Creatine phosphate 6.6 mg · kg-1 · min-1 were infused intravenously at 30 min before ischemia in group CP,while the equal volume of normal saline was administered in group I/R.At 2.0 h of reperfusion,blood samples were obtained from the right ventricle for determination of the serum concentration of cardiac troponin I (cTnI).Myocardial specimens were obtained from the apex for microscopic examination and for determination of the levels of myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD),malondialdehyde (MDA),and myeloperoxidase (MPO).Results Compared with group S,the serum cTnI concentrations,MDA content,and MPO activity were significantly increased,and the SOD activity was significantly decreased in I/R and CP groups (P<0.05).Compared with group I/R,the serum cTnI concentrations,MDA content,and MPO activity were significantly decreased,and the SOD activity was significantly increased in group CP (P<0.05).Myocardial injury was significantly attenuated in group CP as compared with group I/R.Conclusion Creatine phosphate can attenuate the myocardial injury induced by lung I/R in rats,and the mechanism is related to decrease in damage caused by lipid peroxidation.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-470718

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on cell apoptosis induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway during one-lung ventilation (OLV) in rats.Methods Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into 6 groups (n =10 each):sham operation group (Sham group),OLV group,OLV + atipamezole (α2 receptor antagonist) group (AD group),OLV + atipamezole + DEX group (DEX+AD group),OLV + low-dose DEX group (DEX-L group) and OLV + high-dose DEX group (DEX-H group).The animals were anesthetized with 10% chloral hydrate 4.5 ml/kg,tracheostomized and mechanically ventilated.Bilateral lungs were ventilated for 2.5 h in Sham group.The right lung was ventilated for 2.0 h followed by 0.5 h two-lung ventilation in OLV group.In DEX-L and DEX-H groups,DEX was infused intravenously for 1 h at a rate of 2.5 μg · kg-1 · h-1 and 5.0 μg · kg-1 · h-1,respectively,starting from 1 h prior to OLV.Atipamezole 250 μg/kg was injected intravenously at 1 h prior to OLV in AD group.Atipamezole 250 μg/kg was injected intravenously at the onset of DEX infusion (5.0 μg · kg-1 · h-1) in DEX+AD group.The rats were sacrificed and left lungs were removed for determination of weight to dry lung weight ratio (W/D),cell apoptosis in lung tissues (by TUNEL),and expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) mRNA and protein,JNK mRNA and phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK) protein (by RT-PCR and Western blot).Pathological changes of lungs were examined and the injured alveolus rate (IAR) was counted under light microscope.The changes in ultrastructure of lung tissues were observed under transmission electron microscope.Apoptosis index (AI) was calculated.Results W/D,AI and IAR were significantly higher in OLV,AD and DEX+AD group than in Sham group,while lower in DEX-L and DEX-H groups than in OLV,AD and DEX+AD groups.The pathological changes of the structure of lung tissues were observed in OLV,AD and DEX+AD groups,while the pathological changes were significantly alleviated in DEX-L and DEX-H groups.In OLV,AD and DEX + AD groups,there was apoptosis in lots of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells and alveolar epithelial cells,while cell apoptosis was significantly reduced after administration of DEX.The expression of GRP78 mRNA and protein,JNK mRNA and p-JNK protein was significantly higher in OLV,AD and DEX+AD groups than in Sham group,and lower in DEX-L and DEX-H groups than in OLV,AD and DEX +AD groups.Conclusion DEX pretreatment can protect lungs during OLV,and inhibited JNK signaling pathway and reduced cell apoptosis induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress may be involved in the mechanism.

18.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1328-1330, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-488740

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Objective To evaluate the effect of hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion on blood coagulation in patients undergoing laparoscope-assisted radical surgery for gastric cancer.Methods Forty patients of both sexes, aged 40-60 yr, weighing 50-80 kg, of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ , undergoing elective radical surgery for gastric cancer, were equally randomized into control group (group C) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion group (group HIP).The patients were treated with hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion for 1 h after the end of the radical surgery in group R.Before induction of anesthesia (T0) , immediately before hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion (T1), and at 1 h of hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion (T2) , venous blood samples were collected, blood coagulation was measured using thromboelastography, and the reaction time, coagulation time, α angle and maximal amplitude were recorded.Results Compared with group C, no significant change was found in blood coagulation parameters at T0 and T1 (P>0.05), the reaction time and coagulation time were significantly increased, and α angle and maximal amplitude were decreased at T2 in group HIP (P<0.05).Conclusion Hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion can improve blood coagulation in the patients undergoing laparoscope-assisted radical surgery for gastric cancer.

19.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1358-1361, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-488726

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine pretreatment on the expression of caspase-12 in lung tissues undergoing one-lung ventilation (OLV) in rats.Methods Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 6-8 weeks, weighing 180-220 g, were randomly allocated into 3 groups (n=10 each) using a random number table: two-lung ventilation (TLV) group, OLV group and dexmedetomidine group (Dex group).Bilateral lungs were ventilated for 2 h in group TLV.In OLV and Dex groups, unilateral lung was ventilated for 1.5 h followed by 0.5 h TLV.In group Dex, dexmedetomidine was infused intravenously at a rate of 3.0 μ g · kg-1 · h-1 over 60 min starting from 60 min prior to OLV.The equal volume of normal saline was given instead of dexmedetomidine in OLV and TLV groups.Peak airway pressure (Ppeak) and mean airway pressure (Paw) were recorded at 45 min of OLV and 15 min of TLV in OLV and Dex groups, and at 15 min of TLV in group TLV.The rats were then sacrificed, and left lungs were removed for microscopic examination of the pathologic changes (using HE staining) and the ultrastructure of lung tissues (with transmission electron microscope) and for determination of wet to dry lung weight ratio (W/D ratio), cell apoptosis in lung tissues (by TUNEL), caspase-12 mRNA expression (using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction), and caspase-12 expression (by Western blot).Results Ppeak and Paw were significantly lower at 15 min of TLV than at 45 min of OLV in OLV and Dex groups (P<0.05).Compared to group TLV, W/D ratio and AI were significantly increased, and the expression of caspase-12 protein and mRNA was up-regulated in OLV and Dex groups (P<0.01).Compared to group OLV, W/D ratio and AI were significantly decreased, and the expression of caspase-12 protein and mRNA was down-regulated in group Dex (P < 0.01).The pathologic changes of lung tissues were significantly alleviated in group Dex as compared with group OLV.Conclusion The mechanism by which dexmedetomidine pretreatment alleviates acute lung injury caused by OLV is associated with down-regulated expression of caspase-12 and inhibited cell apoptosis in rats.

20.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1037-1040, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-483322

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine on the damage to the nonventilated lung in the patients undergoing one-lung ventilation (OLV).Methods Forty patients of both sexes, aged 18-64 yr, with body mass index of 18-25 kg/m2, of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Ⅱ or Ⅲ, scheduled for elective radical surgery for lung cancer under general anesthesia, were randomly divided into either control group (group C) or dexmedetomidine group (group D) with 20 in each group.After induction of anesthesia, the patients were tracheally intubated and mechanically ventilated.After correct positioning was confirmed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy, dexmedetomidine was infused for 20 min as a dose of 0.5 μg/kg, followed by an infusion of 0.5 μg · kg-1 · h-1 until the moment of tumor resection.The equal volume of normal saline was given in group C.Immediately after the beginning of OLV, at 60 min of OLV, and immediately after the end of OLV, the specimens of normal lung tissues around the tumor were obtained for microscopic examination of pathologic changes which were scored, and for determination of the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by Western blot.Results Compared with group C, the pathological score was significantly decreased on the non-ventilated side immediately after the end of OLV, and the expression of HIF-1α and HO-1 in the lung tissues on the non-ventilated side was up-regulated in group D (P<0.05).Conclusion Dexmedetomidine can mitigate the damage to the non-ventilated lung in the patients undergoing OLV, and the mechanism is associated with up-regulated expression of HIF-1α and HO-1.

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