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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 143-151, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005448

ABSTRACT

Melatonin (Mel) has been shown to have cardioprotective effects, but its action on ion channels is unclear. In this experiment, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Mel on late sodium currents (INa.L) in mouse ventricular myocytes and the anti-arrhythmic effect at the organ level as well as its mechanism. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was applied to record the ionic currents and action potential (AP) in mouse ventricular myocytes while the electrocardiogram (ECG) and monophasic action potential (MAP) were recorded simultaneously in mouse hearts using a multichannel acquisition and analysis system. The results demonstrated that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Mel on transient sodium current (INa.T) and specific INa.L opener 2 nmol·L-1 sea anemone toxins II (ATX II) increased INa.L were 686.615 and 7.37 μmol·L-1, respectively. Mel did not affect L-type calcium current (ICa.L), transient outward current (Ito), and AP. In addition, 16 μmol·L-1 Mel shortened ATX II-prolonged action potential duration (APD), suppressed ATX II-induced early afterdepolarizations (EADs), and significantly reduced the incidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) in Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts. In conclusion, Mel exerted its antiarrhythmic effects principally by blocking INa.L, thus providing a significant theoretical basis for new clinical applications of Mel. Animal welfare and experimental process are in accordance with the regulations of the Experimental Animal Ethics Committee of Wuhan University of Science and Technology (2023130).

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 76-83, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005439

ABSTRACT

Most chemical medicines have polymorphs. The difference of medicine polymorphs in physicochemical properties directly affects the stability, efficacy, and safety of solid medicine products. Polymorphs is incomparably important to pharmaceutical chemistry, manufacturing, and control. Meantime polymorphs is a key factor for the quality of high-end drug and formulations. Polymorph prediction technology can effectively guide screening of trial experiments, and reduce the risk of missing stable crystal form in the traditional experiment. Polymorph prediction technology was firstly based on theoretical calculations such as quantum mechanics and computational chemistry, and then was developed by the key technology of machine learning using the artificial intelligence. Nowadays, the popular trend is to combine the advantages of theoretical calculation and machine learning to jointly predict crystal structure. Recently, predicting medicine polymorphs has still been a challenging problem. It is expected to learn from and integrate existing technologies to predict medicine polymorphs more accurately and efficiently.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 43-60, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005438

ABSTRACT

Influenza virus causes serious threat to human life and health. Due to the inherent high variability of influenza virus, clinically resistant mutant strains of currently approved anti-influenza virus drugs have emerged. Therefore, it is urgent to develop antiviral drugs with new targets or mechanisms of action. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is directly responsible for viral RNA transcription and replication, and plays key roles in the viral life cycle, which is considered an important target of anti-influenza drug design. From the point of view of medicinal chemistry, this review summarizes current advances in diverse small-molecule inhibitors targeting influenza virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, hoping to provide valuable reference for development of novel antiviral drugs.

4.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 399-404, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981282

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the genetic subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the prevalence of pretreatment drug resistance in the newly reported HIV-infected men in Guangxi. Methods The stratified random sampling method was employed to select the newly reported HIV-infected men aged≥50 years old in 14 cities of Guangxi from January to June in 2020.The pol gene of HIV-1 was amplified by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced.The mutation sites associated with drug resistance and the degree of drug resistance were then analyzed. Results A total of 615 HIV-infected men were included in the study.The genetic subtypes of CRF01_AE,CRF07_BC,and CRF08_BC accounted for 57.4% (353/615),17.1% (105/615),and 22.4% (138/615),respectively.The mutations associated with the resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI),non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI),and protease inhibitors occurred in 8 (1.3%),18 (2.9%),and 0 patients,respectively.M184V (0.7%) and K103N (1.8%) were the mutations with the highest occurrence rates for the resistance to NRTIs and NNRTIs,respectively.Twenty-two (3.6%) patients were resistant to at least one type of inhibitors.Specifically,4 (0.7%),14 (2.3%),4 (0.7%),and 0 patients were resistant to NRTIs,NNRTIs,both NRTIs and NNRTIs,and protease inhibitors,respectively.The pretreatment resistance to NNRTIs had much higher frequency than that to NRTIs (2.9% vs.1.3%;χ2=3.929,P=0.047).The prevalence of pretreatment resistance to lamivudine,zidovudine,tenofovir,abacavir,rilpivirine,efavirenz,nevirapine,and lopinavir/ritonavir was 0.8%, 0.3%, 0.7%, 1.0%, 1.3%, 2.8%, 2.9%, and 0, respectively. Conclusions CRF01_AE,CRF07_BC,and CRF08_BC are the three major strains of HIV-infected men≥50 years old newly reported in Guangxi,2020,and the pretreatment drug resistance demonstrates low prevalence.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , China/epidemiology , Mutation , HIV-1/genetics , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Genotype
5.
Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing ; (36): 2075-2081, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990452

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of disposable disinfection cap in preventing catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSIs).Methods:Literature on the prevention of CRBSIs by disposable disinfection caps were retrieved from CNKI, Wanfang Database, VIP database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science databases. The retrieval period was from the database construction to June 30, 2022. After literature screening, data extraction and quality evaluation were independently carried out by 2 researchers, RevMan5.4 software was used for analysis.Results:A total of 12 articles were included, including 9 832 patients. Meta-analysis results showed that compared with conventional manual disinfection, disposable disinfection cap could reduce the incidence of CRBSIs, and the difference was statistically significant ( RR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.43-0.79, P<0.01). Disposable disinfection cap could reduce the incidence of CRBSIs in adults, but there was no significant difference in the incidence of CRBSIs in children ( P>0.05). It could reduce the incidence of CRBSIs in patients with indwelling vascular catheters in ICU ( RR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.38-0.89, P<0.05), but there was no statistical difference in the incidence of CRBSIs in patients without indwelling vascular catheters in ICU ( P>0.05). In addition, the compliance of the use of disinfection caps by nursing staff was improved by 80% - 90% and the treatment cost was saved by about 282 - 464 dollars. Conclusions:Disposable disinfection caps can reduce the occurrence of CRBSIs, improve the disinfection compliance of nursing staff, and save the hospitalization cost of patients. It is suggested to be popularized in clinical practice.

6.
Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing ; (36): 215-221, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990163

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the current situation of expected sadness of family caregivers of first stroke patients and analyze its influencing factors, so as to provide reference for the formulation of psychological decompression intervention program for family caregivers of stroke patients.Methods:Convenience sampling method was used to conduct cross-sectional survey of 212 family caregivers of first stroke patients who were hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University from March 2020 to May 2021, using general information questionnaires and Anticipatory Grief Scale and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale to investigate and anlalyzed its influencing factors.Results:The scare of anticipatory grief of the caregivers of first stroke patients was 87.93 ± 17.36. The results of multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that the age of family caregivers, psychological elasticity, the degree of relationship with patients, patients′ cognitive ability and self-care ability were the influencing factors of anticipatory grief of family caregivers of first stroke patients ( t values were -6.73 -11.77, P <0.05). Conclusions:The caregivers of first stroke patients have serious anticipatory grief. Staff should pay attention to the psychological conditions of the family caregivers and take effective measures to promote their physical and mental health.

7.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 88-98, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988184

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the predictive factors for the efficacy of Yiqi Yangxue prescription combined with western medicine in treating aplastic anemia (AA) in non-elderly adults, so as to provide a reference for predicting the prognosis of this therapy. MethodA retrospective study was conducted with the clinical data of non-elderly adult AA patients who visited 19 hospitals including Xiyuan Hospital of the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences from September 2018 to March 2021 and were treated with Yiqi Yangxue Prescription combined with western medicine. According to the efficacy evaluation results at the 6th month of treatment, the patients were assigned into effective and ineffective groups. The two groups were compared in terms of the gender, age, disease classification [non-severe aplastic anemia (NSAA)/severe aplastic anemia (SAA)], course of disease, family history, complications, history of drug allergy, baseline blood routine examination [hemoglobin (HGB), white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil (ANC), platelet (PLT), and reticulocyte (Ret)], T lymphocyte subsets, degree of proliferation of nucleated cells in bone marrow, and expression of T-bet and GATA-3. ResultA total of 101 non-elderly adult AA patients were enrolled in this study, including 81 in the effective group and 20 in the ineffective group. The effective group had a higher proportion of the patients without a history of drug allergy than the ineffective group (P<0.05). The body height, body weight, gender, age, disease classification, course of disease, family history, and complications showed no significant differences between two groups. The effective group had higher levels of ANC and PLT before treatment (P<0.05) and higher proportion of patients with ANC≥1.6×109/L and PLT≥25×109/L (P<0.05, P<0.01) than the ineffective group. The baseline levels of WBC, HGB, and Ret showed no significant statistical differences between two groups. The levels of CD3+HLA-DR+T cells in the effective group before treatment was higher than that in the ineffective group (P<0.05). The levels of CD3+CD19-T cells, CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells, Th1 cells, Th2 cells, and CD3+CD25+T cells showed no significant statistical differences between two groups before treatment. The proportion of patients with active bone marrow nucleated cells proliferation in the effective group before treatment were significantly higher than that in the ineffective group, while the proportion of patients with reduced or extremely reduced proliferation were significantly lower than that in the ineffective group (P<0.05). The expression levels of T-bet and GATA-3 genes had no significant differences between two groups before treatment. The multivariate binary logistic regression analysis showed that the ANC level before treatment and history of drug allergy were independent influencing factors for efficacy (P<0.05, P<0.01), while other indicators were not influencing factors for efficacy. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to analyze the predictive value of the ANC level before treatment in the treatment of AA in non-elderly adults with Yiqi Yangxue prescription combined with western medicine. The area under the curve was 0.679 (P<0.05), with the critical value of 1.595×109/L, the sensitivity of 0.42, and the specificity of 0.95. ConclusionThe history of drug allergy, pre-treatment ANC, PLT, CD3+HLA-DR+ T cell levels, and proliferation of nucleated cells in bone marrow before treatment are predictive factors for the efficacy of Yiqi Yangxue prescription combined with western medicine in treating AA in non-elderly adults. This therapy tends to be more effective for the patients with no history of drug allergy, higher ANC and PLT levels before treatment, especially those with ANC≥1.6×109/L, PLT≥25×109/L, and higher CD3+ HLA-DR+T cell levels and the more active proliferation of nucleated cells in bone marrow before treatment.

8.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 579-588, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986930

ABSTRACT

Objective: This cross-sectional investigation aimed to determine the incidence, clinical characteristics, prognosis, and related risk factors of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions related to infection with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron strain in mainland China. Methods: Data of patients with SARS-CoV-2 from December 28, 2022, to February 21, 2023, were collected through online and offline questionnaires from 45 tertiary hospitals and one center for disease control and prevention in mainland China. The questionnaire included demographic information, previous health history, smoking and alcohol drinking, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, olfactory and gustatory function before and after infection, other symptoms after infection, as well as the duration and improvement of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction. The self-reported olfactory and gustatory functions of patients were evaluated using the Olfactory VAS scale and Gustatory VAS scale. Results: A total of 35 566 valid questionnaires were obtained, revealing a high incidence of olfactory and taste dysfunctions related to infection with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron strain (67.75%). Females(χ2=367.013, P<0.001) and young people(χ2=120.210, P<0.001) were more likely to develop these dysfunctions. Gender(OR=1.564, 95%CI: 1.487-1.645), SARS-CoV-2 vaccination status (OR=1.334, 95%CI: 1.164-1.530), oral health status (OR=0.881, 95%CI: 0.839-0.926), smoking history (OR=1.152, 95%CI=1.080-1.229), and drinking history (OR=0.854, 95%CI: 0.785-0.928) were correlated with the occurrence of olfactory and taste dysfunctions related to SARS-CoV-2(above P<0.001). 44.62% (4 391/9 840) of the patients who had not recovered their sense of smell and taste also suffered from nasal congestion, runny nose, and 32.62% (3 210/9 840) suffered from dry mouth and sore throat. The improvement of olfactory and taste functions was correlated with the persistence of accompanying symptoms(χ2=10.873, P=0.001). The average score of olfactory and taste VAS scale was 8.41 and 8.51 respectively before SARS-CoV-2 infection, but decreased to3.69 and 4.29 respectively after SARS-CoV-2 infection, and recovered to 5.83and 6.55 respectively at the time of the survey. The median duration of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions was 15 days and 12 days, respectively, with 0.5% (121/24 096) of patients experiencing these dysfunctions for more than 28 days. The overall self-reported improvement rate of smell and taste dysfunctions was 59.16% (14 256/24 096). Gender(OR=0.893, 95%CI: 0.839-0.951), SARS-CoV-2 vaccination status (OR=1.334, 95%CI: 1.164-1.530), history of head and facial trauma(OR=1.180, 95%CI: 1.036-1.344, P=0.013), nose (OR=1.104, 95%CI: 1.042-1.171, P=0.001) and oral (OR=1.162, 95%CI: 1.096-1.233) health status, smoking history(OR=0.765, 95%CI: 0.709-0.825), and the persistence of accompanying symptoms (OR=0.359, 95%CI: 0.332-0.388) were correlated with the recovery of olfactory and taste dysfunctions related to SARS-CoV-2 (above P<0.001 except for the indicated values). Conclusion: The incidence of olfactory and taste dysfunctions related to infection with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron strain is high in mainland China, with females and young people more likely to develop these dysfunctions. Active and effective intervention measures may be required for cases that persist for a long time. The recovery of olfactory and taste functions is influenced by several factors, including gender, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination status, history of head and facial trauma, nasal and oral health status, smoking history, and persistence of accompanying symptoms.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adolescent , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Incidence , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Prognosis
9.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 428-432, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986147

ABSTRACT

Objective: Glycogen storage disease type IX (GSD-IX) is a rare primary glucose metabolism abnormality caused by phosphorylase kinase deficiency and a series of pathogenic gene mutations. The clinical characteristics, gene analysis, and functional verification of a mutation in a child with hepatomegaly are summarized here to clarify the pathogenic cause of the disease. Methods: The clinical data of a child with GSD-IX was collected. Peripheral blood from the child and his parents was collected for genomic DNA extraction. The patient's gene diagnosis was performed by second-generation sequencing. The suspected mutations were verified by Sanger sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. The suspected splicing mutations were verified in vivo by RT-PCR and first-generation sequencing. Results: Hepatomegaly, transaminitis, and hypertriglyceridemia were present in children. Liver biopsy pathological examination results indicated glycogen storage disease. Gene sequencing revealed that the child had a c.285 + 2_285 + 5delTAGG hemizygous mutation in the PHKA2 gene. Sanger sequencing verification showed that the mother of the child was heterozygous and the father of the child was of the wild type. Software such as HSF3.1 and ESEfinder predicted that the gene mutation affected splicing. RT-PCR of peripheral blood from children and his mother confirmed that the mutation had caused the skipping of exon 3 during the constitutive splicing of the PHKA2 gene. Conclusion: The hemizygous mutation in the PHKA2 gene (c.285 + 2_285 + 5delTAGG) is the pathogenic cause of the patient's disease. The detection of the novel mutation site enriches the mutation spectrum of the PHKA2 gene and serves as a basis for the family's genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Female , Exons , Glycogen Storage Disease/genetics , Hepatomegaly/genetics , Mutation , Phosphorylase Kinase/genetics
10.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 527-532, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985903

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the gene mutation profile of newly diagnosed pediatric B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and analyze its effect on minimal residual disease (MRD). Methods: A total of 506 newly diagnosed B-ALL children treated in Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from September 2018 to July 2021 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. The enrolled children were divided into MRD ≥1.00% group and <1.00% group according to MRD results on the 19th day since chemotherapy, and MRD ≥0.01% group and <0.01% group according to MRD results on the 46th day. Clinical characteristics and gene mutations of two groups were compared. Comparisons between groups were performed with chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Independent risk factors of MRD results on the 19th day and the 46th day were analyzed by Logistic regression model. Results: Among all 506 patients, there were 318 males and 188 females. On the 19th day, there were 114 patients in the MRD ≥1.00% group and 392 patients in the MRD <1.00% group. On the 46th day, there were 76 patients in the MRD ≥0.01% group and 430 patients in the MRD <0.01% group. A total of 187 gene mutations were detected in 487 (96.2%) of 506 children. The most common gene mutations were signal transduction-related KRAS gene mutations in 111 cases (22.8%) and NRAS gene mutations in 99 cases (20.3%). Multivariate analysis showed that PTPN11 (OR=1.92, 95%CI 1.00-3.63), KMT2A (OR=3.51, 95%CI 1.07-11.50) gene mutations and TEL-AML1 (OR=0.48, 95%CI 0.27-0.87), BCR-ABL1 (OR=0.27, 95%CI 0.08-0.92) fusion genes and age >10 years (OR=1.91, 95%CI 1.12-3.24) were independent influencing factors for MRD ≥1.00% on the 19th day. BCORL1 (OR=2.96, 95%CI 1.18-7.44), JAK2 (OR=2.99, 95%CI 1.07-8.42) and JAK3 (OR=4.83, 95%CI 1.50-15.60) gene mutations and TEL-AML1 (OR=0.43, 95%CI 0.21-0.87) fusion gene were independent influencing factors for MRD ≥0.01% on the 46th day. Conclusions: Children with B-ALL are prone to genetic mutations, with abnormalities in the RAS signaling pathway being the most common. Signal transduction related PTPN11, JAK2 and JAK3 gene mutations, epigenetic related KMT2A gene mutation and transcription factor related BCORL1 gene mutation are independent risk factors for MRD.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Male , Humans , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Neoplasm, Residual/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Genomics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
11.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 446-452, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985889

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the clinical data and prognosis of children with Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) common genes. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study.Clinical data of 56 children with Ph-like ALL common gene cases (Ph-like ALL positive group) treated from January 2017 to January 2022 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Children's Hospital, Henan Cancer's Hospital and Henan Provincial People's Hospital were collected, 69 children with other high-risk B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) at the same time and the same age were selected as the negative group. The clinical characteristics and prognosis of two groups were analyzed retrospectively. Comparisons between groups were performed using Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 test. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival curve, Log-Rank test was used for univariate analysis, and the Cox regression model was used for multivariate prognosis analysis. Results: Among 56 Ph-like ALL positive patients, there were 30 males and 26 females, and 15 cases were over 10 years old. There were 69 patients in Ph-like ALL negative group. Compared with the negative group, the children in positive group were older (6.4 (4.2, 11.2) vs. 4.7 (2.8, 8.4) years), and hyperleukocytosis (≥50×109/L) was more common (25% (14/56) vs. 9% (6/69)), the differences were statistically significant (both P<0.05). In the Ph-like ALL positive group, 32 cases were positive for IK6 (1 case was co-expressed with IK6 and EBF1-PDGFRB), 24 cases were IK6-negative, of which 9 cases were CRLF2 positive (including 2 cases with P2RY8-CRLF2, 7 cases with CRLF2 high expression), 5 cases were PDGFRB rearrangement, 4 cases were ABL1 rearrangement, 4 cases were JAK2 rearrangement, 1 case was ABL2 rearrangement and 1 case was EPOR rearrangement. The follow-up time of Ph-like ALL positive group was 22 (12, 40) months, and 32 (20, 45) months for negative group. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate of positive group was significantly lower than the negative group ((72±7) % vs. (86±5) %, χ2=4.59, P<0.05). Compared with the 24 IK6-negative patients, the 3-year event free survival (EFS) rate of 32 IK6 positive patients was higher, the difference was statistically significant ((88±9) % vs. (65±14) %, χ2=5.37, P<0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the bone marrow minimal residual disease (MRD) not turning negative at the end of first induction (HR=4.12, 95%CI 1.13-15.03) independent prognostic risk factor for patient with Ph-like ALL common genes. Conclusions: Children with Ph-like ALL common genes were older than other high-risk B-ALL patients at diagnosis, with high white blood cells and lower survival rate. The bone marrow MRD not turning negative at the end of first induction were independent prognostic risk factor for children with Ph-like ALL common gene.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Prognosis , Philadelphia Chromosome , Retrospective Studies , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta/genetics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Neoplasm, Residual
12.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 728-733, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985803

ABSTRACT

Proximal tibial aspect ratio (PTAR) is closely related to age, disease status and cutting parameters with considerable inter-individual variation independent of gender and race, nevertheless the aspect ratio of tibial components from different manufacturers remains relatively constant from smallest to largest size. As a result, component mismatching is an unavoidable dilemma during tibia preparation in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Various prosthesis systems all can achieve more than 80% coverage on proximal tibia, whereas their optimal fit rates are generally not more than 50%. It is difficult for symmetrical components to avoid anteroposterior mismatch, internal malrotation tends to occur when maximum coverage is pursued on the resected surface with a medial dominant plateau or lower PTAR. Although it is easier to achieve a balance of rotation and coverage with anatomical components, significant anteromedial overhang tends to appear on the resected surface with a symmetrical or lateral dominant plateau. Further researches should focus on the law of inter-individual variability of proximal tibial morphology, the quantitative definition of "ideal matching" safety zone of key morphological parameters on different areas of proximal tibia and the methodology of realizing"ideal matching"in the majority patients with the least amount of component sizes. In addition, with the rapid development of additive manufacturing and digital orthopedic technology, individual customized implant is expected to become a breakthrough point in the field of TKA component fitting.

13.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 370-375, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985682

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the distribution and characteristics of gene mutations in osteosarcoma, and to analyze the frequency and types of detectable mutations, and to identify potential targets for individualized treatment of osteosarcoma. Methods: The fresh tissue or paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 64 cases of osteosarcoma that were surgically resected or biopsied and then subject to next generation sequencing, were collected from Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, China from November 2018 to December 2021. The tumor DNA was extracted to detect the somatic and germline mutations using targeted sequencing technology. Results: Among the 64 patients, 41 were males and 23 were females. The patient age ranged from 6 to 65 years with a median age of 17 years, including 36 children (under 18 years old) and 28 adults. There were 52 cases of conventional osteosarcoma, 3 cases of telangiectatic osteosarcoma, 7 cases of secondary osteosarcoma, and 2 cases of parosteosarcoma. The detection rate of gene mutations was overall 84.4% (54/64). There were 324 variations in 180 mutated genes, including 125 genes with copy number variations, 109 single nucleotide variants, 83 insertions or deletions, and 7 gene fusions. The most common mutated genes were TP53, VEGFA, CCND3, ATRX, MYC, RB1, PTEN, GLI1, CDK4 and PTPRD. Among them, TP53 had the highest mutation rate (21/64, 32.8%), single nucleotide variant was the main mutation type (14/23, 60.9%), and 2 cases carried the TP53 germline mutation. VEGFA and CCND3 showed copy number amplification simultaneously in 7 cases. Conclusions: The high-frequency mutation of TP53 suggests that it plays an important role in the pathogenesis and development of osteosarcoma. VEGFA, CCND3 and ATRX are mutated genes in osteosarcoma and worthy of further studies. Combination of pathologic diagnosis and next generation sequencing with clinical practice can guide individualized treatment for patients with refractory, recurrent and metastatic osteosarcoma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Male , Child , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , DNA Copy Number Variations , Osteosarcoma/pathology , Mutation , DNA, Neoplasm , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Nucleotides
14.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 751-758, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985557

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of norovirus-caused acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in China, identify the factors influencing the scale of outbreaks, and provide scientific evidences for early control of norovirus infection outbreaks. Methods: The descriptive epidemiological analysis approach was applied to analyze the incidence of national norovirus infection outbreaks by using the data from the Public Health Emergency Event Surveillance System in China from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2021. The unconditional logistic regression model was applied to analyze the risk factors that affected the outbreaks' scale. Results: A total of 1 725 norovirus infection outbreaks were recorded in China from 2007 to 2021, with an upward trend in the number of the reported outbreaks. The southern provinces had their annual outbreak peaks from October to March; the northern provinces had two outbreak peaks from October to December and from March to June annually. The outbreaks occurred mainly in southeastern coastal provinces with a trend of gradual spread to central, northeastern and western provinces. The outbreaks mainly occurred in schools and childcare setting (1 539 cases, 89.22%), followed by enterprises and institutions (67 cases, 3.88%) and community households (55 cases, 3.19%). Human to human transmission was the main infection route (73.16%), and norovirus GⅡ genotype was the predominate pathogen causing the outbreaks (899 cases, 81.58%). The time interval between the onset of the primary case and the outbreak reporting M (Q1, Q3) was 3 (2, 6) days and the case number of the outbreak M (Q1, Q3) was 38 (28, 62). The timeliness of outbreak reporting was improved in recent years and the scale of the outbreaks showed a decreasing trend over the years, the differences in reporting timeliness and outbreak scale among different settings were significant (P<0.001). The factors that affected outbreaks' scale included the outbreak setting, transmission route, outbreak reporting timeliness and type of living areas (P<0.05). Conclusions: From 2007 to 2021, the number of the norovirus-caused acute gastroenteritis outbreaks increased in China and the more areas were affected. However, the outbreak scale showed a decreasing trend and the outbreak reporting timeliness was improved. It is important to further improve the surveillance sensitivity and reporting timeliness for the effective control of the outbreak scale.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Norovirus , Disease Outbreaks , China , Child Care , Gastroenteritis
15.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 743-750, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985556

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the incidence trend and epidemiological characteristics of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever in China from 2004 to 2020, understand the high-incidence population and hotspot areas, and provide evidences to develop more targeted prevention and control measures. Methods: The descriptive epidemiological method and spatial analysis method were applied to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever in China during this period by using the surveillance data collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: A total of 202 991 cases of typhoid fever were reported in China from 2004 to 2020. More cases occurred in men than in women (sex ratio: 1.18∶1). Most cases were reported in adults aged 20-59 years (53.60%). The incidence rate of typhoid fever decreased from 2.54/100 000 in 2004 to 0.38/100 000 in 2020. The highest incidence rate was reported in young children aged <3 years after 2011, ranging from 1.13/100 000 to 2.78/100 000, and during this period the proportion of cases in this age group increased from 3.48% to 15.59%. The proportion of the cases in the elderly aged ≥60 years increased from 6.46% in 2004 to 19.34% in 2020. The hotspot areas existed in Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Sichuan Provinces and expanded to Guangdong, Hunan, Jiangxi, and Fujian Provinces. A total of 86 226 paratyphoid fever cases were reported from 2004 to 2020, the male to female ratio of the cases was 1.21∶1. Most cases were reported in adults aged 20-59 years (59.80%). The incidence rate of paratyphoid fever decreased from 1.26/100 000 in 2004 to 0.12/100 000 in 2020. The highest incidence rate of paratyphoid fever was in young children aged <3 years after 2007, ranging from 0.57/100 000 to 1.19/100 000, and during this period the proportion of the cases in this age group increased from 1.48% to 30.92%. The proportion of the cases in the elderly aged ≥60 years increased from 4.52% in 2004 to 22.28% in 2020. The hotspot areas expanded to the east, including Guangdong, Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces, from Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, and Guangxi Provinces. Conclusions: The results showed a low level of incidence of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever in China with a trend of decreasing per year. The hotspots were mainly in the of Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Sichuan Provinces, with an expanding trend to eastern China. It is necessary to strengthen the typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever prevention and control in southwestern China, among young children aged <3 years and the elderly aged ≥60 years.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Middle Aged , China/epidemiology , Paratyphoid Fever/epidemiology , Sex Ratio , Typhoid Fever/epidemiology
16.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 189-196, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971123

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To dynamically observe the levels and activities of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and ADAMTS-13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13) in plasma of children with congenital ventricular septal defect (VSD) during perioperative period, and explore the value of plasma vWF antigen (vWF:Ag) and ADAMTS-13 activity (ADAMTS-13: AC) in evaluating vascular endothelial injury and prognosis in children with VSD.@*METHODS@#In this cross-sectional study, a total of 74 children with VSD who underwent surgical treatment in TEDA International Cardiovascular Hospital from September 2018 to March 2019 were enrolled in the observation group. Among them, there were 28 cases of pure VSD, 32 cases of VSD combined with pulmonary hypertension, and 14 cases of VSD combined with valvular heart disease. 31 healthy children who underwent physical examination in Tianjin Children's Hospital during the same period were collected as the control group. The biochemical indexes of the children at admission were recorded. Peripheral plasma was collected at admission, postsurgery day 0 and day 1, respectively, and the levels of vWF activity (vWF:AC), vWF:Ag, ADAMTS-13 antigen (ADAMTS-13:Ag) and ADAMTS-13:AC were detected.@*RESULTS@#The level of plasma vWF:Ag and vWF:AC in the observation group before surgery were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.001), and increased continuously, on postsurgery day 0 and day 1 (P<0.001). The level of ADAMTS-13:Ag in the observation group before surgery was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.001), which decreased significantly on postsurgery day 0 (P<0.001), and increased significantly on postsurgery day 1 compared with postsurgery day 0 (P=0.033). The level of ADAMTS-13:AC in the observation group before surgery was significantly lower than that in the control group (P=0.015), which decreased significantly on postsurgery day 0 (P=0.037), and increased on postsurgery day 1, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.051). The changes of vWF and ADAMTS-13 in the three subgroups were basically similar to the observation group. vWF: Ag/ADAMTS-13: AC ratio on postsurgery day 0 and day 1 had high diagnostic value in vascular endothelial injury (AUC=0.80, P<0.001; AUC=0.93, P<0.001). Preoperative vWF and ADAMTS-13 levels, and related baseline indicators were not correlated with postoperative infection, bleeding, thrombosis,etc.@*CONCLUSION@#Preoperative vWF: Ag, vWF: AC and ADAMTS-13: AC levels in children with VSD are low, while the level of ADAMTS-13: Ag is high. After surgery, the levels of vWF: Ag and vWF: AC are increased and the level of ADAMTS-13: Ag is decreased. The postoperative vWF: Ag/ADAMTS-13: AC ratio shows high diagnostic value in evaluating vascular endothelial injury. There is no correlation between preoperative vWF and ADAMTS-13 levels with perioperative clinical events.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , ADAMTS13 Protein , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular , Prognosis , von Willebrand Factor
17.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 216-221, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970270

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the risk factors in mortality of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods: Second analysis of the data collected in the "efficacy of pulmonary surfactant (PS) in the treatment of children with moderate to severe PARDS" program. Retrospective case summary of the risk factors of mortality of children with moderate to severe PARDS who admitted in 14 participating tertiary PICU between December 2016 to December 2021. Differences in general condition, underlying diseases, oxygenation index, and mechanical ventilation were compared after the group was divided by survival at PICU discharge. When comparing between groups, the Mann-Whitney U test was used for measurement data, and the chi-square test was used for counting data. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the accuracy of oxygen index (OI) in predicting mortality. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for mortality. Results: Among 101 children with moderate to severe PARDS, 63 (62.4%) were males, 38 (37.6%) were females, aged (12±8) months. There were 23 cases in the non-survival group and 78 cases in the survival group. The combined rates of underlying diseases (52.2% (12/23) vs. 29.5% (23/78), χ2=4.04, P=0.045) and immune deficiency (30.4% (7/23) vs. 11.5% (9/78), χ2=4.76, P=0.029) in non-survival patients were significantly higher than those in survival patients, while the use of pulmonary surfactant (PS) was significantly lower (8.7% (2/23) vs. 41.0% (32/78), χ2=8.31, P=0.004). No significant differences existed in age, sex, pediatric critical illness score, etiology of PARDS, mechanical ventilation mode and fluid balance within 72 h (all P>0.05). OI on the first day (11.9(8.3, 17.1) vs.15.5(11.7, 23.0)), the second day (10.1(7.6, 16.6) vs.14.8(9.3, 26.2)) and the third day (9.2(6.6, 16.6) vs. 16.7(11.2, 31.4)) after PARDS identified were all higher in non-survival group compared to survival group (Z=-2.70, -2.52, -3.79 respectively, all P<0.05), and the improvement of OI in non-survival group was worse (0.03(-0.32, 0.31) vs. 0.32(-0.02, 0.56), Z=-2.49, P=0.013). ROC curve analysis showed that the OI on the thind day was more appropriate in predicting in-hospital mortality (area under the curve= 0.76, standard error 0.05,95%CI 0.65-0.87,P<0.001). When OI was set at 11.1, the sensitivity was 78.3% (95%CI 58.1%-90.3%), and the specificity was 60.3% (95%CI 49.2%-70.4%). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for age, sex, pediatric critical illness score and fluid load within 72 h, no use of PS (OR=11.26, 95%CI 2.19-57.95, P=0.004), OI value on the third day (OR=7.93, 95%CI 1.51-41.69, P=0.014), and companied with immunodeficiency (OR=4.72, 95%CI 1.17-19.02, P=0.029) were independent risk factors for mortality in children with PARDS. Conclusions: The mortality of patients with moderate to severe PARDS is high, and immunodeficiency, no use of PS and OI on the third day after PARDS identified are the independent risk factors related to mortality. The OI on the third day after PARDS identified could be used to predict mortality.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Child, Preschool , Infant , Child , Critical Illness , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy
18.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 578-581, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982789

ABSTRACT

Myoepithelioma, also known as malignant myoepithelioma, is a rare malignant tumor originating from myoepithelial cell. This article reports a patient with a huge tumor in the neck and left elbow who underwent fine needle aspiration under local anesthesia. The pathological diagnosis was a myoepithelioma. Under general anesthesia, giant tumors in the lower neck, posterior cranial fossa, neck, and left elbow were removed, and postoperative pathology showed that they were all myoepithelial tumors. Immunohistochemistry showed AE1/AE3 (+), P63 (+), CK7 (+), CK5 (+), and CD138 (+). The clinical characteristics and diagnosis and treatment process of this case are reported and relevant literature is reviewed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myoepithelioma/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Epithelial Cells , Neck/pathology , Carcinoma
19.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 307-310, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982738

ABSTRACT

Neuroendocrine carcinoma(NEC) is a malignant tumor derived from neuroendocrine cells, with distinct clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the head and neck is very rare in clinic. Larynx is the most common affected site, and the root of the tongue is extremely rare. The clinical manifestations are mainly eating pain, cauliflower like mass in the mouth, and ulcerative lesions that have not healed for a long time. Maxillofacial MRI and contrastenhanced CT are the most commonly used examination tools for such diseases, which can detect the spaceoccupying lesions of tumors. Neuroendocrine granules found in the cytoplasm under pathological light microscope can be diagnosed as neuroendocrine carcinoma. However, for most cases, it is difficult to make a diagnosis only under light microscope, and it is often necessary to make a diagnosis by means of immunohistochemistry and other technical means. This paper reports a case of neuroendocrine carcinoma of the root of the tongue, introduces its characteristics, diagnosis and treatment, and reviews the relevant literature of this case.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/pathology , Tongue , Neck/pathology , Larynx/pathology , Mouth/pathology
20.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 562-575, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982577

ABSTRACT

The Omicron family of SARS-CoV-2 variants are currently driving the COVID-19 pandemic. Here we analyzed the clinical laboratory test results of 9911 Omicron BA.2.2 sublineages-infected symptomatic patients without earlier infection histories during a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Shanghai in spring 2022. Compared to an earlier patient cohort infected by SARS-CoV-2 prototype strains in 2020, BA.2.2 infection led to distinct fluctuations of pathophysiological markers in the peripheral blood. In particular, severe/critical cases of COVID-19 post BA.2.2 infection were associated with less pro-inflammatory macrophage activation and stronger interferon alpha response in the bronchoalveolar microenvironment. Importantly, the abnormal biomarkers were significantly subdued in individuals who had been immunized by 2 or 3 doses of SARS-CoV-2 prototype-inactivated vaccines, supporting the estimation of an overall 96.02% of protection rate against severe/critical disease in the 4854 cases in our BA.2.2 patient cohort with traceable vaccination records. Furthermore, even though age was a critical risk factor of the severity of COVID-19 post BA.2.2 infection, vaccination-elicited protection against severe/critical COVID-19 reached 90.15% in patients aged ≽ 60 years old. Together, our study delineates the pathophysiological features of Omicron BA.2.2 sublineages and demonstrates significant protection conferred by prior prototype-based inactivated vaccines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Vaccination
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