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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 514-524, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922928

ABSTRACT

Rhei Rhizoma is commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine with multiple botanical origins. Different botanical sources may have different pharmacological activities. The germplasm resources of commercial Rhei Rhizoma were determined based on the chloroplast gene matK, and the anthraquinone and free anthraquinone content was determined by UPLC to analyze quality of commercial Rhei Rhizoma. Eighty-nine commercial Rhei Rhizoma samples were collected from 40 cities in 27 provinces. DNA was extracted and the matK gene was amplified by PCR. Results indicated that the collected samples were from the same botanical origin, Rheum palmatum, and 8 genotypes were identified, including Rp1, Rp2, Rp3, Rp4, Rp5, Rp6, Rp10 and Rp12. Rp4 and Rp6, cultivated in Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces were the main circulating genotypes, representing 40.45% and 37.08% of the total samples, respectively. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the eight genotypes were mainly divided into two branches, of which the main genotypes Rp4 and Rp6 were in one branch. Genetic distance analysis indicated that the genetic separation of the eight genotypes was between 0.001 and 0.010. UPLC analysis indicated that 93.26% of the samples met the Pharmacopoeia standards. There were significant differences in the content of total anthraquinone and free anthraquinone among the samples, in which the difference in free anthraquinone was 1.01% and the difference in total anthraquinone content was 3.79%, indicating that the quality of commercial Rhei Rhizoma samples varies considerably. There was no significant difference in the content of total anthraquinone and free anthraquinone in commercial Rhei Rhizoma among different collection provinces and genotypes. This study will help guide the circulation of Rhei Rhizoma in the market and provides valuable insights for molecular identification and quality analysis of other traditional Chinese medicines.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920744

ABSTRACT

Objective To identify the differentially expressed proteins in different liver tissues in the mouse model of alveolar echinococcosis using high-resolution mass spectrometry with data independent acquisition (DIA), and to identify the key proteins contributing to the pathogenesis of alveolar echinococcosis. Methods Protoscoleces were isolated from Microtus fuscus with alveolar echinococcosis and the experimental model of alveolar echinococcosis was established in female Kunming mice aged 6 to 8 weeks by infection with Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces. Mice were divided into the experimental and control groups, and animals in the experimental group was injected with approximately 3 000 protoscoleces, while mice in the control group were injected with the same volume of physiological saline. Mouse liver specimens were sampled from both groups one year post-infection and subjected to pathological examinations. In addition, the lesions (the lesion group) and peri-lesion specimens (the peri-lesion group) were sampled from the liver of mice in the experimental group and the normal liver specimens (the normal group) were sampled from mice in the control group for DIA proteomics analysis, and the differentially expressed proteins were subjected to bioinformatics analysis. Results A total of 1 020 differentially expressed proteins were identified between the lesion group and the normal group, including 671 up-regulated proteins and 349 down-regulated proteins, and 495 differentially expressed proteins were identified between the peri-lesion group and the normal group, including 327 up-regulated proteins and 168 down-regulated proteins. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis revealed that these differentially expressed proteins were involved in peroxisome, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and fatty acid degradation pathways, and the peroxisome and PPAR signaling pathways were found to correlate with liver injury. Several differentially expressed proteins that may contribute to the pathogenesis of alveolar echinococcosis were identified in these two pathways, including fatty acid binding protein 1 (Fabp1), Acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 1 (Acsl1), Acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (Acox1), Enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (Ehhadh) and Acetyl-Coenzyme A acyltransferase 1B (Acaa1b), which were down-regulated in mice in the experimental group. Conclusion A large number of differentially expressed proteins are identified in the liver of the mouse model of alveolar echinococcosis, and Fabp1, Acsl1, Acox1, Ehhadh and Acaa1b may contribute to the pathogenesis of alveolar echinococcosis.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920743

ABSTRACT

Objective To identify the differentially expressed proteins in different liver tissues in the mouse model of cystic echinococcosis (CE), so as to provide insights into the research and development of therapeutic drugs targeting CE. Methods Female Kunming mice at ages of 6 to 8 weeks were randomly assigned into the CE group and the control group. Mice in the CE group were intraperitoneally infected with 2 000 Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces, while mice in the control group were injected with the same volume of physiological saline. All mice in both groups were sacrificed after breeding for 350 d, and the lesions (the lesion group) and peri-lesion specimens (the peri-lesion group) were sampled from the liver of mice in the CE group and the normal liver specimens (the normal group) were sampled from mice in the control group for data independent acquisition (DIA) proteomics analysis, and the differentially expressed proteins were subjected to Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. Results A total of 26 differentially expressed proteins were identified between the lesion group and the normal group and between the peri-lesion group and the normal group, including 8 up-regulated proteins and 18 down-regulated proteins. GO term enrichment analysis showed that these differentially expressed proteins were predominantly enriched in endoplasmic reticulum membrane (biological components), oxidoreductase activity (molecular function) and oxoacid metabolic process and monocarboxylic acid metabolic process (biological processes). KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the differentially expressed protein Acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (Acox1), which contributed to primary bile acid biosynthesis during the fatty acid oxidation, was involved in peroxisome signaling pathway, and the differentially expressed protein fatty acid binding protein 1 (Fabp1), which contributed to fatty acid transport, was involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. Conclusion Differentially expressed proteins are identified in the liver specimens between mouse models of CE and normal mice, and some differentially expressed proteins may serve as potential drug targets for CE.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888010

ABSTRACT

This study explores the emulsifying material basis of Angelicae Sinensis Radix volatile oil (ASRVO) based on partial least squares (PLS) method and hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) value.The turbidity of ASRVO emulsion samples from Gansu,Yunnan,and Qinghai was determined and the chemical components in the emulsion were analyzed by GC-MS.The PLS model was established with the chemical components as the independent variable and the turbidity as the dependent variable and evaluated with indexes R~2X and R~2Y.The chemical components which were in positive correlation with the turbidity were selected and the HLB values were calculated to determine the emulsification material basis of ASRVO.The PLS models for the 81 emulsion samples had high R~2X and R~2Y values,which showed good fitting ability.Seven chemical components,2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol,trans-ligustilide,3-butylidene-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone,dodecane,1-methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexene,trans-beta-ocimene,and decane,had positive correlation with turbidity.Particularly,the HLB value of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol was 4.4,which was the HLB range of surfactants to be emulsifiers and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol was positively correlated with turbidity of the ASRVO emulsion samples from the main producing area.Therefore,2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol was the emulsifying material basis of ASRVO.The selected emulsifying substances can lay a foundation for exploring the emulsification mechanism and demulsification solution of ASRVO.


Subject(s)
China , Emulsions , Least-Squares Analysis , Oils, Volatile , Surface-Active Agents
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912029

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect of radiofrequency heating on the morphology of articular cartilage in the knee and the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the synovium using a rabbit model of knee osteoarthritis (OA).Methods:Fifty-four male rabbits had OA induced in their right hind limbs using the modified Hulth method. They were then randomly divided into a model group, a cervus and cucumis polypeptide (CCP) group and a radiofrequency thermotherapy (RT) group, each of 18. The CCP group was injected with deer melon peptide intramuscularly every day, while the RT group was given daily radiofrequency hyperthermia treatment at 36.5-38.5 ℃. The model group was not provided with any special treatment. On the 6th, 12th and 18th day of the treatment, 6 rabbits in each group were sacrificed to resect the right femur′s medial condyle cartilage. The morphological characteristics of the cartilage were evaluated using modified Mankins scoring, while the contents of lL-1B and TNF-a in the synovial membrane were detected using enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assays.Results:The average Mankins scores and the levels of IL-1β and TNF-α decreased significantly at each time point, and significant differences were observed among the three groups. In the RT group the average Mankins score as well as the IL-1β and TNF-α levels decreased significantly with time throughout the experiment.Conclusions:Radiofrequency hyperthermia is superior to the injection of deer melon polypeptide in knee osteoarthritis, at least in rabbits. The therapeutic mechanism may be related to the control of IL-1β and TNF- α levels in the synovial membrane.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906407

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the main factors affecting the <italic>Ziziphus jujuba</italic> distribution and expand the understanding of its distribution and the corresponding influencing factors by comparing the distribution sites of <italic>Z. jujuba</italic> predicted by models with those recorded in the literature. Method:More than 200 distribution sites of <italic>Z. jujuba</italic> accompanied by 55 environmental factors were obtained from literature and specimen review. The environmental factors that affect the distribution of <italic>Z. jujuba</italic> were explored by maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model, and the potential distribution areas of <italic>Z. jujuba</italic> in China were analyzed by ArcGIS, followed by the verification of the main environmental factors using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Jackknife method. Result:The area under the curve (AUC) values for the test data and training data were both greater than 0.9, which perfectly satisfied the standard, indicating that the research results were accurate and reliable. Conclusion:The annual average temperature, the average temperature in May, the average temperature in the warmest season, vegetation type, soil type, average temperature in June, average temperature in September, and average temperature in August are proved to be the main environmental factors affecting the distribution of <italic>Z. jujuba</italic>, which can be found almost all over China, except for Heilongjiang and Tibet. <italic>Z. jujuba</italic> is most suitable to be planted in southeastern Sichuan, Chongqing, southern Gansu, Ningxia, most areas of central Shaanxi, eastern and southwestern Shanxi, Henan, eastern and northern Hubei, northern and eastern Anhui, Shandong, Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin, western Liaoning, and Zhejiang. As revealed by literature review, the most suitable growing areas of <italic>Z. jujuba</italic> are southeastern Sichuan, central Shaanxi, southwestern Shanxi, western and northern Henan, Shandong, and southwestern and eastern Hebei.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906283

ABSTRACT

Objective:Based on database mining, the high-frequency compatibility of Caryophylli Fols as the core in formulas for treating diarrhea was analyzed, and the network pharmacology was used to elucidate the mechanism of the core drug group containing Caryophylli Fols in the treatment of diarrhea. Method:The online database of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) was intelligently crawled by Python 3.8.1 programming, and the compatibility rules of Caryophylli Fols were analyzed, and the TCM with support≥0.30, confidence≥0.90 and lift≥1.00 was set as the core drug group of Caryophylli Fols. The components were searched and screened by TCM Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), and the disease targets were collected in Therapeutic Target Datebase (TTD), GeneCards and DisGeNET database with "Diarrhea" as the key word. The network diagram of "TCM-ingredients-potential targets" was constructed by Cytoscape 3.7.1 software, and the network of protein-protein interaction (PPI) was constructed by STRING 11.0. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis of potential targets was analyzed by R language, and the components of the core drug group were preliminarily verified and evaluated by Discovery Studio Client 2016 software. Result:A total of 155 formulas containing Caryophylli Fols for treating diarrhea were screened, involving 54 TCMs. The analysis of association rules showed that Caryophylli Fols was strongly associated with Myristicae Semen, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Aucklandiae Radix and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma in the treatment of diarrhea. The core drug group composed of these five TCMs involved 119 kinds of TCM ingredients and 114 potential targets, of which 104 potential targets were distributed in the nervous system, and the key targets were tumor protein p53 (TP53), transcription factor activator protein-1 (JUN), mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8), interleukin-6 (IL-6), 90 kDa heat shock protein <italic>α</italic>A1 (HSP90AA1) and so on. GO enrichment analysis mainly involved biological processes such as the regulation of neurotransmitter levels, blood circulation, hormone-mediated signal pathway and regulation of chemical synaptic transmission. IL-17 signal pathway, helper T cell 17 (Th17) cell differentiation, epidermal growth factor receptor and salmonella infection in KEGG pathways were closely related to the treatment of diarrhea. Molecular docking showed that the key target protein had high affinity with quercetin, kaempferol and <italic>β</italic>-sitosterol. Conclusion:The multi-components, multi-targets and multi-pathways involved in the core drug group of Caryophylli Fols are closely related to inflammation and nervous system, so it is speculated that it may treat diarrhea by repairing intestinal shielding integrity and regulating the levels of neurotransmitters.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906211

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the clinical efficacy of orthopedics No.1 prescription combined with celecoxib in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) with middle stage of cold-dampness syndrome and investigate its effect on serum cytokines levels. Method:The 72 patients were randomly divided into control group and observation group, with 36 cases each. Patients in both groups were given basic treatment with oral celecoxib capsules (0.2 g/ time, 1 time/day). On the basis of western medicine treatment, patients in observation group were treated with orthopedics No.1 prescription decoction-free granules by fumigation, 1 bag/time, 1 time/day, 5 times/week. Both groups received treatment for 4 weeks. The visual analog pain score (VAS), American knee society knee score (KSS), serum interleukin-1<italic>β </italic>(IL-1<italic>β</italic>), tumor necrosis factor-<italic>α </italic>(TNF-<italic>α</italic>), and transforming growth factor-<italic>β</italic><sub>1 </sub>(TGF-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub>) levels were observed before and after treatment, and their clinical efficacy was evaluated. Result:After treatment, VAS score significantly decreased in both groups (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and KSS score significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01), with better clinical effect in observation group. After treatment, serum IL-1<italic>β</italic> and TNF-<italic>α</italic> levels decreased significantly in both groups (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and the levels in observation group were lower than those in control group after treatment (<italic>P</italic><0.05). TGF<italic>-β</italic><sub>1 </sub>content was significantly higher than that before treatment in two groups (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:Orthopedics No.1 prescription combined with celecoxib for the treatment of KOA with middle stage of cold-dampness syndrome can effectively relieve the clinical symptoms of patients with KOA, improve joint function, improve quality of life, reduce the contents of inflammatory factors IL-1<italic>β</italic> and TNF-<italic>α</italic> in serum, and increase the expression of TGF-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub> level.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905954

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the efficacy and mechanism of Zishenwan (ZSW) against pyroptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal tubular epithelial cells in diabetic nephropathy (DN) mice, so as to provide evidence for the treatment of DN with ZSW. Method:The <italic>db/db</italic> mice with spontaneous diabetes were randomly divided into the model group, dapagliflozin (1.0 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>) group, and high-, medium-, and low-dose (6.0, 3.0, 1.5 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) ZSW groups. The non-diabetic <italic>db/m</italic> mice were classified into the normal group. The ones in the model and normal groups were given an equal volume of deionized water by gavage, while those in the other groups were intervened with the corresponding drugs for 12 weeks. The fasting blood glucose (FBG) level was tested at tail vein once every two weeks. The levels of urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR), <italic>β</italic>-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), and cystatin C (CysC) were detected once every four weeks. After 12 weeks of administration, the blood sampled from eyeballs was used for measuring the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr). The pathological changes in renal tissues were observed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The expression of EMT markers in the renal tubular epithelium was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The in situ terminal end-labeling (TUNEL) staining was conducted to analyze the nuclear damage of renal tubular epithelial cells. The protein and mRNA expression levels of EMT markers, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and pyroptosis-related inflammatory cytokines in renal tissues were separately assayed by Western blot and Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR). Result:Compared with the normal group, the model group displayed significantly increased FBG, BUN, serum SCr, ACR, NAG, and CysC (<italic>P</italic><0.01), impaired renal tissues, altered EMT marker expression intensities and levels (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and elevated TUNEL-positive rate and protein and mRNA expression levels of pyroptosis-related inflammatory cytokines and NLRP3 inflammasome (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, ZSW and dapagliflozin significantly decreased the levels of FBG, BUN, serum SCr, ACR, NAG, and CysC (<italic>P</italic><0.01), relieved the pathological injuries in renal tissues, changed the EMT marker expression intensities (<italic>P</italic><0.01) and protein and mRNA expression levels (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), and down-regulated the TUNEL-positive rate (<italic>P</italic><0.01) of renal tubular epithelial cells as well as the protein and mRNA expression levels of pyroptosis-related inflammatory cytokines (<italic>P</italic><0.01) and NLRP3 inflammasome (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:ZSW alleviates DN possibly by inhibiting pyroptosis and EMT in renal tubular epithelial cells.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905886

ABSTRACT

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a common clinical chronic respiratory disease, has a long course and is intractable. It is closely related to many factors, such as immune imbalance. Helper T cell 17 (Th17), an immune-promoting cell, and regulatory T cell (Treg), an immunosuppressive cell, maintain the balance of the immune microenvironment together. In the course of COPD, the proportion of Th17 cells usually increases, while the proportion of Tregs that inhibit Th17 activity decreases. Their coordination and balance are critical in the inflammatory and immune processes of COPD. At present, COPD is mainly treated with nasal inhalation preparations and oral drugs by western medicine. In spite of a certain therapeutic effect, side effects of drugs and heavy economic burden are becoming increasingly prominent. Modern research shows that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has the characteristics of few side effects, stable curative effect, and multi-target regulation, and it is advantageous and promising in the prevention and treatment of COPD. In recent years, a large number of TCM clinical and experimental trials on the intervention of Th17/Treg balance in COPD have been launched. Substantial pieces of evidence confirm that the intervention of Th17/Treg balance is an important potential target of TCM in the treatment of COPD. This study reviewed the previous research on the intervention effect of single Chinese medicine, effective components of Chinese medicine, and Chinese medicinal compound on Th17/Treg balance in COPD to comprehensively reveal the potential target of Th17/Treg balance in COPD for clinicians and scientific researchers, promote relevant research, and provide references for the rational application of TCM in the prevention and treatment of COPD.

11.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 700-2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904553

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of donor-derived infection (DDI) on clinical prognosis of kidney transplant recipients. Methods Clinical data of 82 donors from donation after citizen's death and 148 kidney transplant recipients were retrospectively analyzed. According to the culture results of the lavage fluid of donor kidney, all recipients were divided into the lavage fluid culture of donor kidney positive group (positive group, n=92) and lavage fluid culture of donor kidney negative group (negative group, n=56). All recipients were assigned into the DDI group (n=19) and non-DDI group (n=129) according to whether they developed DDI or not. The distribution and composition ratio of positive strains in the lavage fluid of donor kidney were analyzed. The incidence of postoperative infection and other complications was assessed in the recipients. Perioperative conditions of the recipients were statistically compared between the DDI and non-DDI groups. The treatment efficacy and clinical prognosis of DDI recipients were evaluated. Results Among 148 recipients, 92 obtained positive culture results in the lavage fluid of donor kidney. A total of 131 pathogenic strains were isolated, including 41.2% (54/131) of Gram-positive cocci, 48.9% (64/131) of Gram-negative bacilli and 9.9%(13/131) of fungi. Among 148 recipients, 52 cases were infected. And 45% (41/92) and 20% (11/56) of the recipients were infected in the positive and negative group, respectively. Statistical significance was noted between two groups (P=0.002). Surgical site was the most common infection site in 52 infected recipients, followed by the urinary system. Nineteen recipients developed DDI with an incidence rate of 12.8% and fatality of 16%. Compared with the non-DDI recipients, DDI recipients had significantly higher graft loss rate and fatality, and longer postoperative hospital stay (all P < 0.05). Eight cases presented with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infection, after treatment with tigecycline and/or polymyxin and carbapenems, 3 cases died, and 3 underwent kidney graft resection. In the other 8 recipients with CRKP infection, 2 cases were treated with ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI) alone, 3 treated with CAZ-AVI combined with carbapenems, and 3 initially treated with tigecycline combined with carbapenems followed by CAZ-AVI for salvage treatment. After corresponding treatment, the recipients achieved long-term survival. Conclusions DDI may lead to severe complications, while early specific antibacterial treatment plays a positive role.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1360-1368, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887096

ABSTRACT

Pregnane X receptor (PXR), a member of nuclear receptor superfamily, plays an important role in xenobiotic and endogenous metabolism, endocrine balance, and cell proliferation, etc. Previous study has shown that pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN), a mouse PXR agonist, could induce liver enlargement. And we found that the change in hepatocytes exhibits regional distribution characteristics: hepatocyte enlargement occurs around the central vein (CV) area, while hepatocyte proliferation occurs around the portal vein (PV) area. In this study, the dynamic changes of hepatocytes during PXR-induced liver enlargement were determined. Serum and liver samples from male C57BL/6 mice were collected for biochemical and pathological analysis after PCN treatment for 1, 2, 3, 5 days, respectively. The animal experiment was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Sun Yat-Sen University. The results showed that with the increase in the PCN treatment days, the feature of this regional change of hepatocyte around the CV and PV areas became more and more obvious. At the same time, the factors related to hepatocyte enlargement, such as the expression of PXR downstream genes and the hepatic content of triglyceride (TG), has gradually increased. The upregulation of proliferation-related proteins and downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor proteins were observed in the early stage of PCN treatment, suggesting that hepatocyte proliferation occurs earlier than hepatocyte enlargement during PXR-induced liver enlargement. This study reveals the dynamic change of hepatocytes during PXR-induced liver enlargement and provides a new insight in liver enlargement promoted via PXR activation.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881081

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as the most common liver disease with no approved therapeutic drug currently. Silymarin, an extract from the seeds of Silybum marianum, has been used for centuries for the treatment of various liver diseases. Although the hepatoprotective effect of silybin against NAFLD is widely accepted, the underlying mechanism and therapeutic target remain unclear. In this study, NAFLD mice caused by methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet were orally administrated with silybin to explore the possible mechanism and target. To clarify the contribution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), PPARα antagonist GW6471 was co-administrated with silybin to NAFLD mice. Since silybin was proven as a PPARα partial agonist, the combined effect of silybin with PPARα agonist, fenofibrate, was then evaluated in NAFLD mice. Serum and liver samples were collected to analyze the pharmacological efficacy and expression of PPARα and its targets. As expected, silybin significantly protected mice from MCD-induced NAFLD. Furthermore, silybin reduced lipid accumulation via activating PPARα, inducing the expression of liver cytosolic fatty acid-binding protein, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (Cpt)-1a, Cpt-2, medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and suppressing fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase α. GW6471 abolished the effect of silybin on PPARα signal and hepatoprotective effect against NAFLD. Moreover, as a partial agonist for PPARα, silybin impaired the powerful lipid-lowering effect of fenofibrate when used together. Taken together, silybin protected mice against NAFLD via activating PPARα to diminish lipid accumulation and it is not suggested to simultaneously take silybin and classical PPARα agonists for NAFLD therapy.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922414

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical features and outcome of very preterm infants withdrawn from caffeine citrate at different time points.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of the preterm infants with a gestational age of <32 weeks, who were hospitalized in the Division of Neonatology, the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, from January 1, 2016 to November 30, 2020. According to the time of withdrawal from caffeine citrate, the infants who met the study criteria were divided into the group with withdrawal before the last week of hospitalization and the group with withdrawal within the last week of hospitalization. The two groups were compared in terms of clinical features, features of citric caffeine use, length of hospital stay and hospital costs, change in the intensity of respiratory support, and preterm complications.@*RESULTS@#A total of 403 preterm infants were enrolled, with 285 infants in the group with withdrawal before the last week of hospitalization and 118 infants in the group with withdrawal within the last week of hospitalization. There were no significant differences in clinical features between the two groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#A relatively long course of caffeine citrate treatment is more beneficial to the short-term clinical outcome of very preterm infants.


Subject(s)
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia , Caffeine , Citrates , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Retrospective Studies
15.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1662-1666, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922313

ABSTRACT

Allergic transfusion reaction (ATR) caused by plasma transfusion is one of the main adverse transfusion reactions, and severe allergic reactions may even endanger the patient's life. Currently, ATR is mainly prevented and controlled by drug prevention and symptomatic treatment, and there still lack of preventive measures such as in vitro experiments. It has been shown that mast cells and basophils are the main effector cells of allergic reactions, and histamine is one of the main mediators of IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Some experiments can be used to identify patients with allergies or plasma components containing allergens, such as detection of serum-specific IgE, IgA, anti-IgA antibody, tryptase and histamine, mast cell degranulation test, basophil activation test, and so on. The basophil activation test can also be used for functional matching of plasma in vitro. Research of in vitro experiment of ATR is good for directing the precise infusion of plasma, reducing waste of resources, and avoiding the risk of blood transfusion. As a pre-transfusion laboratory test for clinical use, in vitro experiment of functional matching provides a new way to prevent ATR.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Transfusion , Blood Transfusion , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Plasma , Transfusion Reaction
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921897

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore clinical effect of acupoint application of Chinese herbal medicine in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting after orthopaedic surgery under general anesthesia.@*METHODS@#From January 2018 to December 2019, 168 patients who met inclusion criteria and were underwent selective spine surgery, were double-blind divided into two groups according to central random system, 84 patients in each group. In control group, there were 39 males and 45 females aged from 30 to 65 years old with an average of (53.83±9.17) years old, 37 patients were classified to typeⅠand 47 patients were typeⅡ according to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grading. In experiment group, there were 39 males and 45 females aged from 30 to 65 years old with an average of (54.08±9.00) years old; 32 patients were classified to typeⅠand 52 patients were typeⅡ according to ASA grading. Both of two groups were obtained acupoint application before anesthesia induction, and acupoint application were put on @*RESULTS@#There were no statistical differences in incidence of nausea vomiting, VAS of narusea degree at 24 h after operation (@*CONCLUSION@#The curative effect of acupoint application of traditional Chinese medicine on the prevention and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting is not obvious.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Adult , Aged , Anesthesia, General , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Orthopedic Procedures , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/prevention & control , Quality of Life
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921762

ABSTRACT

Targeting the poor powder characteristics of the contents in Hewei Jiangni Capsules, this study characterized the powder properties of the contents and employed particle design technique for improving the content quality. The content composite particles of Hewei Jiangni Capsules prepared by the particle design technique were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), followed by infrared ray(IR), content uniformity, and in vitro dissolution detection. It was found that there was a good correlation between the crushed particle size of slices and the crushing time, and the calcined Haematitum was responsible for the poor content uniformity. After the fine powder of calcined Haematitum was super-finely ground for 8.5 min and those of the other contents in the capsule for 1 min, they were prepared into the composite particles, whose property characterizations were compared with those of the physical mixtures. The content uniformity of the prepared composite particles was significantly improved, and the preparation process was stable and reliable. The adoption of particle design technology to correct the poor uniformity of the physical mixture, solve the pharmaceutical defects of Hewei Jiangni Capsules, and improve the quality of prescriptions has provided important reference for the clinical application and development of Chinese medicinal preparations.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Particle Size , Powders
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921761

ABSTRACT

Due to the complex source and different physical and chemical properties of traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) powder, there are many common pharmaceutical problems in its preparation, such as large particle size difference, poor mixing uniformity, and poor compliance with oral intake, which has directly affected the quality of solid preparations as well as their clinical efficacy and safety. This study observed the property of Zhuhuang Chuihou Powder and extract its pharmaceutical defects. It was found that realgar and calcined Borax in Zhuhuang Chuihou Powder were heavy in texture and toxic, and they were easy to be isolated, indicating the potential safety hazard. At the same time, Coptidis Rhizoma and Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex were the main sources of its bitterness. Therefore, based on the idea of "drug-excipients unity", the particle design technology was used to prepare core/shell-type composite particles with bitter medicines as the core and mineral medicines as shell. Both infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy results indicated the formation of composite particles, and the taste of these composite particles were improved. Compared with the physical mixtures, the composite particles exhibited significantly decreased RSD values in the content uniformity of berberine hydrochloride, arsenic disulfide, and sodium tetraborate and appearance uniformity. The introduction of particle design technology solved the problem of uneven dispersion of Zhuhuang Chuihou Powder, thus ensuring its uniform dispersion, stability, and control and improving the quality of the original preparation. This has provided a scientific basis for the quality control of TCM powder.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Particle Size , Powders , Taste
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921760

ABSTRACT

Targeting the deficiencies of Lingzhu Powder, this study introduced the particle design technology to improve its quality. Based on the mechanism of particle design for powder and the characteristics of solvent evaporation method, composite particles consisting of Succinum, Cinnabaris, and artificial Bovis Calculus were prepared. And the powder properties of composite particles and physical mixtures as well as the content uniformity of toxic components were investigated for exploring the technological advantages of particle design in improving the quality of Lingzhu Powder. The results showed that the composite particles prepared using solvent evaporation method and particle design technology were micro-particles, and the stable agglomerate structure could be observed under SEM. Composite particles exhibited better fluidity and compliance in oral intake than physical mixtures. The differences in chromatism, bulk density, and content uniformity of the composite particles were smaller than those of physical mixtures, and the corresponding RSD values \[4.8%, 1.8%, 3.4%(bilirubin), and 0.63%(HgS), respectively\] were smaller. The solvent evaporation combined with particle design technology can be utilized to significantly improve the quality of Lingzhu Powder, which has provided new ideas for the optimization of the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal powder.


Subject(s)
Particle Size , Powders , Solvents , Technology
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921758

ABSTRACT

Solid preparations account for more than 50% of traditional Chinese medicines(TCM). TCM powder is an important raw material for solid preparations of TCM. Its powder properties directly affect the quality of solid preparations, and even clinical safety and effectiveness. Particle design technology based on the characteristics of powder in TCM is an important means to improve and enhance the quality of solid preparations. This study summarized the relevant principles, methods, characteristics, classification, equipment, and other elements of particle design technology in recent years, analyzed the difficulties in its application in the field of TCM powder, and proposed the strategies in conjunction with the development of computer data mining. The present study is expected to provide a reference for the suitability of particle design in the field of TCM powder.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Powders , Technology
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