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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 972-979, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928016

ABSTRACT

The present study analyzed and identified the chemical constituents from ethyl acetate(EA) extract of Taxilli Herba with UPLC-Q-Exactive-MS and screened active xanthine oxidase(XO) inhibitors with HPLC. The analysis was performed on an Hypersil GOLD C_(18) reversed-phase column(2.1 mm×50 mm, 1.9 μm), with the mobile phase of water containing 1% formic acid(A) and methanol(B) under gradient elution, the flow rate of 0.3 mL·min~(-1), and the injection volume of 5 μL. ESI source was used for MS and the compounds were collected in positive and negative ion modes. Xcalibur 4.1 was used to analyze the retention time, accurate relative molecular weight, and fragmentation of the compounds. The inhibitory activity of some known compounds on XO was screened by HPLC. Thirty chemical constituents were identified, including phenolic acids and flavonoids by experimental data combined with information of standards, data reported previously, and databases, such as MzCloud and ChemSpider. The activities of 10 chemical components were screened. Gallic acid and naringenin chalcone had strong inhibitory activities on XO with IC_(50) of 57 μg·mL~(-1) and 108 μg·mL~(-1). UPLC-Q-Exactive-MS allows the accurate, rapid, and comprehensive identification of main chemical constituents from Taxilli Herba. Gallic acid and naringenin chalcone may be the active components of XO inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Acetates , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Xanthine Oxidase
2.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 272-282, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940478

ABSTRACT

Andrographolide, a diterpene lactone, is the important material basis for the pharmacological effect of the Chinese medicinal Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.)Nees. Modern pharmacological research has shown that andrographolide has many pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammation, bacteriostat, anti-virus, anti-tumor, protecting liver, promoting the function of gallbladder, and protecting the cardiovascular system and nervous system. It has significant anti-inflammatory activity which involves multiple targets. To be specific, it can inhibit nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and other signaling pathways, reduce the synthesis and release of downstream inflammatory mediators, and regulate oxidative stress and immune response to achieve anti-inflammatory effect on various inflammatory diseases. At the same time, it suppresses a variety of tumor cells by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, blocking cell cycle, and inducing tumor cell apoptosis. Its anti-tumor mechanism involves cellular signaling pathways such as Notch, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt), NF-κB, and secreted glycoprotein/β-catenin (Wnt/β-catenin). In addition, it can also alleviate diabetes by regulating glucose metabolism. According to related research, it often exerts pharmacological effects through multiple pathways and multiple targets, but the specific targets are unclear. Therefore, this article summarizes the relevant studies on the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of andrographolide in the past three years and puts forward the future research directions, which is expected to serve as a reference for the further in-depth research and development and utilization of andrographolide.

3.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 273-282, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940379

ABSTRACT

The incidence and mortality of cancer are increasing year by year, seriously threatening human health. At present, the chemotherapy-based treatment of cancer can prolong the survival time of patients, but its severe side effects and adverse reactions often lead to poor prognosis. Therefore, searching for anti-cancer drugs with high efficiency and low toxicity has become the focus of clinical attention from all over the world. The effective components of Chinese medicine have the advantages of mild side effect and multi-target regulation, and their anti-tumor activities are highly favored by many researchers. Shikonin, a naphthoquinone compound, is the main effective component of Arnebiae Radix, with anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and other pharmacological effect. Studies have shown that shikonin possesses significant anti-tumor activities against a variety of tumor cells, and it can inhibit the development of many cancers, such as breast cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer. The anti-tumor mechanism of shikonin is mainly related to multi-pathway and multi-target inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, the promotion of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, induction of tumor cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and tumor cell autophagy, and the inhibition of tumor cell migration and invasion. In addition, shikonin can increase the sensitivity of tumor cells to anti-tumor drugs and reverse the drug resistance of tumor cells. The signaling pathways involved in the anti-tumor effect of shikonin include phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt), PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), pyruvate kinase M2/signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3 (PKM2/STAT3), and Kelch-like epichlorohydrin-related protein 1/nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Keap1/Nrf2). The anti-tumor effects are mainly achieved through the regulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Based on the relevant literature on the anti-tumor effect and mechanism of shikonin in China and abroad, the present study reviewed the research progress in the past three years to provide useful references for the further study of the anti-tumor effect of shikonin and the research and development of new antineoplastic drugs.

4.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 241-250, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905950

ABSTRACT

Polydatin, a polyphenolic compound, is the main active component of Chinese medicine Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma et Radix and has a variety of pharmacological activities. In recent years, there are more studies on the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of polydatin. Modern pharmacological studies show that polydatin has protective effects on the nervous system, cardio-cerebral vascular system, and respiratory system, and also has significant effects on the liver, kidney, lung, and other organs. Its effect of regulating blood glucose and blood lipid on atherosclerosis is significant, and the anti-fibrosis effect is significant on the liver and kidney. Polydatin can inhibit many types of tumor cells, suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. Polydatin can also resist inflammation and radiation, protect bone marrow, and promote wound healing. Based on the literature on the pharmacological effects of polydatin, the authors found that the single pharmacological mechanism of polydatin is often regulated by multi-target proteins and multiple pathways, but the most of action targets are unclear, which needs to be further investigated. This study summarized the research progress on the pharmacological action and mechanism of polydatin in the past five years and put forward some suggestions on its present research situation and future research direction to broaden the research ideas of researchers and speed up the identification of the targets of its pharmacological effect. This study is expected to provide a scientific theoretical basis for the further development and utilization of polydatin.

5.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 68-76, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872761

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the therapeutic effect and mechanism of Chaihu Yueju decoction on model rats induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Method:The 60 SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, Chaihu Yueju decoction low, medium and high-dose groups(0.3, 0.6, 1.2 g·kg-1) and fluoxetine hydrochloride group(0.2 mg·kg-1), 10 for each group. The model rats was established by chronic unpredictable mild stress for 5 weeks, and then Chaihu Yueju decoction and fluoxetine hydrochloride were given to the corresponding treatment group by gavage for 3 weeks. In the last week of gavage, Morris water maze training and testing were conducted. After the last day of gavage, sugar water preference and other behavioral experiment were tested. The sugar water preference test was used to detect the degree of pleasure deficiency in rats before and after treatment, the open field test was used to detect the depression of rats before and after treatment, the spatial memory ability was tested by Morris water maze. Western blot was used to detect the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (5-HT1A), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and synapse associated protein in hippocampus of each group, Gloji and Nissl staining was used to observe the changes of dendritic spines and Nissl bodies in the hippocampus CA3. Result:Compared with normal group, the weight, sugar water preference rate, the scores of horizontal and vertical movement were significantly reduced (P<0.05), and the immobility time was significantly prolonged in model group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the ability of learning and memory in model group decreased (P<0.05). Western blot results showed that the levels of TNF-α was significantly increased (P<0.05), and the levels of 5-HT1A, p-ERK, cyclic adenosine phosphate reactive element binding protein (CREB), p-CREB, Synapsin-1,Synaptophysin, glutamate receptor subtype-1(GluR-1)and postsynaptic membrane protein-95(PSD-95) in model group were significantly decreased (P<0.05). Gloji and Nissl staining results showed that the density of dendritic spines and the number of Nissl body in the hippocampal CA3 of the model group was obviously attenuate (P<0.05). The results show that the neurons were evidently damaged. Compared with model group, the weight, sugar water preference rate, the scores of horizontal and vertical movement were clearly increased (P<0.05) and the immobility time was significantly shortened in fluoxetine hydrochloride group, middle dose and high dose Chaihu Yueju decoction group (P<0.05). Western blot results showed that the levels of synaptophysin, GluR-1 and PSD-95 were significantly increased in fluoxetine hydrochloride group, middle dose and high dose Chaihu Yueju decoction group. The level of TNF-α was significantly decreased (P<0.05), the levels of 5-HT1A, p-ERK, CREB, p-CREB and Synapsin-1 were remarkably increased (P<0.05), especially the high dose group of Chaihu Yueju decoction. Gloji and Nissl staining results showed that the density of dendritic spines and the number of Nissl body in the hippocampal CA3 of high dose group were similarly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion:Chaihu Yueju decoction could improves the weight, the depressive despair, autonomous activity ability and learning and memory ability of DP model rats. Its mechanism is closely related to attenuating the inflammatory reaction and enhancing the levels of 5-HT1A receptor protein, ERK and synapse related protein, then activating 5-HT/CREB and ERK/CREB signaling pathways, increasing the number and distribution of dendritic spines and repairing damaged neurons in the DP model rat's hippocampus.

6.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 1268-1275, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-705188

ABSTRACT

Aim To assess the effects of Trillium Tschonoskii Maxim ( TTM) decoction on learning and memory dysfunction in Alzheimer’ s disease ( AD ) model rats which induced by okadaic acid( OA) and its possible mechanism. Methods The SD rats were di-vided into ten groups,namely,d DMSO control group, OA group, TTM high-dose ( 0. 5 g·kg-1·d-1) group,TTM medium-dose ( 1 g·kg-1·d-1) group, TTM lower-dose (2 g·kg-1·d-1) group,and these groups were divided into one week and two weeks of gavage. Treatment groups were gavaged with TTM de-coction twice a day. After 5 days of Morris water maze training,treatment groups and AD model groups were injected with OA (0.392 mmol·L-1,1. 5 μL) in bi-lateral hippocampal of the rats. The DMSO groups were injected with 10% DMSO. The spatial memory reten- tion wereas detected by water maze at 24 h after injec-tion. After the test, we prepared sample for Western blot and Nissl’s staining. The Western blotting test was used to detect the PP2A activity and the phospho-rylation of Tau protein in the hippocampus. Nissl’'s staining was used to observe the changes of the number of Nissl’s bodies in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 re-gions. Results The Morris water maze test showed that after injection of OA, the latency of TTM groups wereas shorter than that of OA groups. Western blot showed that the high dose TTM could increase the ac-tivity of PP2A and decrease the level of Tau phospho-rylation at PS-Tau396,,PT-Tau404. The Nissl’s stai-ning results showed that the number of Nissl’s bodies in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions of OA groups wereas significantly attenuated compared with that of the number of Nissl's bodies in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions than DMSO groups. The number of Nissl’s bodies in high groups were morewas larger than that of OA group. Conclusion The results show that TTM can improve the learning and memory dysfunction in AD model rats which induced by OA. The mecha- nism wasis probably that TTM can increase PP2A ac-tivity and then down-regulate the level of Tau phospho-rylation and improve neural development.

7.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 775-784, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-705126

ABSTRACT

Aim To assess the effects of Trillium Tschonoskii Maxim ( TTM ) decoction on Tau protein phosphorylation and synaptic development in AD model rats induced by high activity GSK-3β. Methods The SD rats were divided into five groups of ten animals, named sham-operated group ( blank group) , AD model group, TTM group (0. 5, 0. 25, 0. 125 g·kg-1 · d-1 ) . Treatment group received gavage once a day for seven days with TTM decoction, while other groups by gavage once a day for seven days with drinking water. On 2nd day by gavage, Morris water maze test was used to assess the spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. After five days' training, rats in the treat-ment groups and AD model group were injected wort-mannin ( WT, PI3K specific inhibitor ) and GF-109203X (GFX, PKC specific inhibitor) (100 μmol ·L-1 of each, total volume of 10 μL) into the right lateral ventricle. Western blot was used to detect the levels of phosphorylation Tau protein at multiple sites and the expression level of PI3K, Akt, PKC, GSK-3β(S9, T216) and synapse-associated proteins. Immu-nohistochemical method was used to detect the hyper-phosphorylation of Tau protein in hippocampus of rats. Golgi staining was applied to detect the number and morphological changes of synaptic development and dendritic spines. Nissl' s staining was employed to ob-serve the development of neonatal neurons in hippo-campus and cortex. Results Western blot showed that the phosphorylation level of Tau in hippocampus increased in model group, and the activity of GSK-3βwas up-regulated. Among them, however, in middle dose TTM group, the phosphorylation level of Tau in hippocampus decreased and the activity of GSK-3βde-creased. The expression levels of p-PKC and p-Akt in low and middle dose treatment group were higher than those in model group, thus increasing the activity of PKC and Akt to inhibit the activity of GSK-3β kinase. Immunohistochemistry also indicated that TTM could decrease the biological effects of Tau phosphorylation in hippocampus of AD rats. Western blot showed that TTM could increase the expression levels of synapsin-1 , syn-aptophysin and GluR-1 in hippocampus of AD rats. Nissl staining showed that the number of Nissl bodies in hippocampal neurons of AD model group were signif-icantly fewer than those of sham operation group, which could be increased by TTM middle and high dose group, and the complexity and dendritic spine density of hippocampal neurons in AD rats could be en-hanced as well. Conclusion TTM can effectively im-prove the cognitive function of AD rats induced by the increase of GSK-3β activity, and its possible mecha-nism may be via down-regulating the activity of GSK-3β and inhibiting the phosphorylation of tau protein and promoting the development of neurons.

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