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1.
Journal of Public Health and Preventive Medicine ; (6): 74-78, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005910

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the potential effect and mechanism of curcumin in inhibiting synaptic injury in the cortex of rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham-operated group, model group, low-dose curcumin (50 mg/kg) group, and high-dose curcumin (100 mg/kg) group. A model of middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 hours and reperfusion for 24 hours was constructed, and curcumin was administered. Based on the neurological function score, the effects of curcumin on cerebral infarct volume, synaptic ultrastructure changes, inflammatory cell infiltration, and the expression of NLRP3, Caspase-1, Synapsin1, and CAMKⅡ were observed after the end of the animal treatment. Results The neurological function scores were 0, 3.25±0.43, 2.50±0.50, and 1.50±0.50 for the sham-operated group, model group, low-dose curcumin group, and high-dose curcumin group, respectively. The percentage of cerebral infarct volume was 0, (38.89±2.21)%, (33.48±1.77)%, and (23.69±2.19)%, respectively. Compared with the sham operation group, the model group had severe synaptic ultrastructure damage, extensive inflammatory cell infiltration, significantly increased expression of Caspase-1 and NLRP3 (P < 0.5), and significantly decreased expression of Synapsin1 and CAMKⅡ (P < 0.5). Curcumin treatment significantly inhibited synaptic damage, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, decreased the expression of Caspase-1 and NLRP3 (P < 0.5), and increased the expression of Synapsin1 and CAMKII (P < 0.5), when compared with the model group. Conclusion Ischemia-reperfusion-mediated synaptic injury in rat brain triggers an inflammatory response in cortical nerve cells, and curcumin alleviates synaptic damage and reduces brain injury by inhibiting inflammatory factor levels.

2.
Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion ; (12): 637-641, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004802

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 To analyze the commonality and characteristics between voluntary blood donors and hematopoietic stem cell donors in this region, and explore the potential for integration and development between China Marrow Donors Program (CMDP) and voluntary blood donors, especially platelet donor databases, so as to improve recruitment success rate and inventory rate. 【Methods】 The database modeling and comparison methods were used to screen and stratify the matching and integration degree between the voluntary blood donors in recent 10 years and the marrow donors in the Shaanxi Branch of CMDP. The frequencies of HLA-A,-B alleles, HPA alleles and haplotypes were calculated with Arlequin 3. 5. 2. 2 software, and the matching probability of different platelet donor reserve pools was conducted according to the phenotypic frequencies. 【Results】 Among the voluntary donors with known HLA genotypes in this region, according to their blood donation behavior,the active blood donors excavated were divided into the first, second, third and fourth echelons of platelet donor reserve pools, with 696, 2 752, 9 092 and 12 028 donors, respectively. The first echelon had the highest proportion of 10-50 times of platelet donations and 10-20 times of whole blood donations, with 13.65% and 26.01%, respectively. The second echelon had 10-20 times of whole blood donations and 10-50 times of platelet donations, accounted for 15.04% and 1.38%, respectively, which were significantly different from other echelons' blood donation characteristics (P<0.05). With a database size of the existing platelet donor bank adding the first and second echelons (n=4 955), there was a 69.02% probability of matching at least one donor with matching HLA-A-B phenotype. When considering the matching ABO and HPA phenotypes, the probability of finding at least one donor with fully matching HLA, HPA and ABO isotype (type B as an example) was 48. 73%. 【Conclusion】 The three groups of whole blood donation, apheresis platelet donation and marrow donation in Xi'an area have a large cross-distribution. Compared with expanding the storage capacity from scratch, the active blood donors in CMDP database are the largest back-up force of platelet donors. While expanding the effective storage capacity, it can minimize the cost of building platelet donor bank and the demand for resources.

3.
Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion ; (12): 774-776, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004738

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 To study the relationship between the plasma IgG, IgM, neutralizing antibody titer and sex, age, collection interval in convalescent patients with COVID-19, so as to guide the plasma collection of convalescent patients with COVID-19. 【Methods】 COVID-19 convalescent plasma was collected to determine the antibody titer, and the difference and correlation of data in each group were analyzed by SPSS statistical analysis software. 【Results】 The median titers (AU/mL)of IgG, IgM and neutralizing antibodies in males and females were 484.24 vs 516.04, 2.13 vs 1.73, and 1 124.74 vs 1 143.99, respectively, and there was no significant difference(P>0.05) . Age had weak positive correlation with IgG and neutralizing antibody, and the Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.188 (P<0.05). The median titers (AU/mL) of IgG, IgM and neutralizing antibody at first donation of 30 repeated donors were 522.3, 2.64 and 1 174.6, respectively, but at second donation were 332.08, 0.63 and 708.96, showing significant difference (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 There was no significant difference in the plasma IgG, IgM and neutralizing antibody titers in convalescent COVID-19 patients of different ages and genders, and the titers met the requirements of clinical treatment guidelines. Although the plasma antibody level of repeated donors has decreased, it still has clinical value.

4.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 212-220, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953942

ABSTRACT

By reviewing the relevant literature of ancient herbal works and modern codices, this paper sorted out the historical evolution and developmental venation of processing of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma. On this basis, the modern research of processed products of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma was used as the breakthrough point to analyze the literature in terms of processing technology, chemical composition changes and changes in pharmacological effects before and after processing. According to the research status of processing of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, some existing problems were analyzed in this paper, such as not many ancient processing methods used in modern time, lack of standardized research on processing technology. And saponins, polysaccharides, amino acids, flavonoids and other chemical components in Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma may change to different degrees before and after processing, which was the main reason for the difference of efficacy before and after processing. However, the current research on the pharmacological effects of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma mainly focuses on raw products, resulting in a lack of in-depth research on the transformation mechanism of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma in processing difference, and the scientific connotation of "Shengxiao Shubu" has not been clearly elaborated, which is not conducive to the standardized clinical use of drugs. Therefore, it is necessary to further analyze the material basis of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and its processed products, and to explore the change rule of chemical components before and after processing and its correlation with pharmacodynamic activity, so as to clarify the processing mechanism for providing scientific basis for its standardized processing, quality control and clinical rational use.

5.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 134-143, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953933

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the relative content changes of differential metabolites and reducing sugars during the processing process of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata (RRP) processed with Amomi Fructus (AF) and Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (CRP), and to lay the foundation for revealing the processing principle of this characteristic variety. MethodThe samples of the 0-54 h processing process of RRP processed with AF and CRP were taken as the research object, and their secondary metabolites were detected by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). The 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-acetonitrile (B) was used as the mobile phase for gradient elution (0-1 min, 1%-3%B; 1-10 min, 3%-9%B; 10-15 min, 9%-12%B; 15-22 min, 12%-18%B; 22-31 min, 18%-24%B; 31-35 min, 24%-100%B; 35-36 min, 100%-5%B; 36-40 min, 5%-1%B; 40-45 min, 1%B), column temperature was 40 ℃, injection volume was 3 μL, flow rate was 0.3 mL·min-1. Electrospray ionization (ESI) was used to scan and collect MS data in the negative ion mode, the scanning range was m/z 50-1 250. Data analysis was carried out using PeakView 1.2 software, and the chemical composition of RRP processed with AF and CRP was identified by combining the literature information and chemical composition databases. The MS data were normalized by MarkerView 1.2, and then the multivariate statistical analysis was applied to screen the differential metabolites, and the changes of the relative contents of the differential metabolites with different processing times was analyzed, finally, correlation analysis was performed between the differential metabolites, the change of the reducing sugar content was combined to determine the most suitable processing time of RRP processed with AF and CRP. ResultA total of 121 compounds were identified from RRP processed with AF and CRP at different processing times, and 12 differential metabolites were screened out by multivariate statistical analysis, including catalpol, hesperidin, isoacteoside, acteoside, narirutin, echinacoside, isomartynoside, decaffeoylacteoside, 6-O-E-feruloylajugol, dihydroxy-7-O-neohesperidin, jionoside D, and rehmapicroside. With the prolongation of processing time, the relative contents of these 12 differential metabolites and reducing sugars changed slightly at 52-54 h. ConclusionUPLC-Q-TOF-MS can comprehensively and accurately identify the chemical constituents of RRP processed with AF and CRP at different processing times, and the suitable processing time of 52-54 h is determined according to the content changes of different metabolites and reducing sugars, which provides a basis for revealing the scientific connotation of the processing principle of this variety.

6.
Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion ; (12): 799-804, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004167

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 To evaluate the appropriate optimal capacity and matching probability of the platelet donor database with known HLA/HPA genotype in Shaanxi aera, and provide data support for subsequent construction, maintenance and application of the local platelet donor database. 【Methods】 A total of 11 755 individuals from the Shaanxi Branch of China Marrow Donor Program, 401 and 249 unrelated random platelet donors in Shaanxi aera were enrolled to the population study of HLA-A, -B polymorphisms, HPA genotyping and CD36 antigen expression, respectively. The frequencies of HLA-A, -B alleles, HPA alleles and haplotypes were calculated with Arlequin 3. 5. 2. 2 software; matching probability and capacity evaluation of platelet donor database was conducted according to the phenotypic frequencies. 【Results】 The population genetic and phenotypic polymorphisms data of HLA-A, -B and HPA1-6, 10, 15, 21 in Shaanxi aera were obtained. The frequency of CD36 type Ⅰ or Ⅱ deficiency was 0.40%(1/249). According to the subsequent calculating and deriving, with a database size of 194 donors, the patient having approximate 95% probability could achieve matching of HPA1-6, 10, 15, 21 genotype. With a database size of 1500 donors, there is a 95% probability of matching at least one donor with HLA-A-B phenotype frequency >0.002 or haplotype frequency >0.001; meanwhile, the probability of matching a cross-reactive group donor should be 44.95%-97.57%. Based on database size of 8 856 and 15 033, the probabilities of matching HLA-A, -B phenotype were about 80% and 90%, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The differences in the distribution of HLA/HPA polymorphism in different regions make the establishment mode and optimal capacity of platelet donor database different. It is necessary to apply a variety of platelet matching transfusion strategies to expand the range of donor selection, thereby effectively reducing the database construction cost and resource requirements.

7.
Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion ; (12): 117-119, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004611

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 Tostudy the effect of ABO blood group on the FⅧ∶C and Fib content in human plasma, so as to provide the oretical guidance for the quality control of fresh plasma products and the establishment of relevant quality standards. 【Methods】 Samples determined included fresh plasma collected and fresh plasma separated manually. The FⅧ∶C and Fib content were determined by coagulation method. The exon6 of ABO gene was amplified and sequenced to determine the genotype. 【Results】 The FⅧ∶C in fresh plasma collected was (147.421±45.773)%, and that in fresh plasma separated manually was (119.083±35.130)%, showing significant differences(P0.05). The FⅧ∶C in non-O type (A, B, AB type) fresh plasma collected and fresh plasma separated manually were (167.048±40.862)% and (129.251±33.503)%, respectively, significantly higher than that in O type fresh plasma collected and fresh plasma separated manually as(121.386±38.632)% and (91.589±22.328)%, respectively. The Fib contents in non-O type fresh plasma collected and fresh plasma separated manually were (2.242±0.385)g/L and (2.329±0.472)g/L, respectively. The Fib contents in O type fresh plasma collected and fresh plasma separated manually were (2.287±0.370)g/L and (2.307±0.462)g/L, respectively, and no significant difference was noticed (P>0.05). 【Conclusion】 There was no significant correlation between Fib content and ABO blood group, while FⅧ∶C was significantly correlated with ABO blood group. In the preparation and quality control of FⅧ related blood products, the effect of ABO blood group on the FⅧ∶C should be considered, and the quality standard of FⅧ in plasma products should be established based on the ABO blood group.

8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1048-1051, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-797766

ABSTRACT

Yersiniosis is one of the "other infectious diarrhea" of the notifiable infectious diseases and also an important food-borne disease. However, it lacked the basis or standard for diagnosis. The Chinese Preventive Medicine Association coordinated experienced researchers from National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC and other institutes to produce the group standard entitled "Diagnosis of Yersiniosis" (T/CPMA 005-2019). Based on the principle of "legality, scientificity, advancement, and feasibility" , the standard gives a clear definition for Yerisiniosis, stipulates diagnosis basis, principles and main differential diagnosis and provides two informative appendixes for epidemiological and clinical characteristics and a normative appendix for laboratory detection. The standard provides accurate basis and methods of Yersiniosis diagnosis for hospitals and CDCs at all levels in China. It will solve the problems that Yersiniosis cannot be clearly diagnosed for clinical cases and in the outbreaks.

9.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1072-1077, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-807574

ABSTRACT

Campylobacter is a major cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. While mortality is low when people was infected with Campylobacter, morbidity imparted by post-infectious sequelae such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome is significantly noteworthy. Although fluoroquinolones and macrolides were the first line drug for the treatment of Campylobacter infections, there is a tough challenge in clinical treatment with high antimicrobial resistant rate and multi antimicrobial resistance arise. Based on the latest literature acquired in this work, we have chosen five classes of antibiotics always used in clinical, and discussed antibiotic resistance mechanisms and transmission of Campylobacter, in order to provide proper therapy both in the veterinary and human populations, and support basis data for the development of new drugs.

10.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1067-1071, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-807573

ABSTRACT

The mechanism of antimicrobial resistance transmission mediated by mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in Staphylococcus aureus is highly complicated, leading a significant challenge for controlling the spread of the resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Based on the latest literature acquired in this work, we have overviewed the transmission mechanism of antimicrobial resistance encoding MGEs. It is notably that there are a number of MGEs, which may encode different antimicrobial resistance determinants and possess specific transmission mechanism. In spite of this specificity of the strains to their host (human or animal), some Staphylococcus aureus strains can be transmitted from animals to humans or vice versa. This ability of cross staphylococci transfer is an additional means to acquire new genetic material encoded by MGE. It was suggested in this review that study on transmission mechanism of MGEs mediated antimicrobial resistance genes could provide important biological information of their spreading and effectively help prevent and control of the resistant strains and/or resistance genes among human, animals and ecologies.

11.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 372-377, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806447

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To obtain the serotype diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates recovered from retail chicken carcasses for sale in six regions of China.@*Methods@#From August 2010 to March 2012, each month 20 retail chicken carcasses including freshly slaughtered, chilled and frozen samples were collected from supermarkets and farmer's markets in 7 monitoring sites in Beijing, Jilin province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous, Shanxi province, Jiangsu province and Guangdong province, respectively. Samples were routinely collected for 12 months for each site. 1 680 chicken carcasses were collected in total and 2 629 Salmonella strains were isolated by PCR and biochemical method. Luminex xMAP method and classical slide agglutination method were carried out to determine isolates' serotypes. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 10 classes of antimicrobials including 14 agents were determined using broth micro-dilution method. Mocular methods were used to determine antimicrobial resistance genes of CIP-CTX-CT co-resistant isolates.@*Results@#In all, 2 629 Salmonella isolates, there were 17 seorgroups and 58 serotypes, B and D1 were the dominant serogroups with rates of 34.7% (n=913) and 31.0% (n=815), Enteritidis (30.8%, n=810), Indiana (17.6%, n=463), Infantis (10.6%, n=278) were the top three serovars. We found 224 CIP-CTX co-resistant S. Indiana containing 3 colistin resistant strains, one of them carrying mcr-1 gene and being ESBLs positive, which demonstrated a nine multi drug resistance against 11 antimicrobials tested.@*Conclusion@#These data began to describe the complicated serovar diversity and heavy antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates recovered from retail chicken carcasses in six regions of China. The findings highlight the emergence of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime co-resistant S. Indiana and also a mcr-1 positive S. Indiana with heavy multi drug resistance.

12.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 364-371, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806446

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyses the antimicrobial resistance and molecular characterization of 21 MRSA isolates cultured from retail foods from different provinces in China, and evaluate the molecular typing methods.@*Methods@#Twenty-one MRSA isolates were obtained from national foodborne pathogen surveillance network in 2012 (Chinese salad, n=3; milk, n=1; cake, n=2; rice, n=1; cold noodle, n=1; spiced beef, n=1; dumpling, n=1; packed meal, n=1; salad, n=1; raw pork, n=9). The antimicrobial resistance of 21 strains to 12 antimicrobial agents was tested by broth dilution method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were performed to obtain the genetic types of MLST (ST) and spa typing. The clonal complex (CC) was assigned by eBURST soft and the MLVA type (MT) and MLVA complex (MC) were identified via the database of the MLVA website (http://www.mlva.net). SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (SmaⅠ-PFGE) was also carried out to obtain the PFGE patterns of 21 strains. The genetic diversity and discriminatory power of typing were calculated by the Simpson's index of diversity (diversity index, DI) to find out the best genotyping method for MRSA.@*Results@#All MRSA isolates showed multi-drug resistance(MDR), and were resistant to oxacillin, benzylpenicillin, clindamycin and erythromycin, and 71.4% (15/21), 47.6% (10/21), 42.9% (9/21) and 28.6% (6/21) of the MRSA isolates were resistant to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and gentamicin, respectively. Moreover, one strain was found to be resistant to all three antimicrobials of levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and rifampicin. Great diversity was found in these food-associated MRSA (6 STs, 7 spa types, and 9 MTs). PFGE patterns were more diverse than those of other three molecular typing methods (19 pulse types). The index of diversity (DI) of PFGE, MLVA, spa typing and MLST was 0.99, 0.80, 0.73, and 0.61, respectively. Among the MRSA isolates, CC9-ST9-t899-MT929-MC2236 (PFGE Cluster Ⅴ) was the most prevalent clone, which were all cultured from raw pork (9 isolates). Besides, two MRSA were identified as CC59-ST338-t437-MT621-MC621 (PFGE Cluster Ⅳ). Different clone had their own resistance spectrum profiles.@*Conclusion@#The food-borne MRSA isolates were all MDR in this study. Different clones had their own resistance spectrum profiles. MLVA represented a promising tool for molecular epidemiology tracing of MRSA in foodborne disease events.

13.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 358-363, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806445

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To monitor the antimicrobial resistance and drug-resistance genes of Yersinia enterocolitis, Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii recovered from retailed fresh poultry of 4 provinces of China.@*Methods@#The susceptibility of 25 isolated Yersinia spp. to 14 classes and 25 kinds of antibiotics was determined by broth microdilution method according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute). The antibiotic resistance genes were predicted with antibiotic resistance genes database (ARDB) using whole genome sequences of Yersinia spp.@*Results@#In all 22 Y. enterocolitis tested, 63.7% (14 isolates), 22.8% (5 isolates), 4.6% and 4.6% of 1 isolates exhibited the resistance to cefoxitin, ampicillin-sulbactam, nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. All the 25 isolates were multi-drug resistant to more than 3 antibiotics, while 64.0% of isolates were resistant to more than 4 antibiotics. A few Y. enterocolitis isolates of this study were intermediate to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. Most Yersinia spp. isolates contained antibiotic resistance genes mdtG, ksgA, bacA, blaA, rosAB and acrB, and 5 isolates recovered from fresh chicken also contained dfrA1, catB2 and ant3ia.@*Conclusion@#The multi-drug resistant Yersinia spp. isolated from retailed fresh poultry is very serious in the 4 provinces of China, and their contained many kinds of drug-resistance genes.

14.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 129-133, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806136

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Laboratory-based characterization and traceability were performed on an outbreak of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) happened in a maternal and child health care hospital in China.@*Methods@#Thirty-seven samples were collected from 3 NEC cases, that the clinical manifestations was bloody stools. Clostridium spp. isolation and identification were carried out on stool, breast milk, milk-based infant powder and environmental swab samples collected during NEC outbreak from October to November in 2016. Meanwhile, twenty-four swabs samples from ward environmental, staffs' hand as well as articles for neonates daily use were also collected and tested for Clostridium spp. after disinfection following outbreak. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis was performed on all Clostridium strains obtained.@*Results@#46% (17/37) samples were positive for a presumptive Clostridium spp. during the outbreak of NEC. One type of Clostridium spp. isolates was cultured from 10 samples including the hands of medical staffs, some medical equipments in the ward and milk-based infant powder ingested by the case, it was identified as C.butyricum. Another type of Clostridium spp. isolates was cultured from 2 samples including breast milk and inner wall of breast milk fresh-keeping bag, it was identified as C.sporogens. Both of these two types isolates were cultured from 5 samples including inner wall of breast milk box, inner wall of refrigerator, the handle of case's incubator and the case's stool. PFGE analysis showed that all 15 strains of C. butyricum and 7 strains of C.sporogens isolated from the samples mentioned above produced indistinguishable pulsotypes respectively. No NEC cases were found after disinfection following the outbreak and all samples collected after outbreak were negative for Clostridium spp.@*Conclusion@#The outbreak of NEC was highly related to C. butyricum contamination within the hospital.

15.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 610-614, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809061

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular characteristics of ESBL-encoding conjugative plasmid identified in muti-drug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from food.@*Methods@#465 Escherichia coli isolates were collected from national foodborne disease surveillance net from 2013 to 2014 (salad, n=159; meat, n=102; processed meat, n=95; cakes/rice, n=46; cooked dish, n=63). ESBLs strain was detected by Mueller-Hinton agar plate, and then its drug resistance was tested by agar dilution method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were performed to identify the corresponding ESBL genes. Plasmids were typed by PCR-based replicon typing and their characteristics were determined by S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis method. Broth mating assays were carried out for all isolates to determine whether the ESBL marker could be transferred by conjugation.@*Results@#12 E. coli were found to be resistant to cefotaxime, and all of which were confirmed as ESBLs. The 12 isolates all carried different types of CTX-M genes resistant to drug, and 7 of which carried TEM type as well. All 12 isolates contained at least one plasmid and some had four plasmids, with size ranging from 47-to 220-kb by S1-PFGE anaylsis. Seven isolates demonstrated the ability to transfer their cefotaxime resistance marker to the recotper strain J53 by only one plasmid.@*Conclusion@#This study highlights the diversity of the multi-drug resistant E. coli and also the diversity of ESBL genes in China. Plasmids carrying these genes poses a serious threat to food safety in China.

16.
Chinese Journal of Food Hygiene ; (6): 393-399, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-607685

ABSTRACT

Objective This study was to understand the structure characteristics of prophages in the genome of Enterococcus hirae R17,and also to analyze their interaction relationships with the host bacterium.Methods The gene distribution and gene encoding characteristics of prophages in the genome of Enterococcus hirae R17 were identified using the PHAST software.The virulence gene,antimicrobial resistance genes,and environmental resistance genes in the prophages were also analyzed.Results Three prophages were found on the chromosome of Enterococcus hirae,including two incomplete prophage elements (Prophage-1 and Prophage-2) and one complete prophage (Prophage-3).Some function genes of bacteria were found in the sequence of three prophages,including nucleotide transportation and metabolism related genes.One incomplete prophage carrying erythromycin-and bacitracin-resistance genes was identified in the plasmid,which suggested that prophage induced gene horizontal transfer caused erythromycin-and bacitracin-resistance of Enterococcus hirae R17.Conclusion This study laid a solid foundation for the diversity analysis of prophages of Enterococcus hirae.Prophages played an important role in promotion of antimicrobial resistance of enterococci.Scientists should pay more attention to the spread of antimicrobial resistance and pathogenicity induced by prophages.

17.
Chinese Journal of Food Hygiene ; (6): 508-513, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-607668

ABSTRACT

Classification,toxicity and determination method progress especially the pretreatment and limit of quantitation of beauvericin (BEA) and 4 main kinds of enniatins (ENNs) including enniatins A (ENA),enniatins A1 (ENA1),enniatins B (ENB) and enniatins B1 (ENB1) in food were introduced.The contamination levels of BEA,4 kinds of ENNs and their co-occurrence mycotoxins in food from Spain,Morocco,Italy,Japan and some other countries were analyzed.Establishment of high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) determination method for the complex food matrix was suggested.

18.
Chinese Medical Ethics ; (6): 132-134, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-461528

ABSTRACT

Based on the introduction and analysis about PLoS One, and its number of published papers, impact fac-tor, publishing period, manuscript employed, publication fee, auditing, requirement for paper etc. , this paper pointed out break the barriers of traditional publishing model from several aspects, create a new way of open access scholarly pub-lishing, promoted the fast communication of scientific research. As the author of China, can choose more PLoS One pub-lished as our scientific research platform, improve our position in the field of scientific research in the world.

19.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 716-721, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-270006

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To elucidate the epidemic condition and molecular subtyping of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime co-resistant Salmonella Indiana (S. Indiana) isolated from retail chicken carcasses in six provinces of China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 2 647 Salmonella strains isolated from retail chicken carcasses collected from six provinces of China were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. All Salmonella isolates co-resistant to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime were further characterized by serotyping, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains screening and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among 2 629 Salmonella isolates tested, 227 (8.52%) isolates were co-resistant to ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime/cefotaxime (Beijing: 11.67% (99/874), Jilin: 8.20% (60/726), Guangdong: 1.39% (7/502), Jiangsu: 15.61% (42/260), Shaanxi: 8.56% (16/186), Inner Mongolia: 0 (0/81)), and 224 of them were identified as S. Indiana. 213 (95.10%) isolates of S. Indiana were ESBLs producing strains. All ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime co-resistant S. Indiana isolates developed a multi-drug resistant profile and 17.86% (40/224) of them were resistant to all antibiotics tested except carbapenems, and 50.89% (114/224) of them resistant to 9 antibiotics, additionally, 25.45% (57/224) of them showed multi-drug resistance to 8 antibiotics. All ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime co-resistant S. Indiana isolates were divided into 32 PFGE clusters and 150 PFGE patterns. Strains of S. Indiana from same or different sampling site and time seemed to either share the same PFGE patterns or be differential to each other in different regions.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results indicated that chicken carcasses collected from parts of China were heavily contaminated by ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime co-resistant S. Indiana and could serve as an important reservoir of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime co-resistant Salmonella. Molecular subtyping results indicated that cross contamination or common pollution source might be in these strains.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Cefotaxime , Pharmacology , Chickens , Microbiology , China , Ciprofloxacin , Pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Food Contamination , Food Microbiology , Meat , Microbiology , Salmonella , Classification , Serotyping , beta-Lactamases
20.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 223-227, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291611

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To elucidate the dietary exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) from cereal-based products in Chinese populations using the probabilistic assessment approach.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 292 wheat flours and 347 corn-based products were collected from sampling sites of 107 supermarkets or farmers markets, which were randomly selected from 44 cities of 13 provinces in 2009 by the stratified cluster random sampling method. Then, DON and ZEN contamination levels in these samples above analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS in combination with the food consumption data of 68 959 respondents, who were divided into group 1 aged 3 to 13 years old, and group 2 aged 14 and over 14 years old (≥14 years old), obtained by China National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002 were investigated. A probabilistic assessment model using Monte Carlo simulation was applied to derive the intake distribution of P(1)-P(99) percentile of dietary exposure to DON and ZEN. Meanwhile, all parameters related to dietary exposure to both toxins were compared with either the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 1 µg·kg(-1)·d(-1) for DON, or the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.25 µg·kg(-1)·d(-1) for ZEN in order to evaluate the risk of dietary intake of two toxins and find the minimum percentile of dietary exposure to these two toxins. The statistical differences of dietary exposure to these two toxins between two groups were achieved by t test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The detection frequencies of DON in wheat flours and corn-based products were 100% (292/292) and 97.4% (338/347), respectively. A total of 21 out of 639 samples (wheat flours: 5/292, corn-based products: 16/347) were positive for DON at the levels exceeding the Chinese regulatory limit of 1 000 µg/kg for DON. And the detection frequencies of ZEN in wheat flours and corn-based products were 53.4% (156/292) and 87.6% (304/347), respectively.54 out of 347 corn-based products and no wheat flours were positive for ZEN at the levels exceeding the Chinese regulatory limit of 60 µg/kg for ZEN. Meanwhile, the mean values (95% CI) of the P(50), P(75), P(90), P(95), P(97.5) and P(99) percentile of dietary exposure to DON in populations of 3 to 13 years old were 0.170 (0.170-0.171), 0.762 (0.759-0.765), 2.066 (2.038-2.069), 3.515 (3.501-3.530), 5.342 (5.314-5.372), and 9.220 (9.155-9.279) µg · kg(-1)·d(-1), which were higher than those in populations of ≥14 years old (0.131 (0.130-0.131), 0.500 (0.498-0.501), 1.280 (1.276-1.285), 2.138 (2.128-2.14), 3.510 (3.494-3.527), and 5.512 (5.474-5.546) µg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), with t values of 87.19, 163.87, 164.66, 157.78, 105.47 and 96.31, and all P values less than 0.001. And the mean values (95% CI) of the P(50), P(75), P(90), P(95), P(97.5) and P(99) percentile of dietary exposure to ZEN in populations of 3 to 13 years old were 0.001 (0.001-0.001), 0.006 (0.006-0.006), 0.039 (0.038-0.039), 0.101 (0.100-0.101), 0.195 (0.194-0.197) and 0.378 (0.374-0.381) µg · kg(-1)·d(-1), which were also higher than those in populations of ≥14 years old (0.001 (0.001-0.001), 0.004 (0.004-0.004), 0.026 (0.026-0.026), 0.061 (0.060-0.061), 0.115 (0.115-0.116) and 0.232 (0.231-0.235) µg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) with T-values of 151.11, 73.80, 96.81, 100.81, 91.93 and 76.13, and all P values less than 0.001. Besides, the minimum percentile of dietary exposure to DON in populations of 3 to 13 years old and ≥14 years old exceeded the corresponding PMTDI of 1 µg·kg(-1)·d(-1) was found in the probability distribution of P(76) (99% percentile = 1.03 µg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) and P(84) (95% percentile = 1.01 µg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) percentile, respectively. And the minimum percentile of dietary exposure to ZEN in populations of 3 to 13 years old and ≥14 years old exceeded the corresponding TDI of 0.25 µg·kg(-1)·d(-1) was found in the probability distribution of P(97) (95% percentile = 0.25 µg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) and P(98) (90% percentile = 0.26 µg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) percentile, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The contamination levels of DON and ZEN in wheat flours and corn-based products and the risk of dietary exposure to both DON and ZEN in populations in Chinese populations were at relatively low levels. The dietary exposure to both DON and ZEN in populations of 3 to 13 years old was higher than those in populations of ≥14 years old . Populations of 3 to 13 years old were the populations at the high risk of dietary exposure to both mycotoxins.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Middle Aged , China , Diet , Edible Grain , Food Contamination , Mycotoxins , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Trichothecenes , Triticum , Zea mays , Zearalenone
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